The norm for the age of a person’s pressure is important for understanding their condition, therefore it is necessary to know it and, in which case, consult a doctor in a timely manner. For high performance and quality of everyday life, it is necessary that there is normal pressure in an adult.
Since deviations in indicators in any direction negatively affect all areas of life – neither work, nor rest. Each person has their own blood pressure. Various factors can provoke its change, therefore, when choosing a treatment, complex diagnostics are always carried out.
From this article you will learn all about blood pressure – what it is, how it changes with age, why it rises or falls, etc.
Normal pressure in the arteries is created under the influence of the force of blood flow on the vascular walls. When the heart contracts, the blood pressure rises, and when the muscle relaxes, the performance decreases.
This happens because at the time of contraction there is a strong ejection of blood into the arteries, which in turn resist this flow. Due to this ability of blood vessels, pressure does not jump after each cardiac contraction, but is constantly regulated.
- Blood pressure is measured using mechanical or electronic blood pressure monitors.
- Along with this, the following indicators are taken:
- Systolic Hell, otherwise upper, which is determined by the contraction of systole of the heart.
- Diastolic pressure, or lower, is an indicator for relaxation of cardiac diastole.
There is also the concept of “pulse pressure.” It is determined by the difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Even if a person always has normal pressure, he is not immune from its increase or decrease. For this reason, if you feel worse, you need to use a tonometer.
Well, when the normal blood pressure. But a lot of factors that are not related to diseases can provoke changes in indicators.
Blood pressure can change under the influence of:
- Age features.
- Time of day.
- Products with caffeine or other stimulants.
- Physical activity.
- Weather conditions.
If the deviations of pressure from the norm are insignificant, then this will have little effect on the human condition. When changes in indicators are more serious, you need to see a doctor, because the whole body suffers.
- The pressure indicator is normal for everyone, it directly depends on the person’s age and even gender.
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Many problems in the female body arise from hormonal disorders. Fluctuations in hormone levels adversely affect normal pressure.
Typically, women with serious problems with blood pressure begin with menopause when the level of estrogen in the body is at a minimum.
This hormone does not allow cholesterol to accumulate in the vessels and clog them. When its quantity is not enough, the vessels begin to suffer greatly and heart pressure fluctuates.
|1||20||116 / 65-72|
|2||30||120 by 75 (117-118 / 78 allowed)|
|3||40||126-127 on 80|
|4||50||137 on 80|
|5||60||144 on 85|
|6||After 70||159 on 85|
As you can see, with age, the upper limit of normal pressure only increases, which ultimately leads to the development of hypertension.
For men at different ages, changes in blood pressure are also characteristic. They are usually much higher than women.
In order for the representatives of the stronger sex to increase normal pressure, he does not have to be ill with something.
Often the main cause of hypertension is the age of the man. This does not mean that the symptoms of hypertension can be ignored. Urgently see a doctor.
|1||20||123 to 76 (maybe even 122/77)|
|2||30||+126 124 79|
|3||40||129 on 81-82|
|4||50 years||134/84 or 135 on 85 (acceptable and 136/76)|
|5||60||142 on 85-86-87|
|6||After 70||142 to 80 (143/83 allowed)|
It is very difficult to establish blood pressure standards because in each country, doctors select their indicators. Still, something is the same, but there are differences.
It is worth remembering that the blood pressure index determined at rest is normal. Based on WHO data, the following indicators were selected.
|Systolic, mm. Hg. Art.||Diastolic, mm. Hg. Art.|
|20||117||74||Up to 20 years of blood pressure: Upper blood pressure = 1,7 * age 83 Lower blood pressure = 1,6 * age 42|
|25||119||74.5||From 20 to 80 years of blood pressure: Upper blood pressure = 0,4 * age 109 Lower blood pressure = 0,3 * age 67|
Such changes are most often caused by the aging of the human body, because along with this, all processes in the body are disrupted.
Pay attention to your heart rate depending on age
An indicator of pressure in a pregnant woman is considered an indicator from 110 to 70 to 120 to 80. The first trimester of pregnancy, even with normal pressure, can be accompanied by severe weakness, dizziness, or loss of consciousness. This period is characterized by a certain decrease in blood pressure, which experts do not consider pathology.
To alleviate the condition of the drug are not used. Doctors advise just more often and more to be in the fresh air and not to be in stuffy rooms.
Already from 4 months the situation is changing and the pressure begins to rise. Along with this, the condition of the woman is wonderful. In her body, the blood volume increases by 2,5 liters. and he works more actively for two.
But, when the level of heart pressure rises and leads to negative symptoms, you should consult a doctor. High blood pressure negatively affects not only the woman, but also the fetus.
- Cardiologist of the highest category Svetlana Vladislavova
- Update Date: June 2019
Blood pressure (BP) in each person is unstable and can vary under the influence of various factors.
Moreover, in the same person, blood pressure changes during the day – in the morning it is lower, and in the evening it rises. In children, the pressure is low, in the elderly it is elevated.
To understand exactly what Blood pressure indicates the health of the cardiovascular system, you should familiarize yourself with the table “human pressure normal age”.
Pressure and pulse are inconsistent quantities that change throughout life and under the influence of certain factors. The norms of pressure and heart rate by age in the table allow you to determine possible deviations and timely diagnose the problem.
Blood pressure describes the amount of blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels. When measuring blood pressure, two figures are taken into account – the value at the time of heart stress (systole), and the indicator at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle (diastole).
The rate of pressure and pulse depends, first of all, on age. Nevertheless, the pressure may vary against the background:
- hormonal changes;
- atmospheric pressure fluctuations;
- general condition of the body;
- psychoemotional state.
The change in blood pressure during life is due to the growing up of a person, and after that the aging of the body. In children, the vessels are very soft and elastic, which is why the pressure is significantly reduced. In older people, the vessels become stiff, lose their flexibility, which translates into an increase in blood pressure.
Indicators 120 to 80 are not ideal for everyone.
In addition, when taking into account blood pressure and norms by age, you should pay attention to the well-being of a person.
If, with slight deviations from the values given in the table of pressure norms, the patient feels well, and any unpleasant sensations are completely absent, then there is no reason for concern.
This is due to the fact that the average norm is taken as an absolute norm (120 by 80) for an adult.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure and functioning of the cardiovascular system in a particular patient, a deviation from the norm by 10-15 mm Hg can be observed, which does not indicate pathology, but is an individual feature.
The table describes the rate of blood pressure in adults as 120 to 80. However, this is not entirely true, since the value is approximate.
An adult is considered to be a person aged 20 to 50 years. This is a fairly large age range, so the tables of the norm of blood pressure simply do not cover all the changes that occur in the body during this period.
So, at the age of up to 35 years, a person’s pressure corresponds to the norm according to age and is approximately 120 to 80. After 35-40 years, a gradual increase in blood pressure occurs, which is an absolutely normal and natural process. In this age range, the norm Blood pressure in an adult can increase to 130 by 90 mmHg.
Pressure and pulse are connected, the heart rate in adults increases in proportion to the permissible values of blood pressure. So, after sleep, the pulse is slightly reduced and is about 50 beats per minute, but during the day it can increase to 80.
A heartbeat and pulse higher than 80 beats per minute or lower than 60 at rest in the afternoon indicate a malfunction of the heart, and are not an option for the normal person of middle age.
Norm indicators – an average value, often in a healthy person Blood pressure is higher or lower
Any table of pressure standards by age indicates acceptable values for women and men. The norm of pressure in women is approximately 5-7 mm Hg. lower than normal in men. This is due to the characteristics of the hormonal background, because of which women are less likely to suffer from hypertension at an older age than men.
The pressure in women changes against the background of a change in the hormonal background:
- during menstruation;
- during pregnancy;
- with the onset of menopause.
On the first day of menstruation, blood pressure is lower by an average of 10 mm Hg than usual. This is accompanied by a breakdown and drowsiness and is due to two factors – a decrease in hormone levels and large blood loss. A few days before menstruation, blood pressure rises slightly due to increased levels of testosterone in women.
During pregnancy, changes in blood pressure depend on the trimester. In the first trimester, many are faced with toxicosis, which is accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure.
A normal pregnancy in the second trimester is characterized by normal and stable blood pressure.
Reasons for the increase
Arterial hypertension or hypertension is a chronic disease in which daily high blood pressure is observed, regardless of the emotional state. There are two varieties of the disease: primary and secondary hypertension.
Primary hypertension is high blood pressure found in 85-90% of people with circulatory problems. It is believed that the following factors contribute to the development of primary hypertension:
- age (after 40 years, the average parameter increases by 3 mm Hg per year);
- bad habits (smoking and alcohol cause vascular spasms, decreased elasticity of the walls of the arteries and increase the likelihood of a stroke);
- poor nutrition (especially the abuse of coffee, salt, and foods with hydrolyzed fats in the composition);
- obesity (if the body mass index is more than 25, then there is an increased risk of developing primary hypertension);
- reduced physical activity (lack of regular exercise reduces the body’s adaptive ability to physical and emotional stress);
- lack of sleep (the likelihood of developing hypertension increases if you regularly sleep less than 6 hours a day);
- increased emotionality and prolonged negative experiences.
Secondary hypertension occurs in 10-15% of patients and is a consequence of the development of common diseases. The most common causes of increased pressure in secondary hypertension are as follows:
- pathology of the kidneys or renal arteries (chronic glomerulonephritis, renal artery atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia);
- endocrine diseases (pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism);
- damage to the spinal cord or brain (encephalitis, trauma, etc.).
In some cases, the cause of secondary hypertension is medications, such as corticosteroids (dexamethosone, prednisone, etc.), antidepressants (moclobemide, nialamide), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal contraceptives (when used after 35 years).
Symptoms of high blood pressure may not occur for a long time, gradually worsening the condition of the heart, kidneys, brain, eyes, and blood vessels. Signs of hypertension in advanced stages of the disease:
- noise in ears;
- heart palpitations (tachycardia);
- “Flies” before the eyes;
- numbness of the fingers.
High blood pressure can be complicated by a hypertensive crisis – a life-threatening condition (especially in old age), which is accompanied by a sharp jump in pressure (upper – more than 160), nausea, vomiting, dizziness, excessive sweating and irregular heart function.
Reducing pressure with medications is used at high risk of complications of hypertension, namely:
- at stably high parameters (more than 160/100 mm mercury column);
- with a combination of hypertension (130/85) with diabetes mellitus, renal failure, coronary artery disease;
- with moderate indicators (140/90) in combination with pathological conditions of the excretory, cardiovascular system (high cholesterol, abdominal obesity, increased creatinine in the blood, atherosclerosis, etc.).
To normalize the pressure, several groups of antihypertensive drugs are used that have a different effect on the cardiovascular system, namely:
- diuretics (dicretics);
- calcium channel blockers;
- beta blockers;
- drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system;
- medications that affect the central nervous system;
- neurotropic drugs.
Drugs for the treatment of hypertension are prescribed depending on the degree of the disease, concomitant pathologies, weight and other indicators, etc.
If the increase in pressure is accompanied by the usual symptoms and poor health, then you can reduce the indicators using these simple methods:
- rest and relax for 15-20 minutes;
- conduct respiratory gymnastics (should be inhaled by 3 counts and exhaled by 6, while during a long exhalation the parasympathetic nervous system relaxes, which leads to a decrease in tension and pressure);
- lower your hands on the elbow bend in cold water for 4-5 minutes; do the same for the legs;
- apply a compress with cold water to the thyroid gland;
- lie on the floor and place a towel roll under the neck area of the neck, then gently turn your head to the right and left for 2 minutes.
For the prevention of increased pressure, it is necessary to normalize weight, eat right, reduce the intake of salt and fatty foods, engage in physical activity for at least 30 minutes a day.
Arterial hypotension (hypotension) is a chronically lowered blood pressure at which the following parameters are observed: for men – below the norm of 100/70, and for women – below 95/60 mm Hg. Distinguish between physiological (natural for the body) and pathological hypotension.
The state of hypotension is considered the norm in people with a genetic predisposition, among residents of the highlands and among representatives of some professions with high physical activity (ballerinas, athletes, etc.).
Hypotension as a chronic disease occurs as a result of pathological processes in the body (the so-called secondary hypotension) or as an independent disease (primary hypotension). The main reasons that lead to chronic hypotension:
- psycho-emotional stress, vulnerability;
- asthenic physique;
- neurocirculatory dystonia of a hypotonic type;
- mitral stenosis;
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- lack of vitamins of group B.
Symptoms of hypotension are often confused with signs of fatigue, nervous strain and lack of sleep. Reduced reduced pressure is manifested as follows:
- drowsiness, lethargy, lethargy;
- frequent yawning;
- lack of vigor after a night’s sleep.
A tendency to hypotension often occurs in people who are sensitive to changes in atmospheric pressure, as well as prone to fainting.
You can increase the pressure with the help of agents that have a mild stimulating effect on the body. As a rule, alcohol tinctures or tablets from medicinal plants are used:
Medicines based on plants to eliminate hypotension have a tonic effect and strengthen blood vessels. In this case, the possibility of allergic reactions must be considered. The duration of the course of treatment depends on the individual characteristics of the disease.
Medications with which they raise the level of pressure have different effects on the body and are divided into groups:
- preparations with caffeine in the composition;
- CNS stimulants;
- alpha adrenomimetics;
Low blood pressure is associated with a decrease in vascular tone, so people who are prone to hypotension need to exercise regularly, as regular exercise helps maintain the cardiovascular system in good condition.
The norm of blood pressure in adults: a table by age
- state of the nervous system;
- overeating or malnutrition;
- drinking alcohol, strong tea and coffee;
- weather changes;
- time of day (in sleep and in the middle of the day, the pressure level is lower, in the morning after waking up and in the evening before bedtime, the indicators increase);
- mode and adequacy of sleep;
- emotional state.
Given the physiological characteristics of the body, it is recommended to measure the pressure in children and adults at approximately the same time of the day so that the result reflects the correct cyclic conditions of the cardiovascular system.
|Age,||Norm for men, mmHg||Norm for women, mmHg||Heart rate, beats. min|
|1 – 10||112/70||100/70||90 – 110|
|10 – 20||118/75||115/75||60 – 90|
|20 – 30||120/76||116/78||60 – 65|
|30 – 40||125/80||124/80||65 – 68|
|40 – 50||140/88||127/82||68 – 72|
|50 – 60||155/90||135/85||72 – 80|
|Older than 70||175/95||155/89||84 – 85|
The norm of pressure in a person varies depending on age. In newborns, the level of blood pressure is the lowest – approximately 70/50 mm Hg. As the child grows, the norm of the indicators of the cardiovascular system grows from 90/60 to 100/70 mm mercury column. In this case, the children’s blood pressure level may also differ from the norm depending on:
- term of birth (in premature babies hypotension is observed);
- activity of the child (in active children, daily fluctuations in pressure are observed at 23-30 mm Hg);
- growth (higher children have higher values);
- gender (in childhood, girls tend to have higher rates than boys).
In adolescence, the following blood pressure indicators are considered normal: upper – from 110 to 136 mm Hg, lower – from 70 to 86 mm Hg, and differences are the result of hormonal changes in the body and an unstable emotional state in the period from 12 to 16 years.
Norms of blood pressure in adults vary depending on individual characteristics from 110/80 to 130/100 mm. Hg. Art. With age, an increase in the norm by 20 units is observed in older people (from 120/80 to 150/90 mmHg). Moreover, the norm in men is slightly higher than in women.
One of the main reasons for the chronic increase in indicators is a thickening and increased stiffness of the vascular walls. The following pathologies are also associated causes of pressure changes with age:
- irregularities in the mechanisms that regulate the heartbeat (for example, a pacemaker, neural network);
- defects in the structure of the heart and blood vessels, both congenital (defect) and acquired (atherosclerosis, vascular thrombosis);
- violation of the structure of the walls of blood vessels (develop with diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, gout);
- decreased or increased vascular tone;
- decreased elasticity of the vascular walls;
- violation of hormonal processes (diseases of the adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, etc.).
- The principle of measuring pressure with a mechanical device is to inject air into the compression cuff, after which the appearance and intensity of the sound of the artery is monitored with a stethoscope.
- The semi-automatic tonometer includes a special screen on which digital parameters are displayed, while the compression cuff is manually filled with air.
- The automatic blood pressure monitor does not require additional actions, since air injection and measurement takes place automatically after the device is turned on.
The essence of pressure measurement by the auscultatory method is to register arterial tones, which go through several stages:
- the appearance of tone (sound), which means systolic pressure;
- tone intensification;
- maximum sound amplification;
- sound attenuation;
- the disappearance of arterial tones – the level of diastolic pressure.
The auscultatory method is generally accepted in all medical institutions and is characterized by relatively high accuracy while observing the correct measurement procedure.
General rules for measuring blood pressure at home, which must be followed regardless of the type of tonometer:
- Before the procedure, you can not drink coffee and strong tea, smoke and apply vasoconstrictive drops (eye, nose).
- 5 minutes before the measurement must be at rest.
- The procedure is carried out while sitting, while the back should rest on the back of the chair, and the legs should be free to stand.
- The compression cuff is worn on the forearm at the level of the heart, while the relaxed hand should lie on the table, palm up.
- Re-measurement of pressure is carried out after three minutes to confirm the result. If after the second measurement a difference of more than 5 mmHg is detected, the procedure must be repeated.
Measurement of blood pressure using a compression cuff and tonometer has several disadvantages that can lead to incorrect determination of the result of the procedure, namely:
- use of a mechanical tonometer requires skills;
- displacement of the cuff and phonendoscope on the arm, as well as extraneous noise cause an error;
- clothing squeezing the forearm on top of the cuff affects the performance;
- the placement of the phonendoscope head incorrectly (not at the maximum pulsation spot on the elbow) leads to distortion of the results.
If normal blood pressure is noted, then in this case, measurements are taken at any time of the day. In cases where hypertension or hypotension is observed, it is recommended to monitor blood pressure in the following cases:
- after physical or psycho-emotional stress;
- with deterioration in well-being;
- in the morning after waking up and before bedtime;
- before and after taking drugs that normalize the work of the cardiovascular system.
In the process of treating diseases of the heart, blood vessels and with a tendency to hypo- or hypertension, it is necessary to measure blood circulation parameters daily.
Blood pressure is the force that occurs due to the movement of blood through the vessels. At the same time, it changes based on the phase of the heart. At the time of reduction, the pressure is highest. It is defined as systolic.
Beyond contractions, pressure on the walls of blood vessels also exists and reflects its diastolic index. During the measurement of Blood Pressure, you need to pay attention to both numbers, since they are important for assessing the patient’s condition. But there is a third indicator.
To obtain it, it is necessary to subtract the figure reflecting diastolic blood pressure from the upper number. The difference will be called pulse pressure.
Each indicator has its own norm. It is reflected in a certain limit, and not in a specific figure. This is explained by the fact that blood pressure can vary under the influence of a number of factors, such as the state of the autonomic system, the work of the heart, and the function of the endocrine system. In addition, for each age category, its own norm is determined, which is important to consider when measuring pressure.
Any load increases pressure, so measurements are taken at rest
Important: reliable pressure indicators can only be obtained by taking measurements at rest.
Any load, whether it is stress or climbing stairs, causes a change in numbers. In this case, the body itself regulates the state of the vascular wall and the heart rate to ensure full blood supply to all tissues.
The average numbers are 120/80 mmHg. Art. At the same time, with systolic in the range of 92-130 and diastolic 61-88, the patient’s condition can be without deviations. This is an individual feature and pathology in this case is absent.
At birth, the baby’s vessels are elastic, resulting in very low blood pressure. With age, elasticity is lost, which leads to an increase in pressure.
This is the main reason that when measuring blood pressure, it is primarily the patient’s age that is taken into account.
In old age, the pressure norm is slightly higher than in young
|Older than 70||141/81||158/86|
Thus, we can conclude that the indicators change not only based on age, but also depending on gender. A change in pressure can cause certain abnormalities in the body. At the same time, a single increase in pressure does not indicate a disease. The diagnosis will be made only if there is a steady increase or decrease in performance.
A lot of factors influence the pressure dynamics
Experts are sure that even a slight excess of normal values can lead to serious deviations in the future.
Almost all the nuances affect pressure figures. Even the slightest physical exertion can provoke an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the norm is considered only with the correct measurement.
If during a certain time (2-3 weeks) there is an increase in indicators, a diagnosis of “hypertension” is made.
Also with hypotension – if within two weeks the pressure is observed below normal, then treatment is prescribed.
Considering the results of the examination, it should be remembered that the pressure can increase for the most insignificant at first glance reasons. Sometimes even the thought that the patient needs to go to the doctor provokes a change in indicators.
In such a situation, the results will be false. To prevent this, it is recommended to take measurements in a familiar environment, preferably three times a day.
For this, you can use electronic blood pressure monitors, which are very easy to use.
An electronic blood pressure monitor is available for measuring pressure.
In the presence of low rates, it is also not worth immediately starting treatment. Athletes often have low blood pressure. This is explained by the fact that the heart of a trained person is reduced less, but more. Therefore, for them, the norm will be 100/60 mm RT. Art.
There are a lot of reasons that can lead to a change in blood pressure. It can be organic lesions, emotional outbursts, physical activity. The following factors most often cause deviations:
- Violation of the heart, as a result of which it is no longer able to drive the blood with the necessary force.
- Changes in the blood picture. Blood thickening is most often observed, due to which it is already more difficult to push through the vessels. Autoimmune pathologies, hormonal changes, metabolic disorders and so on can affect the blood picture.
The minimum normal blood pressure, mm RT. Art.
The maximum normal blood pressure, mm RT. Art.
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