What is the most effective diet for diabetes with type 1, type 2 diabetes and the menu

In type diabetes, tissue sensitivity to insulin is impaired, and insulin resistance occurs. Despite the sufficient production of this hormone, glucose cannot be absorbed and enter the cells in the right amount, which leads to an increase in its level in the blood. As a result of this, the patient develops complications of the disease that affect nerve fibers, blood vessels, tissues of the lower extremities, the retina, etc.

Most patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight or even obese. Due to the slowed metabolism, the process of losing weight does not proceed as fast as in healthy people, but it is imperative for them to lose weight. Normalization of body weight is one of the conditions for well-being and maintaining blood sugar at the target level.

What to eat with diabetes in order to normalize the sensitivity of tissues to insulin and reduce blood sugar? The patient’s daily menu should be low in calories, and contain mostly slow rather than fast carbohydrates. Usually, doctors recommend diet # 9. At the stage of losing weight in dishes, the amount of fat should be reduced (it is better to give preference to vegetable fats).

A balanced diet can improve tissue sensitivity to insulin and normalize the regulation of blood sugar levels.

The main goals of the diet for type 2 diabetes:

  • weight loss and a decrease in the amount of body fat;
  • normalization of blood glucose levels;
  • maintaining blood pressure within acceptable limits;
  • lowering blood cholesterol;
  • prevention of severe complications of the disease.

A diet for type 2 diabetes is not a temporary measure, but a system that must be adhered to constantly. This is the only way to keep blood sugar at a normal level and to maintain good health for a long time. In most cases, just switching to proper nutrition is enough to keep diabetes under control.

Healthy, natural foods help maintain normal blood sugar and control blood pressure

nutritional care

Doctors have known about the need for a diet for diabetes for a long time – it was medical nutrition in the pre-insulin era that was the only effective mechanism to combat the problem. A diet of type 1 diabetes is especially important, where there is a high probability of coma during decompensation and even death. For diabetics with a second type of disease, clinical nutrition is usually prescribed to correct weight and a more predictable stable course of the disease.

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Basic principles

  1. The basic concept of a therapeutic diet for diabetes of any type is the so-called bread unit – a theoretical measure of the equivalent of ten grams of carbohydrates. Modern nutritionists have developed special sets of tables for all types of products indicating the amount of XE per 100 grams of product. Every day, a patient with diabetes is recommended to take products with a total “value” of 12-24 XE – the dosage is selected individually, depending on the body weight, age and level of physical activity of the patient.
  2. Keeping a detailed food diary. All consumed foods must be recorded so that, if necessary, the nutritionist made a correction of the nutrition system.
  3. Multiplicity of receptions. Diabetics are advised 5-6 times a meal. At the same time, breakfast, lunch and dinner should account for 75 percent of the daily ration, the remaining 2-3 snacks – the remaining 25 percent.
  4. Individualization of therapeutic nutrition. Modern science recommends individualizing classical diets, fitting them to the physiological preferences of the patient, regional factors (a set of local dishes and traditions) and other parameters, while maintaining a balance of all components of a balanced diet.
  5. Equivalence of replacement. If you change the diet, then the selected alternative foods should be as interchangeable in calories, as well as the ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. In this case, the main groups of components include products containing mainly carbohydrates (1), proteins (2), fats (3) and multicomponent (4). Substitutions are possible only within these groups. If the replacement occurs in (4), then nutritionists make adjustments to the composition of the whole diet, while replacing the elements from (1) it is necessary to take into account the equivalence of the glycemic index – tables XE described above can help.

Ways to cook food

In patients with type 2 diabetes, it is advisable for patients to prepare food in gentle ways. The best types of cooking are considered culinary processes such as steaming, cooking and baking. Diabetics can only eat fried foods occasionally, and it is preferable to cook them in a small amount of vegetable oil, and even better – in a grill pan with non-stick coating.

You can also stew dishes in your own juice, while choosing only low-calorie and low-fat foods. It is undesirable to add store sauces, marinades and a large amount of salt to food. To improve the taste, it is better to use the permitted seasonings: herbs, lemon juice, garlic, pepper and dried aromatic herbs.

There is a relative ban on white bread, rice and semolina, as well as pasta – they can be strictly limited. In addition, regardless of the type of diabetes, alcohol is completely contraindicated.

Meat is a very important source of protein for diabetes, because it contains essential amino acids that are not produced independently in the human body. But choosing it, you need to know certain rules in order not to accidentally harm health. First, meat should be dietary. For sick people, such types of this product as chicken, turkey, rabbit and low-fat veal are best suited.

The amount of meat in the diet should be limited, but the daily dose should provide a person with a sufficient amount of protein. The distribution of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is selected individually for each patient by the attending physician. It depends on many factors – weight, body mass index, age, anatomical features and the presence of concomitant diseases. Correctly selected ratio of calories and nutrients ensures the normal provision of the body with energy, vitamins and minerals.

Prohibited meats for diabetes:

Patients should not eat bacon, smoked meats, sausages and rich meat broths. Cooking soups with poultry meat is allowed, but the water must be changed after the first boil. You can’t cook soup on bone broth, because it is difficult to digest and creates an extra load on the pancreas and liver.

Animal fats should preferably be replaced with vegetable fats. Olive, corn and linseed oil are considered the most beneficial for diabetics.

Monitoring glucose levels throughout the day

It is better to make a menu for the day in advance, calculating its calorie content and the ratio of fats, proteins and carbohydrates in dishes. Table 1 shows the calorie content and chemical composition of some products that are allowed with diet No. 9. Guided by these data, the recommendations of the attending physician and the composition, which is always indicated on the packaging of products, you can easily create a diet with optimal energy value.

Table 1. Calorie content and composition of the most frequently consumed products with diet No. 9

A sample menu for the day might look like this:

  • breakfast – oatmeal, a slice of low-fat cheese, whole grain bread without yeast;
  • snack – nuts or apple;
  • lunch – vegetable broth, boiled chicken breast or turkey, buckwheat porridge, berry juice;
  • afternoon tea – allowed fruit and a glass of rosehip decoction;
  • dinner – steamed fish with vegetables or low-fat cottage cheese, a glass of stewed fruit without sugar;
  • snack before bedtime – 200 ml of low-fat kefir.

The diet of a patient with type 2 diabetes can be truly varied and tasty. The lack of sweet foods in it is compensated by healthy fruits and nuts, and fatty meat is replaced by dietary options. A big plus of this menu is that it can be prepared for the whole family. The restriction in animal fats and sugar is useful even for healthy people, and with diabetes it is a prerequisite for maintaining normal health for many years.

Type 2 diabetes banned foods table

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Last Updated: April 18, 2018

Whatever a person suffering from diabetes will eat, many of the foods he uses will often raise questions about the appropriateness of their use. Therefore, it is recommended to measure glucose levels after consuming something new with a portable glucometer. Measurements should be done several times during the day, including immediately after eating, and 2 hours after eating. If within a few weeks there is no decrease in sugar level, the menu must be adjusted.

This table provides an approximate weekly menu for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. The daily number of calories in the menu should range from 1200-1400 kcal. The patient is not forbidden to use his options, taking into account the equivalent replacement of dishes with those that are on the list of allowed.

Weekday numberзавтрак2 breakfastlunchafternoon snack1 dinner2 dinner
1 dayporridge 200 g (excluding rice and semolina), 40 g of cheese, 25 g of bread, tea without sugar1-2 biscuit cookies, tea, applevegetable salad 100 g, a plate of borsch, 1-2 steam cutlets, 25 g of breadlow-fat cottage cheese (100 g), fruit jelly on sweeteners (100 g), a rosehip brothboiled meat (100 g), vegetable salad (100 g)a glass of nonfat kefir
2 day2 egg omelet, boiled veal (50 g), tomato, tea without sugarbifidock, biscuit cookies (2 pcs)mushroom soup, vegetable salad, chicken breast, baked pumpkin, 25 g of breadyogurt, half grapefruitstewed cabbage (200 g), boiled fish, 1 tbsp. low-fat sour cream, unsweetened teakefir (2/3 cup), baked apple
3 daystuffed cabbage with boiled beef (2 pcs.), 25 g of bread1 tbsp low-fat sour cream, coffee without sugarsoup with vegetables, vegetable salad, boiled fish (100 g), boiled pasta (100 g)sugar-free fruit tea, orangecottage cheese casserole, berries (5 tablespoons), 1 tablespoon low-fat sour cream, a glass of rosehip brotha glass of low-fat kefir
4 daychicken egg, porridge 200 g (excluding rice and semolina), 40 g of cheese, unsweetened tealow-fat cottage cheese (2/3 cups), pear or kiwi (1/2 fruit), unsweetened coffeepickle (plate), beef stew (100 g), stewed zucchini (100 g), bread (25 g)unsweetened tea, unsweetened cookies (2-3 pcs)boiled chicken (100 g), green beans (200 g), unsweetened teakefir 1% (glass), apple
5 daybifidoc (glass), low-fat cottage cheese 150 gcheese sandwich, unsweetened teaboiled potatoes, vegetable salad, boiled fish 100 g, berries (1/2 cup)baked pumpkin, dried with poppy seeds (10 g), dried fruit brothvegetable salad with greens (plate), 1-2 steam beef pattieskefir 0% (glass)
6 dayslightly salted salmon, boiled egg, a piece of bread (25 g), fresh cucumber, unsweetened coffeecottage cheese with berries 300 gborsch (plate), lazy cabbage rolls (1-2 pcs), a piece of bread (25 g), low-fat sour cream (1 tbsp)bifidok, unsweetened cookies (2 pcs.)green peas (100 g), boiled chicken, stewed vegetableskefir 1% (glass)
7 daybuckwheat porridge (plate), ham, unsweetened teaunsweetened cookies (2-3 pcs.), rosehip broth (glass), orangemushroom soup, low-fat sour cream (2 tablespoons), steamed veal cutlets (2 pcs.), stewed vegetables (100 g), a piece of bread (25 g)low-fat cottage cheese (200 g)baked fish, greens salad (100 g), stewed zucchini (150 g)yogurt (1/2 cup)

A sample menu for diabetes for a week for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (based on table 9). This list contains examples of dishes for every day, however, of course, the patient is not forbidden to change the menu for a week in accordance with general medical principles at his discretion.

Weekday name1 reception2 receptionlunchafternoon snackdinner2 dinner
Mondaycurd souffle, unsweetened teaapplemushroom soup, lecho with pepper, compote, bran bran breadsoft cheese, vegetable saladboiled fish with vegetables, rye bread, compotelow-fat kefir
Tuesdaybuckwheat porridge, cheese, unsweetened teakiwivegetable soup with meat, liver pate with bread, juiceomelet with vegetablescottage cheese souffléskimmed milk
Wednesdaymillet porridge in milk, coffee without sugarlow fat yogurtlow-fat meat borsch, boiled chicken, fruit drinks, breadapplevegetable casserole, sour creamkefir
Thursdaypasta with cheese, unsweetened teanonfat milk branfish soup, stewed cabbage, meatballs, compotemandarinvegetable salad, bran breadlow-fat fermented baked milk
Fridaybuckwheat porridge with milk, bread with butter, unsweetened teaapplefirst course with cauliflower, pearl barley pilaf with turkey, bread, fruit drinktomatoes, cheeseboiled fish, rosehip broth, bran breadcurdled milk
Saturdaysteam omelet, bran bread, rosehip brothyogurtpickle, meatballs, breadlow-fat kefirVareniksmilk
Sundaybran milk, compote with berriessoft-boiled eggpearl barley soup, mashed potatoes, baked fish, bread, unsweetened teagrapefruitgreen beans, bran breadkefir

Below, we consider the classic dietary menu for diabetics of the 1st and 2nd type of disease, which is optimal for patients with mild and moderate forms of diabetes. In the case of serious decompensation, tendency and hyper- and hypoglycemia, an individualized dietary regimen should be developed by a nutritionist taking into account human physiology, current health problems and other factors.

The individual components of the menu below must be replaced according to the principles of equivalent substitution within the above groups.

Monday

  • We will have breakfast with two hundred grams of low-fat cottage cheese, in which you can add a few berries.
  • The second time we have breakfast with one glass of one percent kefir.
  • We have lunch with 150 grams of baked beef, a plate of vegetable soup. Garnished – stewed vegetables in an amount of 100-150 grams.
  • Have an afternoon salad with a fresh salad of cabbage and cucumbers, seasoned with a teaspoon of olive oil. The total volume is 100-150 grams.
  • We have dinner with grilled vegetables (80 grams) and one medium baked fish weighing up to two hundred grams.

Tuesday

  • We have breakfast with a plate of buckwheat porridge – no more than 120 grams.
  • The second time we have breakfast with two medium-sized apples.
  • We dine on a plate of vegetable borsch, 100 grams of boiled beef. You can drink food with compote without adding sugar.
  • Have an afternoon tea with a glass of broth from rose hips.
  • We’ll have dinner with a bowl of fresh vegetables salad in the amount of 160–180 grams, as well as one boiled low-fat fish (150–200 grams).

Wednesday

  • We have breakfast with cottage cheese casserole – 200 grams.
  • Before lunch, you can drink a glass of broth from rose hips.
  • We have a plate of cabbage soup, two small fish patties and a hundred grams of vegetable salad.
  • Have an afternoon snack with one boiled egg.
  • Dinner is a plate of stewed cabbage and two medium-sized meat patties cooked in the oven or steamed.

Thursday

  • We have breakfast with an omelet from two eggs.
  • Before lunch, you can eat a cup of yogurt of minimal fat content or even unsweetened.
  • We have lunch with cabbage soup and two units of stuffed pepper based on lean meat and allowed cereals.
  • We have an afternoon snack with two hundred grams of casserole from low-fat cottage cheese and carrots.
  • We have dinner with stewed chicken meat (a piece of two hundred grams) and a plate of vegetable salad.

Friday

  • We will have breakfast with a plate of millet porridge and one apple.
  • Before dinner, eat two medium-sized oranges.
  • We have lunch with meat goulash (no more than one hundred grams), a plate of fish soup and a plate of barley.
  • Have an afternoon meal with a plate of fresh vegetable salad.
  • We have dinner with a good portion of stewed vegetables with lamb, with a total weight of up to 250 grams.

Saturday

  • We will have breakfast with a plate of porridge based on bran, one pear can be eaten with a bite.
  • Before dinner, it is permissible to eat one soft-boiled egg.
  • We dine on a large plate of vegetable stew with the addition of lean meat – only 250 grams.
  • Have an afternoon snack with several permitted fruits.
  • We’ll have dinner with a hundred grams of stewed lamb and a plate of vegetable salad in the amount of 150 grams.

Sunday

  • Breakfast with a bowl of low-fat cottage cheese with a small amount of berries – up to a hundred grams in total.
  • For lunch, two hundred grams of grilled chicken.
  • We dine in a bowl of vegetable soup, one hundred grams of goulash and a bowl of vegetable salad.
  • Have an afternoon plate of berry salad – up to 150 grams in total.
  • Dinner is one hundred grams of boiled beans and two hundred grams of steamed shrimp.

Fish must be present in the diet of a patient with diabetes at least 1 time per week. It is a source of healthy proteins, fats and amino acids. Eating fish products helps to improve the condition of bones and the muscular system, and also helps prevent cardiovascular diseases. The most useful fish allowed, according to the rules of the diet, for diabetics is fish of low-fat varieties, which is cooked in the oven or steamed.

Diabetics can eat tilapia, hake, pollock, tuna, cod. It is also advisable to periodically include red fish (trout, salmon, salmon) in your diet, as it is rich in omega acids. These biologically active substances protect the body from the development of cardiovascular diseases and help reduce the level of “bad” cholesterol.

Patients should not eat smoked and salted fish, because it can cause problems with the pancreas, as well as provoke the appearance of edema and the development of hypertension. Since type diabetes mellitus usually develops in middle-aged and elderly people, high blood pressure problems are relevant for many of them. Eating very salty foods (including red fish) can trigger pressure surges and worsen the condition of the heart and blood vessels.

When cooking fish, it is better to add a minimal amount of salt to it, replacing it with other spices and seasonings. It is advisable to bake it without adding oil, since this product itself already contains a certain amount of healthy fats. In order for the fillet to not be dry, it can be cooked in the oven in a special plastic sleeve. Fish prepared in this way contains more moisture and has a melting texture.

Diabetics are forbidden to consume white fish of fatty varieties (for example, pangasius, notothenia, herring, catfish and mackerel). Despite the pleasant taste, these products, unfortunately, can provoke the appearance of extra pounds and cause problems with the pancreas. Low-fat fish and seafood are a useful natural source of vitamins and minerals that are perfectly absorbed by the body.

It is useful for diabetics to eat boiled seafood. Shrimp, squid and octopus are high in protein, vitamins and phosphorus.

Vegetables

The diet for type 2 diabetes is based on the predominance of plant foods in the diet, so vegetables in any form should be an important component of the food that patients eat. They contain very little sugar, and at the same time they are rich in fiber, vitamins and other valuable chemical elements. The most useful vegetables for diabetes are green and red.

Such vegetables are also useful for patients:

  • cauliflower;
  • Jerusalem artichoke;
  • pumpkin;
  • onions and blue onions;
  • broccoli;
  • radish;
  • zucchini and eggplant.

Beet is also very useful for diabetics, as it contains amino acids, enzymes and slow carbohydrates. There are no fats in this vegetable at all, therefore its caloric content is low. Beetroot dishes have anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties, enhance immunity and strengthen the walls of blood vessels. Another important property of beets for diabetics is the smooth regulation of intestinal motility, which helps to avoid constipation and a feeling of heaviness in the stomach.

The rational nutritional system for type 2 diabetes allows even potatoes to be included in the diet, but this vegetable should not be fundamental in the selection and preparation of dishes. It contains a lot of starch and has a relatively high calorie content (compared to other vegetables), so its amount should be strictly limited.

So that vegetables bring only benefits to the body, they must be properly cooked. If vegetables can be eaten raw, and the diabetic has no digestive problems, it is better to use them in this form, as this retains the maximum amount of useful elements, vitamins and minerals. But if the patient has concomitant problems with the gastrointestinal tract (for example, inflammatory diseases), then all vegetables must be subjected to preliminary heat treatment.

It is extremely undesirable to fry vegetables or stew them with a lot of butter and vegetable oil, as they absorb fat, and the benefits of such a dish will be much less than harm. Fatty and fried foods not only violate the functional activity of the pancreas, but also often cause a set of extra pounds.

Vegetables cooked with excess oil have a high calorie content and can increase blood cholesterol

Fruit

After the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, some patients try to exclude all fruits from the diet, leaving only sour, green apples and sometimes pears in it. But this is not necessary, since most fruits have a low glycemic index and contain a small amount of carbohydrates and calories.

  • apples;
  • pears;
  • tangerines;
  • oranges;
  • grapefruits;
  • apricots;
  • plums;
  • currants;
  • cherry
  • cranberries;
  • raspberries.

Fruits contain carbohydrates, so their amount in the diet should be limited. It is advisable to eat them in the morning (maximum until 16:00) so that sugar does not turn into fatty deposits. Before going to bed and on an empty stomach in the morning, fruits are also better not to eat, as this can lead to irritation of the gastric mucosa and the accumulation of extra pounds.

Melon, watermelon and fig are considered forbidden fruits in type 2 diabetes because they have a high glycemic index and contain a lot of sugar. For the same reason, it is undesirable for patients to eat dried fruits such as dates and dried figs.

Peaches and bananas may be present in the diet of a diabetic, but it is advisable to eat them no more than once or twice a week. For daily use, it is better to give preference to plums, apples and citrus fruits, because they help to establish digestion and contain a lot of coarse fiber. They have many vitamins and minerals that are necessary for the harmonious, full-fledged work of the whole organism.

Fruit is a healthy and tasty treat, with which you can overcome the craving for forbidden sweet foods. Patients who regularly eat fruit, it is easier to follow a diet and daily routine.

Cereals and pasta

What can patients eat from cereals and pasta? This list has a lot of allowed products from which you can prepare delicious and healthy dishes. It is porridge and pasta that should be the source of slow carbohydrates necessary for the patient to work the brain and receive energy. Products recommended by doctors include:

  • buckwheat;
  • oats that require cooking (not instant flakes);
  • bulgur;
  • peas;
  • durum wheat pasta;
  • Wheat groats;
  • unpolished rice;
  • millet.

It is highly undesirable for diabetics to eat white rice, semolina and instant oatmeal. These foods have a lot of carbohydrates, calories and few biologically valuable substances. By and large, these cereals simply saturate the body and satisfy the feeling of hunger. Excessive consumption of such cereals can lead to weight gain and digestive problems.

But even the allowed cereals must be properly cooked and eaten. It’s best to cook porridge in water without adding oils and fats. It is preferable to eat them for breakfast, since carbohydrates should provide the patient with energy for the whole day. These simple recommendations should always be remembered, since correctly selected and prepared cereals will only benefit and will not harm human health.

In type 2 diabetes, you need to eat fractionally. It is advisable to break the daily diet into 5-6 meals

What should I refuse?

Patients with type 2 diabetes should completely exclude from the diet such dishes and products:

  • sugar and products containing it;
  • fatty dishes prepared using a large amount of vegetable or butter;
  • smoked products;
  • convenience foods and fast food;
  • marinades;
  • salted and spicy hard cheeses;
  • bakery products of premium flour.

You can not make exceptions to the rules and occasionally use something from the forbidden list. In type 2 diabetes, the patient does not receive insulin injections, and the only chance to keep blood sugar at a normal level is to eat right, while observing other recommendations of the attending physician.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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