All About Cerebrovascular Disease CVB Species Symptoms and Treatment

As preventive measures, procedures are being carried out to prevent circulatory disorders of the brain. For this, patients need:

  • maintain normal blood pressure;
  • take laboratory tests for cholesterol and glucose in the blood;
  • eliminate excess weight;
  • do not drink alcohol and do not smoke;
  • take prescribed medications in a timely manner;
  • follow a diet;
  • every day for half an hour to engage in simple physical exercises;
  • train memory (read books, solve crosswords, learn poems, songs, learn a foreign language).

People who work in the office should do physical exercises or sports training several times a week.

As a prevention, doctors recommend monitoring their health from youth. This means that you need to eat right, lead an active lifestyle and give up bad habits. Most young people do not have special health difficulties, and therefore often break the rules of a healthy lifestyle.

Therefore, each person needs to spend time on sports several times a week before the onset of the disease. This is especially true for those people who have office work. With proper treatment and the implementation of all the recommendations of a neurologist, the prognosis is quite good. Thanks to the use of complex therapy, it is possible to reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack, improve the state of blood vessels in the brain and stop the development of atherosclerosis.

To prevent the development of cerebrovascular disease of the brain, you need to adhere to a hypocholesterol diet (exclude fried, pickled, salty, smoked foods, fatty meat, etc.), take measures to get rid of excess weight, bad habits, in particular smoking. It is also necessary to constantly monitor blood pressure.

Athletes do not need to be reminded that they should lead an active lifestyle, on the contrary, they should pay attention to the fact that excessive loads should not be allowed.

Thanks to timely diagnosis and high-quality treatment, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of developing irreversible consequences of cerebrovascular disease. The maximum chances of a positive prognosis remain in patients who consulted doctors after the appearance of the first signs of pathology.

Preventive measures are very simple:

  • regular examinations by specialists
  • healthy lifestyle, moderate physical activity
  • proper, healthy nutrition
  • alternating work with rest periods.

To prevent pathology, it is important to adhere to a number of recommendations:

  1. To refuse from bad habits.
  2. Keep track of weight.
  3. Eat right.
  4. Perform simple physical exercises daily.
  5. Take timely measures to treat concomitant diseases.

For prophylaxis purposes, drugs that suppress blood coagulation and improve blood circulation can also be prescribed.

The prognosis of life will largely depend on how timely medical care was provided. The main thing is to remember that in no case should you engage in self-treatment without a doctor’s prescription.

Cerebrovascular disease (CVB) is a pathological condition characterized by progressive damage to the vessels of the brain, as a result of which neurons begin to die gradually, as they lack the necessary amount of oxygen and nutrients. Recently, there has been a tendency to increase the number of people suffering from this form of circulatory disorders. Thus, an increasing number of people will know firsthand what it is and the possible consequences of cerebrovascular disease.

Even 30 years ago, cerebrovascular disease was diagnosed mainly in people who crossed the 60-year age limit. However, now this form of cerebrovascular accident is detected in 70% of people aged 45-50 years. The first signs accompanying cerebrovascular syndrome are not uncommon at present, and among those who have only recently crossed the 35-year age limit.

Cerebrovascular disease is an extremely insidious condition, the prevention of which must be actively dealt with, starting from the age of 35. It is very important to completely abandon bad habits, as they greatly contribute to disruption of the blood vessels. Among other things, it is necessary to undergo timely treatment of pathologies of the cardiovascular system.

In the presence of hypertension, medications should be taken to keep blood pressure under control. Equally important in the prevention of cerebrovascular disease are weight correction and proper nutrition. Weight loss not only contributes to the improvement of blood vessels, but also leads to a decrease in chronically elevated blood pressure.

Proper nutrition in the framework of the prevention of CVB involves the exclusion of smoked meats, semi-finished products, marinades, fatty meat and any fried foods from the diet. The basis of the diet should be raw and steamed vegetables, cereals of all kinds, lean meat and lactic acid products. Food should be taken in small portions at least 5 times a day.

This will significantly accelerate the metabolism and clear the vessels of atherosclerotic plaques. Among other things, it is necessary to balance the time of work and rest, if possible, in order to avoid physical overload. As part of the prevention of cerebrovascular disease, it is recommended to perform feasible physical exercises that contribute to improving the general condition of the circulatory system.

Properties and varieties of pathology

Despite the fact that in most cases the development of cerebrovascular disease is preceded by atherosclerosis, hypertension, or systemic vasculitis, there are a number of environmental and internal factors that can, under certain circumstances, cause the development of cerebrovascular disorders. Such endogenous and exogenous predisposing factors include:

  • chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • diabetes;
  • long smoking experience;
  • alcoholism;
  • obesity;
  • infectious diseases;
  • brain tumors;
  • congenital pathologies of the structure of cerebral vessels;
  • tendency to thrombosis;
  • bruises of the brain;
  • disorders of hematopoiesis;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • massive bleeding of any etiology;
  • antiphospholipid syndrome;
  • chronic stress;
  • osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.

This is not a complete list of pathological conditions and external factors that can have a negative effect on the vessels that feed brain tissue. Among other things, the influence of a hereditary factor on the development of a condition such as cerebrovascular disease is currently being actively studied. Many people suffering from various forms of cerebrovascular accident have close relatives who, in a certain age period, had similar symptoms.

In addition, age-related changes are considered predisposing factors that can provoke cerebrovascular diseases, including a decrease in the production of a number of important hormones and a slowdown in metabolism. In women, the development of cerebrovascular disease can be associated with menopause and those changes that are observed in this condition.

In chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency in the first stage, the symptoms do not really alarm the person. Many manifestations are attributed to ordinary fatigue and the current pace of life. According to the classification, 3 stages of cerebrovascular pathologies are distinguished. The first stage is manifested by symptoms that are characteristic of other diseases. Patients in this case do not respond to the manifestation of malaise.

The second stage is accompanied by mental disorders. At this stage of the disease, disability can be assigned, although the person is still able to take care of himself. And the third degree causes vascular dementia. The patient is not able to serve himself, as he cannot move and navigate in space. Patients need care to control their behavior. In the most severe cases, cerebrovascular coma occurs.

Symptoms in chronic CVI are manifested by similar signs. Patients are concerned about headaches, weakness, decreased intellectual ability, and sleep disturbances. During the examination, there is a change in the fundus (retinal angiopathy). The chronic form of the disease is accompanied by an increase in blood pressure. Also on the ECG, changes in the work of the heart are visible. As the disease progresses, patients suffer from:

  • stiffness when walking;
  • trembling
  • small dips in memory;
  • disturbances of abstract thinking.

At this stage, it is difficult for a person to memorize information, to count, facial expressions are violated. Changes in the fundus become pronounced. Signs of sclerosis of the pre-cerebral vessels develop. At stages 2 and 3 of the chronic form of cerebrovascular disorders, a patient may experience a stroke or myocardial infarction. Often broken heart rate (arrhythmias occur).

Even if there are developing signs, a person may not have a clue about what cerebrovascular disease is. Under this term, a whole group of diseases is combined. These ailments are insidious, they lead to violations of many vital functions provided by the brain.

Their essence is the inhibition of cell activity due to insufficient blood supply in case of damage to the vessels of the brain.

The group of cerebrovascular diseases includes several serious pathologies:

  1. Hemorrhagic stroke.
  2. Intracranial hemorrhage.
  3. Chronic discirculatory encephalopathy.
  4. Ischemic stroke.
  5. Hypertensive encephalopathy.

Neurology is engaged in the study of the characteristics of the course of CVB and the treatment of such disorders.

Frequently asked Questions

Causes

The etiology of CVB is very complex. It includes the interaction of many factors that are not always possible to establish. Hypertension, and atherosclerosis, and a violation of the rheological properties of the blood can become the cause of the blood supply disturbance. The World Health Organization identifies more than three hundred factors predisposing to the occurrence of cerebrovascular insufficiency. They can be divided into four large groups:

  1. Key Changeable Factors:
  • hypertension;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • diabetes;
  • smoking;
  • obesity and others
  1. Other risk factors that can be changed:
  • alcohol consumption;
  • mental illness;
  • social status;
  • taking certain medications, etc.
  1. Non-modifiable risk factors:
  • age;
  • floor;
  • heredity.
  1. The so-called “new” risk factors:
  • bleeding disorders;
  • vasculitis.

Already partially affected. Factors of the development of the pathological process are as follows.

  • Atherosclerosis. Narrowing or blockage of the arteries of the brain, also of the neck with cholesterol plaques.
  • Angiospasm. Similar in nature to the first factor described. With the difference that passes independently after a few hours or days. May be persistent.
  • Arteritis, vasculitis. Inflammation of the inner lining of blood vessels. It has an infectious or autoimmune origin.
  • Anatomical defects. Malformations, aneurysms. They carry a tremendous danger in themselves, at any time they can provoke an emergency.

The brain is an extremely complex structure that provides control over many processes in the human body. For normal functioning, this body must receive a large amount of oxygen and nutrients. Brain tissues are extremely sensitive to lower levels of saturation with essential substances.

The term cerebral disease can hide hemorrhagic and ischemic types of stroke, intracranial hemorrhages of various localization, chronic disculatory brain pathology, hypertensive and atherosclerotic encephalopathy, etc. All these conditions are characterized by acute or chronic cerebrovascular accident. The international classification of diseases classifies a significant number of pathologies into the class of cerebrovascular disorders.

For many modern people, health is in 2nd or 3rd place, therefore, what cerebrovascular disease is they will know after the diagnosis is made. However, this serious disease is associated with two pathological conditions that are extremely common in modern people, including atherosclerosis and hypertension.

Thus, atherosclerotic plaques and chronically elevated blood pressure are the most common causes of cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is currently an extremely common blood vessel disease. This pathological condition develops against the background of a critical increase in blood cholesterol.

The lion’s share of cholesterol enters the human body along with food rich in animal fats. This substance is viscous and sticks to the walls of blood vessels. In addition, atherosclerotic plaques contain blood elements and some other substances. The appearance of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels of the brain contributes to the narrowing of their lumen, as well as the development of inflammatory processes. Atherosclerotic plaques can quickly become a cause of cerebrovascular accident.

Arterial hypertension associated with hypertension over time becomes the cause of the development of foci of damage and necrosis of the walls of blood vessels located in the brain. In addition, chronically elevated blood pressure leads to stretching and increased permeability of the walls of blood vessels. The lumen of the vessels gradually narrows, as stenosis develops.

All these processes lead to the fact that brain cells begin to die, without receiving the necessary amount of oxygen. According to statistics, approximately 40% of patients suffering from cerebrovascular disease have a history of grade 3-4 hypertension. In addition, often hypertension becomes a cause of stroke.

Another common cause of cerebrovascular disease is systemic vasculitis. Diseases belonging to this group are accompanied by deformation and inflammatory processes affecting the walls of blood vessels. Damaged vessels cannot normally perform their function, which leads to insufficient oxygen supply to brain tissues and their gradual death.

Cerebrovascular disease (CVB) in the early stages of development is characterized by sleep disturbance in the patient (insomnia, sudden awakening in the middle of the night and inability to fall asleep after waking up), fast fatigue, poor working capacity, memory loss, fussiness, distraction, and impaired thinking.

The causes of the development of the disease are various factors:

  • stroke – often becomes the cause of the development of cerebrovascular disease;
  • cerebral arteriosclerosis is the most common cause of CVB;
  • chronic stress;
  • smoking;
  • alcoholism;
  • excess weight;
  • diabetes;
  • pathology of the structure of blood vessels;
  • diseases of the circulatory system;
  • hypertension;
  • swelling;
  • infectious diseases;
  • antiphospholipid syndrome;
  • injury.

Treatment of CVB depends on the cause of the violation, the severity of the disease. In some cases, surgery becomes the main treatment method.

The etiology of CVB is very complex. It includes the interaction of many factors that are not always possible to establish. Hypertension, and atherosclerosis, and a violation of the rheological properties of the blood can become the cause of the blood supply disturbance.

The World Health Organization identifies more than three hundred factors predisposing to the occurrence of cerebrovascular insufficiency.
They can be divided into four large groups:

  • The main factors that are modifiable;
  1. age;
  2. heredity.

There can be many reasons why cerebrovascular insufficiency can occur. But the main factor in the development of vascular pathology is a change in the walls of blood vessels under the influence of cholesterol
. Cholesterol plaques that are deposited in the capillaries interfere with normal blood circulation. Therefore, this disease is characteristic of people who are more than 50 years old.

It is after 50 that deforming and inflammatory processes in blood vessels begin to develop, the so-called vasculitis, due to the narrowing of the affected capillaries and destruction of tissues. Cerebrovascular disease is classified by severity, location, and course. Accordingly, the symptoms of the disease in patients may vary, but in general, the picture of the disease is clear.

The risk factors for which vascular pathology can develop include:

  • hypertension (regular increase in blood pressure);
  • hypotension;
  • atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
  • excess cholesterol;
  • bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse);
  • diabetes;
  • overweight, obesity;
  • stress;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • head trauma;
  • cardiac ischemia;
  • prolonged use of oral contraceptives;
  • age above 50 years;
  • genetic predisposition.

There are also etiological causes of cerebrovascular insufficiency. Osteochondrosis belongs to them, due to which there is a violation of the blood supply to the brain. Pinched vessels in the cervical vertebrae can cause hypoxia (insufficient nutrition of brain tissue with oxygen). Problems may occur due to bleeding disorders. If the blood is too thick, thrombosis and thromboembolism occur, which also negatively affects cerebral circulation.

Cerebrovascular disorders have a different origin.

But we can distinguish common provocative factors that can change the state of the vessels of the brain:

  1. Hormonal disruptions (including during hormonal therapy with drugs).
  2. Deviations in metabolism.
  3. Exposure to tobacco and alcohol.
  4. Hypertension.
  5. Stressful situations.
  6. CHD.
  7. Injuries to the skull and spine.
  8. Hypodynamia.
  9. Hereditary predisposition to the development of cerebrovascular disorders.

Many such factors constantly or periodically affect the human body, and with age, the effects of these influences accumulate.

Therefore, in the elderly, cerebrovascular insufficiency of the brain is more likely, although recently pathologies of this group have become more common in the young population.

Treatment history

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Case #1

Patient K., 49 years old, after strass at work, headaches, nausea and dizziness appeared. Blood pressure was 190/100 mmHg. After 2 hours, suddenly appeared difficulties (fuzziness) of speech and numbness in the right hand, which lasted about an hour.

The next day, she turned to a neurologist at the EXPERT Clinic. The patient was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack and recommended hospitalization in a neurological hospital, which he refused. In this regard, the patient was prescribed treatment and examination.

The patient underwent a course of intramuscular and intravenous drip injections in the day hospital of the EXPERT Clinic. Headaches and dizziness completely regressed.

An examination of patient K. revealed significant stenosis of the left internal carotid artery due to atherosclerotic plaque. The patient was referred for consultation by an angioneurosurgeon and subsequently he underwent a planned operation, during which stenosis was eliminated and adequate blood circulation was restored in the pool of the left internal carotid artery.

Cerebrovascular insufficiency diseases

Atherosclerosis is common enough. An instigator of its appearance is an increased level of cholesterol in the blood. This substance is a viscous mass that settles on the vascular walls. Atherosclerotic plaques narrow the gaps, which often disrupts cerebral circulation.

Constantly accompanying this condition, an increase in blood pressure leads to the fact that the walls of the vessels begin to stretch, as a result of which their permeability increases. There is a gradual narrowing of the lumen, the development of stenosis
. Such processes contribute to the death of cells against the background of oxygen deficiency.

To no less significant reasons include systemic vasculitis. Diseases included in this group accompany inflammatory and deformation processes that directly affect the walls of blood vessels, due to which there is a malfunction in their normal functioning, as a result of which oxygen enters the tissues in insufficient quantities, and they die.

Additional risk factors include:

  • diabetes;
  • smoking;
  • excessive drinking;
  • overweight;
  • chronic pathologies of the cardiovascular system;
  • stress;
  • osteochondrosis of cervical department;
  • brain tumor;
  • infectious diseases.

In addition, heredity, age-related changes, a slowed metabolism or menopause in the fair sex can become a provoking factor.

Symptoms and treatment depend on the stage of the disease. It is impossible to determine the ailment only by the described signs. With all suspicious complaints and with the results of the examination, you need to contact a specialist. If delayed with the diagnosis and treatment, necrosis may occur, that is, the death of brain tissue, which will lead the patient to complete disability. At the initial stage of cerebrovascular disease, the patient is worried about:

  • headache;
  • frequent dizziness;
  • insomnia;
  • asthenia;
  • cardiopalmus;
  • excessive fussiness;
  • dry mouth;
  • irritability;
  • emotional instability;
  • bad mood (depression);
  • feeling hot;
  • fatigue;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • noise in ears;
  • impaired vision.

Such symptoms sometimes appear in healthy people against the background of fatigue or other diseases. You can talk about CVV when such symptoms annoy a person every day for a long period. As brain hypoxia increases, more serious disorders occur. It is difficult for a person to concentrate, memory deterioration is observed, thinking and logic are disturbed.

Emotional disorders are accompanied by depression, phobias, fears. Often neuroses and psychoses develop. Patients become self-absorbed or weak-hearted.

Over time, physiological reflexes disappear and serious vision problems develop.

And the most advanced degree of the disease is manifested:

  • strokes
  • paresis;
  • paralysis of the limbs;
  • disturbances in the work of the pelvic organs;
  • dysphagia;
  • violent laughter or crying.

This condition is considered an acute violation of cerebral circulation and requires immediate hospitalization. If this is not done, an ischemic attack may develop. This condition is a serious danger to human life.

Osteochondrosis as the root cause of cerebrovascular disease

Due to the long and strong influence of provoking factors, diseases develop that subsequently lead to the appearance of cerebrovascular insufficiency:

  1. Atherosclerosis. This common ailment causes adhesion of cholesterol plaques to the inner surface of the vascular walls. Subsequently, such vessels can not fully perform their functions.
  2. Vasculitis. It is accompanied by inflammatory phenomena that impede normal blood circulation.
  3. Osteochondrosis. It is accompanied by the development of vertebro-basilar insufficiency with inhibition of blood flow in the vertebral vessels.
  4. Hypertension. An increase in the arteries of pressure provokes their spasm.
  5. The formation of blood clots also leads to cerebrovascular insufficiency due to clogging of blood vessels.

It is often difficult to determine the main cause of cerebrovascular disease. So in some cases, the diagnosis remains unspecified.

Constantly accompanying this condition, an increase in blood pressure leads to the fact that the walls of the vessels begin to stretch, as a result of which their permeability increases. There is a gradual narrowing of the lumen, the development of stenosis. Such processes contribute to the death of cells against the background of oxygen deficiency.

Cerebrovascular disease of the brain: prognosis

Cerebrovascular disease is classified by duration of manifestations and severity. In the classification of acute conditions in cerebrovascular disease, unspecified, stroke occurs, the nature of the occurrence of which is unclear. Cerebrovascular disease, unspecified stroke in the International Classification of Diseases is under code 164 in the class of diseases of the circulatory system.

The prognosis of cerebrovascular disease depends on the patient’s lifestyle, attitude to their own health, a responsible approach to treating the disease, and the severity of the disease. The patient should abandon bad habits, eat rationally, monitor weight, avoid stress, engage in sports, and timely treat emerging disorders in the circulatory system.

Symptoms and stages

The pathological process is staged based on the quality of nutrition and, on the other hand, the degree of deviation of trophism from the normal level.

It is customary to call 3 stages of cerebral blood supply insufficiency:

  • 1st stage. Initial or offset. It develops spontaneously, as a result of the influence of a negative factor – stenosis or blockage (mechanical obstruction to blood flow).

The patient does not experience severe discomfort, often does not suspect his own condition, therefore he is not in a hurry to see a doctor.

Initial manifestations, such as slight lethargy, a decrease in the speed of thinking occur sporadically. Such manifestations are attributed to a long absence of rest, processing. Newfangled chronic fatigue syndrome, which does not actually exist.

The duration of the phase varies from several months to 5-7 years. In this state, a person can stay for a long time, the timing of progression depends on the individual characteristics of the body.

  • 2 stage. Subcompensation or clinical manifestations. An initial neurological deficit occurs. The patient is accompanied by headaches, nausea. The productivity of mental activity is falling. A person cannot solve a problem of a logical plan, which previously did not present difficulties.

Intelligence is formally preserved, but nerve impulse conduction decreases. Specific behavioral tests detect violations of the emotional-volitional plan.

The person is weak, drowsy, does not move much, prefers to limit social contacts. Autization is growing. Not always, but this is possible.

It is necessary to conduct differential diagnosis with schizophrenic spectrum disorders.

  • 3 stage. Decompensation or neurological deficit. The patient falls into dementia. Signs of vascular dementia are increasing. Pronounced pseudo-Parkinsonian phenomena are found: dizziness, tremor, unsteady gait.

These are extrapyramidal disorders. Also, incontinence of feces, urine, a general decrease in intelligence, emotional-volitional disorders such as apathy, abulia (which again requires differential diagnosis and schizophrenia).

It is only about chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. Acute is not divided into stages, it occurs suddenly, accompanied by a complete clinical picture. More often than not, clinically, a stroke corresponds to it.

Cerebrovascular insufficiency has various symptoms, their classification is carried out according to the time and intensity of manifestation, taking into account the stage of progression of the pathology.

The initial manifestations characteristic of stage 1 cerebrovascular disease of the brain usually appear slowly.

The main symptoms of the disorder include:

  1. Reduced performance.
  2. Difficulty concentrating.
  3. Difficulties in remembering newly learned information.
  4. Excessive fussiness.
  5. The inconstancy of emotions.
  6. Irritability.
  7. Dryness in the mouth.
  8. Sensation of hot flashes.
  9. Heart rhythm disorders.

The pathological phenomena that accompany cerebrovascular disorders are reflected in the physical and mental abilities of a person, cause difficulties in performing activities that the patient previously engaged in without much difficulty. Due to a distorted perception of events and a person’s unwillingness to accept the opinions of other people, conflicts often arise even with immediate family members who do not immediately understand the reason for such changes in character.

Chronic cerebrovascular disease (CPVC) of degree 2 is manifested by even more vivid cerebral symptoms, so at this stage it already becomes clear that the cause of changes in the human psyche is his disease.

Multiple violations of the psychoemotional sphere, depression of intelligence and motor capabilities are manifested. Problems begin with coordination and orientation, the sensitivity of different analyzers (in particular, the visual ability decreases).

Further progression of the CEH causes seizures and decreased speech quality.

What can the CVP lead to?

Cerebrovascular stroke – a private form of cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular pathology (CVP), ultimately, can lead to phenomena such as:

  1. Dementia.
  2. Stroke.
  3. Cerebrovascular coma.
  4. Transient ischemic attack.

The severe form of this disease, defined as the third stage of cerebrovascular insufficiency (or cerebrovascular angioedema), is described by an irreversible loss of a person’s ability to think and conscious activity. In fact, a person becomes disabled (although it is sometimes advisable to appropriate a disability already in the second stage, with a violent manifestation of symptoms). The patient is helpless, needs constant monitoring.

He needs help in everything, even in meeting basic needs (he is not able to drink and eat on his own, go to the toilet). Communicating with him is incredibly difficult, since the speech center is affected and speech is lost, but now the patient is no longer able to conflict. But he can harm himself with awkward attempts to move, and any injuries are extremely dangerous for him.

Cerebrovascular disease: what is this diagnosis

The cause of the development of cerebrovascular disease are inflammatory processes in the vessels of the brain that affect the arteries and veins. The most common cause of the disease is cerebral arteriosclerosis. Treatment of the disease begins with the elimination of risk factors:

  • diabetes;
  • cerebral atherosclerosis;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • high blood cholesterol.

Drug therapy, diet help restore vascular elasticity, improve blood circulation in the brain, reduces the risk of developing cerebrovascular disease.

In conclusion

Everyone can face such a disorder in real life and know firsthand what CVI is. It should be understood that with cerebrovascular disease, the correct psychological perception by others of the diagnosis and the sick person is very important.

We must try not to notice defects in his thinking and not try to prove the truth up to the development of conflicts.

They exacerbate the patient’s mood and physiological abnormalities. Each stress provokes an even greater lack of oxygen and the death of an even larger number of cells.

If the person as a whole is optimistic, relatives take care of the patient sufficiently, the therapy is started on time, then the effectiveness of the treatment increases significantly, the oppressed psychological functions are restored, and it becomes possible to lead a happy life if the doctors prescribe.

Cerebrovascular insufficiency is the result of third-party vascular pathologies. Diagnosis is not a big problem, because there is a chance of early detection of a violation.

The therapy is long, lasting more than one month. With a well-chosen scheme, the outcome is favorable.

Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency or dyscirculatory encephalopathy is a disease in which small focal lesions develop in the brain as a result of chronic circulatory disorders. The causes of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency are different: progressive atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension.

persistent headaches, tinnitus, narrowing of the field of vision, the appearance of “blind spots”. In addition, mental cerebrovascular insufficiency is characterized by disturbances in mental functions: lability of thinking, attention, sleep, hand tremor, and speech retardation. A violation of behavioral functions also develops: lethargy, apathy, dissatisfaction, increased irritability, and resentment appear.

Instrumental methods such as ultrasound dopplerography of cerebral vessels, electroencephalography, spiral cerebral vessels, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain can detect the degree of damage to blood vessels and the area of ​​diffuse damage to the white matter of the brain. In addition, a thorough examination of the neurological and psychological status is carried out, which allows to determine the degree of cognitive impairment of the patient.

Treatment of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency is complex and includes the appointment of nootropic, vasoactive, as well as neurometabolic drugs. In addition, if chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency occurs against a background of hypertension, normalization of the level of blood pressure is required.

Vascular therapy is carried out with the help of Vinpocetine (Cavinton) – the most effective and safe drug that normalizes venous outflow and reduces platelet aggregation. Clinically, its effect is manifested in improving perception, memory, improving intellectual functions, and reducing the severity of asthenic syndrome.

Sermion combines nootropic (adaptive) and vasotropic effects: improves, cognitive functions, relieves tinnitus, depression, anxiety
Cinnaresin (Stugeron) promotes vasodilation and reduces dizziness and other vestibular disorders.
Piracetam (nootropil, lucetam, nootobril) activates the redox processes of the cerebral cortex, increasing its resistance to hypoxia, improves cerebral blood flow.

Various causes can cause circulatory disorders in the brain. This condition contributes to the development of many pathologies, which in medicine are combined into a general group called “cerebrovascular disease”. However, not everyone understands what the diagnosis is and what the consequences may be.

Cerebrovascular disease: intracranial hypertension

Cerebrovascular disease is considered a collective term, which hides various diseases that lead to impaired cerebral circulation. Such diseases can occur in both acute and chronic form, belong to the class of cerebrovascular disorders. Intracranial hypertension is characterized by abnormally high intracranial pressure.

Intracranial hypertension leads to a violation of cerebral circulation, provokes the formation of secondary cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovascular diseases become the cause, which leads to the development of intracranial hypertension. Increased intracranial pressure can lead to coma, impaired sensation, speech impairment, and other serious disorders. Intracranial hypertension is a serious complication of brain disease.

Why is it developing

Factors that contribute to the development of the disease are divided into basic and additional.

  • development;
  • gout;
  • diabetes;
  • hypertonic disease.
  • smoking;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • eating a lot of fatty foods;
  • hypodynamia;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • inflammatory diseases;
  • cervical osteochondrosis;
  • heart diseases;
  • excess weight;
  • increased blood coagulation;
  • trauma;
  • chemical poisoning;
  • stresses.

Trembling when walking, stiffness of movements, depression, difficulty remembering information. The first signs of violations. Cerebrovascular insufficiency alone is extremely rarely recognized, its symptoms are similar to other vascular diseases. Diagnosis is carried out in a clinical setting.

Stages

Stage One. During this period, fatigue is manifested, rapid fatigue is observed, irritability and mood swings are manifested. Additional symptoms – sleep disturbance, migraine, impaired memory and motor activity. Stage two. During this period, symptoms such as decreased intelligence and deterioration of all types of memory manifest themselves. Significant personality changes are observed, the functions of the musculoskeletal system are deteriorating, labor and adaptive abilities are reduced.

Stage Three. The patient during this period has significant problems with movement, he may fall when walking. Such patients need care and care, since they cannot service themselves. They lose the ability to critically evaluate what is happening. Parkison’s disease, enuresis, cerebellar disorders are characteristic signs of the third stage.

Symptoms

The patient associates the appearance of malaise with fatigue, and the disturbances in the functioning of the motor apparatus are explained by lack of sleep. Periodically occurring headaches do not make you wary, as the seizures quickly pass. As you progress, the disease will begin to manifest itself in more serious changes. Short-term pain is displaced by migraines, and swaying is replaced by fainting.

Cerebrovascular disease: dyscirculatory encephalopathy

Dyscirculatory encephalopathy is characterized by diffuse or focal lesion of cerebral vessels. The disease leads to impaired memory, thinking, attention, a serious complication of the disease is the development of dementia – dementia. The course of the disease is accompanied by various symptoms:

  • impaired motor activity;
  • cerebellar dysfunction;
  • affective disorders;
  • sharp fluctuations in blood pressure;
  • dizziness;
  • violation of chewing and swallowing food, other pseudobulbar disorders;
  • at a late stage of the disease, fecal and urine incontinence are observed in patients.

The cause of the disease is atherosclerosis of the brain vessels, hypertension, various disorders leading to damage to the vascular system, blood diseases and other causes.

symptomatology

Acute cerebrovascular insufficiency is characterized by bright, rapidly increasing symptoms. Ischemic stroke develops due to blockage of a blood vessel by an atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus, or due to vasospasm. Blood cannot overcome the obstacle and there is oxygen starvation of the brain area.

In addition, cerebral edema begins almost immediately after the onset of ischemia. Hemorrhagic stroke is observed with rupture of the vessel or increased permeability of the vascular wall and blood entering the brain. In both cases, the affected area of ​​the brain dies off, which causes certain symptoms.

All symptoms of acute cerebrovascular disorders can be divided into cerebral, characteristic for any type of circulatory disturbance of the brain, and focal, which depend on where the pathological focus is located. Usually with hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral symptoms are more pronounced, with ischemic – focal.

Cerebral symptoms include:

  • Dizziness;
  • Strong headache;
  • Nausea and vomiting. Vomiting does not bring relief to the patient, which distinguishes it from vomiting in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and poisoning;
  • Confusion. Patients sometimes do not remember where they are, do not recognize relatives. This condition can both quickly pass and hold for a long time;
  • With severe severity of cerebrovascular disorders, there may be a loss of consciousness or even coma;
  • If the patient remains conscious, psychomotor agitation may be observed.

Focal symptoms depend on which part of the brain is affected:

  • In case of circulatory disturbance in the anterior cerebral artery, paresis is observed on the side opposite to the pathological focus. And more often it is noticeable on the lower limb, since paresis of the arm passes quickly;
  • May be urinary incontinence;
  • The patient staggers when walking;
  • There is an increased or decreased sensitivity of the skin on the face and hands;
  • Cerebrovascular insufficiency of the brain can be accompanied by speech disorders: a person can understand what they say to him, but are not able to answer;
  • If you ask the injured person to show the language, you will notice that he deviates to the side;
  • Very often there is a violation of the sense of smell and changes in the human psyche;
  • The patient cannot perform any targeted actions;
  • Sometimes memory lapses occur;
  • In severe cases, paralysis of the limbs may be observed.

In patients, a change in the cerebral vessels occurs, which causes a violation of cerebral circulation. Atherosclerosis and hypertension can precede this disease. The consequences of chronic cerebrovascular disease can be a stroke with a fatal outcome or a severe degree of disability.

With cerebral atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels, a gradual narrowing of the cerebral arteries occurs, and a focal one develops.

Symptoms of CVB are as follows:

  • headaches occur;
  • rustling in the ears;
  • dizzy;
  • spots appear before the eyes;
  • memory and thinking worsen;
  • attention is reduced;
  • fingers tremble;
  • sleep is disturbed;
  • speech slows down;
  • apathy, lethargy, worsening of general condition, anxiety appear.

When a large part of the brain is affected, coordination of movement is impaired, paralysis develops, speech is frustrated, signs of parkinsonism and dementia are observed.

This negatively affects the assimilation of memorization of information, physical activity and emotional state.

Evidence

For such a disease, the following symptoms are characteristic:

  1. The progression of the disease. If untreated, the disease will progress, transform into new stages.
  2. The ability to classify the stages of the disease according to certain symptoms.

Forms

For cerebrovascular insufficiency, acute and chronic forms may be characteristic. At each stage, certain symptoms and signs occur. The acute stage is characterized by deterioration in the quality of memory and perception of information. In a chronic form, vasoconstriction occurs and, as a result, blood clots form. As a result of overvoltage, a rupture of the vessel can occur, it becomes the result of this phenomenon.

Treatment of cerebrovascular chronic insufficiency requires surgical intervention. Blood clots are bypassed. In some cases, a heart valve replacement is required. This minimizes the risks to the life of the patient.

The effects of CVB

The brain is the “control center” of our body, it is extremely complex and even scientists still do not fully understand all the subtleties of its work. But one thing is certain – for normal operation, he needs oxygen. If any, even its smallest part, is left without food, the consequences will be devastating.

Cerebrovascular disease periodically provokes the emergence of brain crises caused by insufficient oxygen supply to the brain. Symptoms of such crises are sudden weakness, numbness of the limbs on the one hand, speech and vision impairment, and confusion. These conditions are temporary and quickly disappear, but without proper treatment, sooner or later, the case ends with a stroke. The latter can turn a person into a disabled person, and if the patient’s health left much to be desired before a stroke, even a fatal outcome is possible.

Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency poses a risk of irreversible consequences.

A cerebrovascular disorder results in:

  • to a stroke;
  • impaired memory, thinking;
  • dementia
  • complicates orientation in space;
  • causes seizures of epilepsy.

Some patients have Binswanger’s disease, which causes dementia, impaired speech, and disability. Doctors recommend that from a youth lead an active lifestyle, avoid smoking and alcohol. People who do not follow a healthy lifestyle, after 45 years, often suffer from cerebrovascular insufficiency.

The prognosis of the disease depends on the general condition of the patient and the characteristics of his body. If therapy of the disease was carried out correctly and the patient performed all the appointments of a neurologist, then the prognosis may be positive. When using complex treatment, you can reduce the risk of stroke, normalize the state of the vessels of the brain and prevent the occurrence of atherosclerosis.

Cerebrovascular insufficiency is a disease that provokes pathological changes in the vessels of the brain. Such an ailment develops against a background of hypertension, atherosclerosis. Its consequence is such adverse effects as ischemia and stroke. If untreated, the disease transforms into when progressive irreversible changes in the brain tissue are observed.

The main complication is stroke. Usually ischemic, not associated with impaired vascular integrity.

A hematoma does not form; pronounced, rapid necrosis of cerebral tissues develops. This is an emergency condition that leads to death or severe disability. Without urgent help, such an outcome cannot be avoided.

The second likely option is vascular dementia. In clinical manifestations, it resembles Alzheimer’s disease, with the exception that it is potentially reversible in the early stages. The disorder develops with the progression of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency.

Severe disability. The result of irreversible changes in the brain. It is accompanied by a neurological deficit. What specific function of the nervous system will be impaired depends on the localization of the ischemic process.

Death of the patient. As a result of a critical violation of the highest activity of the central nervous system. Usually against the background of cardiac arrest, breathing. With edema of cerebral structures and damage to the brain stem.

Classification

Typing is carried out on two grounds. The first is the nature of the course of the disease.

  • Transient. Temporary violation. It is accompanied by a pronounced clinical picture, the symptoms of stroke develop, but there is no necrosis as such. The difference is fundamental: with transient ischemia, the clinical picture regresses independently and without consequences after a maximum of hours from the start.
  • Sharp. This is brain necrosis itself. It is represented by ischemic, less often hemorrhagic stroke. The key difference is that in the second case, the integrity of the vessel is violated, hemorrhage leads to the development of hematomas, and reduces the likelihood of survival.
  • Chronic The pathological processes described above take place. Atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation (arteritis) of infectious and autoimmune origin and others. Accompanied by a sluggish clinic, but inexorably progressing, do not leave the patient for a minute. Hard to tolerate. Sooner or later lead to severe neurological deficiency, vascular dementia.

Typing is carried out by the stages of the disease. In total, 3 common phases are called. Strictly speaking, since the CEHs are multiple, this method of division is very conditional. It cannot be applied to acute conditions. Only chronic.

  • 1st stage. There are no clinical manifestations as such. Headache, episodes of nausea, fatigue. The only satellites. Moreover, if we purposefully examine the patient for the preservation of intellectual activity, it turns out that the reaction rate, the intensity of thinking are below normal. This should not be, especially if earlier a person made decisions, thought faster. Almost unambiguously, such a sign indicates ischemia of the brain or severe asthenia of the nervous system. Deviations using instrumental studies are subdivided. Minimum MRI, EEG, dopplerography.
  • 2 stage. The picture is pronounced. Cephalgia or pain in the occipital region, dizziness, disorientation in space, nausea, vomiting and other moments occur regularly, in fits. The intensity of the signs is growing compared with the previous stage. Mental components are added: depression, emotional disturbances, behavioral abnormalities. The speed of thinking and its productivity drops significantly. At the same time, the adequacy is preserved, reactions to external stimuli are normal.
  • 3 stage. The final phase or decompensation. Vascular dementia similar to Alzheimer’s develops. With apathy, abulia (no strength to do anything), behavioral inadequacy, dementia, lack of ability to learn, memorize and reproduce information. In severe cases, the patient does not even go to the toilet. Refuses to eat, you need to help him. At this stage, a person is helpless, the state corresponds to a deep disability. At the same time, partial correction is still possible. The neurological deficit will persist, but will be smoothed out, becoming less pronounced.

Classifications are used to assess the severity of cerebrovascular disease, determine prognosis, therapeutic regimen, specific drugs and techniques.

CVB, according to the ICD, is reflected under codes 165 – 167; 167.2; 167.3; 167.4; 167.8. Separately allocated vascular dementia F01.2; F 01.1; F 01.3. Section 169 indicates neurological syndromes that develop as a consequence of CVB.

In the neurological clinic of the Yusupov hospital they provide assistance to people with cerebrovascular diseases. In the hospital, you can undergo treatment for cerebrovascular disease, rehabilitation after illness. Doctors pay great attention to preventing the development of vascular diseases of the brain, the hospital has developed programs to restore the brain functions of the patient after a severe stroke, and dementia and chronic cerebrovascular disease are being treated.

During the consultation, the doctor will explain what a person’s cerebrovascular disease is, how the hospital provides medication for cerebrovascular disease of the brain, and surgical treatment of cerebrovascular disease. The patient’s medical history will be stored on a modern medium, at the end of treatment the patient will receive a full description of his treatment in the clinic. You can make an appointment with a doctor by calling the Yusupov hospital.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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