If we explain it in an accessible language, then venous discirculation is a disturbed circulation in the human brain. Such a disease is quite common, but there are many reasons for its occurrence. As for short-term blood flow disorders, a person encounters them regularly: this is a regular cough, daily sneezing, excessive physical exertion, sharp turns of the head. If we consider permanent violations, they are due to more serious reasons.
Here it is worth identifying the main causes of the unwanted action:
- Serious head injuries, impaired activity of the vertebral section, manifestation of osteochondrosis.
- Disruption of the cardiovascular system, which manifests itself in the form of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension.
- Strokes and their consequences.
- Disorders of the endocrine system.
- Diseases that cause thrombosis in the vessels.
- Uncontrolled and excessively long medications, it can be nitrates, hormones or vasodilators.
- Abnormal congenital development.
- An emergency in the form of heat or sunstroke.
Among the provoking and unsafe factors, it is worth highlighting excess weight, bad habits in the form of smoking and alcoholism, physical activity, regular stressful situations, etc.
Venous discirculation in a child or adult is manifested by a muffled headache, which is especially intensified in the morning. A person, not having time to rise, feels lethargy, severe weakness, numbness of limbs. During movement, the pain present in the head may intensify.
Headache manifests itself under the influence of various factors, in particular this:
- excessive intake of alcohol,
- constant excitement
- stressful situations.
Against the background of the above, there is an expansion of the veins of the fundus, bright swelling of the lower eyelid, noise in the head, cyanosis of the cheeks and lips. These signs in most cases appear in the morning after waking up.
As for violations of the outflow of venous blood, they are characterized by blurred eyes, regular dizziness, fainting. In rare cases, mental disorders and even epilepsy attacks are observed.
Vertebro-basilar insufficiency is diagnosed by radiography of the human skull, in which the diploic veins and their development, veins related to the hard shell of the brain are perfectly visible. Specialists must pay attention to the general condition of the human fundus. Blood stasis in this case is manifested by an unnatural increase in veins.
An expanded picture of the disease is revealed during magnetic resonance imaging. In this situation, changes in the jugular veins are manifested, which make it possible to identify the causes of persistent and undesirable headaches in humans. The difficulty in diagnosing this disease lies in the fact that with other disorders of cerebral circulation, similar symptoms appear.
First of all, the treatment of diseases of the head and cervical spine is aimed at improving the general condition of the patient. In this case, it is necessary to lead a correct lifestyle without bad habits. Alcohol and cigarette smoking are unacceptable. Typically, the patient is prescribed a therapeutic diet, in which there is a large amount of fiber, trace elements. Fats and heavy carbohydrates are subject to consumption restrictions. An invariable rule is a sharp decrease in the amount of salt consumed.
When discirculating in the basilar basin, an increase in physical activity is recommended. A professional trainer should create the most effective training method that will lead to a speedy recovery of the patient. The most accurately selected program in a short time will improve the outflow of blood, thereby normalizing its redistribution.
The collar area is usually called the cervical spine. It is in this area that a huge number of active points are concentrated, enriched with nerve plexuses, blood vessels, and endings. Incorrect massage of such points can be harmful to the patient’s health, which is why real professionals should do this work.
If we talk about the medical treatment of the described disease, it involves the use of venotonics, these are drugs that improve blood flow in a short time. The use of antiplatelet agents is also mandatory, these are drugs that affect the rheological characteristics of the patient’s blood.
Elements of the vascular system, which include arteries and veins of different diameters, are located in the cavity of the skull. Arteries account for 10% of the vascular bed, capillaries occupy 5% in the circulatory system of the brain, and veins – 85%. It is venous pathologies that significantly affect the process of blood circulation inside the head. Superficial veins lie in the pia mater. Through these transport routes, physiological fluid is diverted from the internal tissues of the head — white matter and cortical structures.
Venous blood moves from the brain along the jugular vein. The pathogenesis of the violation, the deterioration of the venous outflow formed in children and adults, is associated with congestion in the pulmonary circulation and in the superior vena cava that runs in the brain. Right ventricular failure is often observed at the same time. In the development of pathology, in addition to hemodynamic factors, an important role is played by failures of the neuro-reflex mechanisms.
Prothrombin gene mutation, coagulation protein deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia state, antiphospholipid syndrome lead to the development of thrombophilia – a violation of blood coagulability. The diagnosis of thrombophilia and other pathologies of the hemostasis system are among the factors that increase the risk of dyshemia. Other causes of outflow disorders:
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Injuries to the head.
- Malfunctions of the endocrine system.
- An abnormal development of the elements of the vascular system – vascular malformation (improper connection of veins and arteries), dysplasia, collaterals (bypasses of the blood flow system), aneurysms (pathological expansion of the vascular bed).
- Uncontrolled, long-term use of medications with a vasodilating effect.
- Infectious diseases that occur in acute form.
- Emergency conditions – myocardial infarction, hypertensive crisis, sunstroke, acute intoxication.
- Increased blood clotting.
Dysplasia of blood vessels and veins is a congenital pathology, due to which venous congestion develops. Venous dysplasia, found in the venous system of the brain, is the cause of difficulty in blood flow and blood stasis, in the absence of treatment leads to thrombosis and hemorrhagic strokes.
Aggravating factors such as malnutrition, overweight, chronic diseases of internal organs, arterial hypertension, vascular pathologies (atherosclerotic changes) and the spine (osteochondrosis), wearing tight clothes, tight ties negatively affect the condition of a patient with revealed venous dysfunction in the brain. .
Obstruction of the venous outflow occurs due to the following reasons:
- Damage to the cervical vertebrae of a traumatic nature;
- Increased physical activity;
- The presence of diseases of an infectious nature;
- Congenital malformations of the abduction veins;
- Meningitis (what kind of disease is here);
- Systemic lupus erythematosus;
- AVM (arteriovenous malformation), pathological plexus of vessels between arteries and veins;
- Brain pathologies – malignant or benign tumors;
- Thrombosis of veins;
- High blood pressure;
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- Skull fractures, concussion;
- Atherosclerosis (for the treatment of pathology, read here);
- Pulmonary insufficiency;
- Internal hematomas;
- History of stroke;
- Long-term treatment using vasodilator or hormonal agents;
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
- Injuries of the chest and abdomen;
- Action of high or low temperatures;
- Long involuntary breath-holding associated with the profession (for singers, musicians playing wind instruments);
- Localization of a thrombus in large sinuses;
- Intoxication of the body with alcohol or tobacco;
- Endocrine system diseases;
- Phlebitis, thrombophlebitis.
In addition, venous discirculation of the brain is often diagnosed in individuals with diabetes mellitus, a persistent increase in blood pressure, as well as in those who are obese and lead a sedentary lifestyle.
Deviation of the venous outflow of the brain can be observed in both adults and children. In infants, pathology often develops as a result of asphyxiation.
When exposed to the above factors, venous insufficiency of the brain develops. There are 3 stages of the development of the pathological process:
- Latent, or hidden. At this stage, the patient does not observe any deviations;
- Cerebral venous dystonia. The patient begins to show signs of deviation, which do not prevent him from leading a familiar lifestyle;
- Venous encephalopathy. At this stage, a stable clinical picture is observed. The help of doctors is required, since the severity of the pathology makes normal functioning impossible.
Identification of the cause that caused the violation of the venous outflow is required to determine the course of treatment.
All factors causing disturbances in the venous outflow of the brain are divided according to the localization of their effects. The first group includes those problems that are directly related to the skull:
- The formation of neoplasms.
- Congenital maldevelopment of the vascular system.
- Head injuries (especially with bone fractures).
- Post-traumatic hematomas.
The second group of factors unites all pathologies localized outside the cranium:
- Tumors of the neck.
- Obstruction of the underlying veins.
- Various pathological processes caused by organ compression (strangulation).
- Torso injuries, as a result of which venous dyshemia along the vertebral plexuses develops.
- Displacement of the intervertebral disc (for example, with protrusion).
- Hormonal abnormalities.
- Infectious processes that provoke difficulties in the venous outflow due to the formation of blood clots.
- Taking medications to dilate blood vessels.
- In children at birth, venous dysfunction of the brain (as a variant of cerebral angioedema) can occur due to asphyxiation.
- Prolonged breath holding in swimmers also contributes to inhibition of blood flow.
- First of all, doctors will try to rid you of the underlying disease.
- pulmonary and heart failure;
- compression of extracranial veins;
- jugular vein thrombosis;
- brain tumors;
- craniocerebral trauma;
- swelling of the brain;
- systemic diseases (lupus erythematosus, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Behcet’s syndrome).
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- Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
- Predictions for venous discirculation
- The presence of hypoxia
- Primary form
- Stagnant form
- Signs of dysgemia
- Stagnant form
- How is venous dyshemia treated?
- Diagnosis of venous discirculation
- Complete blood count
- CT angiography
- Stagnant form
- Complete blood count
- Medical events
Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
What is venous discirculation? This is a situation when the blood enters the hemisphere of the brain in abundance, but due to some obstacles the venous outflow (the problem of venous dyshemia) through the Rosenthal veins and brain internal, as well as other large vessels, is disturbed.
Few people know that this is a condition that each of us experiences with physical stress caused by even the usual physiological reflexes (coughing, bowel movement), head rotation or singing. In such situations, a person does not notice that something is wrong with him, because there are no painful manifestations. But in other cases, this process provokes malaise and critical deviations.
Violation of the venous outflow of the brain goes through the following stages:
- Latent. Venous congestion of the vessels of the brain is, but does not appear externally, so the patient does not notice it.
- Cerebral venous dystonia. The first clinical signals of the disease are expressed, but they still do not cause a strong deterioration.
- Venous encephalopathy is a situation in which the intervention of a doctor is necessary, since some vital functions of the body can cause noticeable malfunctions.
Analyzing a violation of the venous outflow of the brain, Dr. M.Ya. Berdichevsky highlighted the forms of its manifestation:
- Primary It is caused by the influence of harmful factors on cerebral blood supply (pressure surges, poisoning, traumatic brain injuries, toxic effects of tobacco smoke or alcohol, hyperinsolation, consequences of hormonal disruptions).
- Stagnant form. Venous congestion in the head is caused by pathological phenomena in which the lack of medical care will inevitably lead to tragic events.
Chronic venous insufficiency of the brain is a pathology in which there is a violation of the outflow of blood. The disease is dangerous because in the absence of timely treatment, there is a high risk of serious irreversible consequences in the brain tissue.
A feature of the vessels of the brain is the course of the veins: it does not coincide with the direction of the arteries, an independent network is formed from them. If the outflow of blood through one of the vessels is impaired, venous blood is sent to another, compensatory expansion occurs.
Dilated vessels contribute to the development of venous circulation failure, the functioning of the valves is disrupted, they are not tightly closed, the direction of blood flow is disturbed.
During venous insufficiency of the brain, the following stages are distinguished:
- latent: no clinical symptoms, no complaints;
- cerebral venous dystonia: some symptoms are observed: headaches, weakness;
- venous encephalopathy: severe symptoms caused by organic lesions are observed, venous outflow is disturbed in all brain pools, the risk of hemorrhages from dilated vessels is high.
Chronic venous insufficiency is dangerous in that it does not appear at the initial stage, and when the symptoms appear, the changes that have occurred are irreversible. In the second stage, you can only avoid the transition of the disease to the phase of encephalopathy, in which the manifestations can be completely stopped, but the changes that have occurred cannot be completely eliminated.
Insufficiency of venous circulation of the brain can be triggered by diseases or individual characteristics of the patient. The most common causes of the development of pathology:
- neoplasms in the brain tissue can cause a violation of the venous outflow;
- head injuries that disturb the blood circulation of the brain;
- trauma during childbirth;
- hematomas formed as a result of stroke, atherosclerosis, bruises and other causes contribute to the formation of tissue edema, this complicates the outflow of blood from the affected area;
- blood clots and embolisms narrow the lumen of the vessel, or completely close it, obstructing the movement of blood;
- diseases of the spinal column, in which the deformed sections of the channels squeeze the blood vessels and disrupt the blood flow, also cause venous insufficiency;
- vessel features: hereditary predisposition and impaired development of veins can provoke the development of impaired venous blood outflow.
Circulatory disorders can be physiological and occur with coughing, sneezing, and physical stress. Such short-term deviations do not cause noticeable harm to health.
One-time attacks of circulatory disorders of the brain do not cause serious consequences for the body. However, prolonged stagnation of blood can contribute to the development of serious consequences. The following risk factors increase the likelihood of venous insufficiency of the brain:
- frequent stress;
- alcohol abuse;
- prolonged dry cough;
- professional singing;
- heart failure;
- reading in the wrong position
- professional swimming;
- frequent wearing of clothes squeezing the neck;
- chronic rhinitis:
- work in high-altitude, underwater, underground professions;
- office work associated with staying in a pose with a tilt or turn of the head;
- frequent physical activity of high intensity.
At the initial stage of the development of the disease, there are no symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. Signs begin to appear as the condition worsens; their intensity depends on the degree of vascular damage. The highest intensity of signs of venous outflow obstruction is observed at the third stage of the disease and is associated with circulatory disorders in all brain pools.
Symptoms of impaired blood outflow:
- dull headaches, worse in the morning or with a change in head position;
- discomfort when tilting the head down;
- sleep disturbance;
- noise in the head;
- violation of orientation in space;
- darkening of the eyes;
- numbness of limbs;
- eyelid edema;
- redness of the eyes;
- cyanosis on the face;
- epileptic seizures;
- with the progression of the disease in the later stages, symptoms of mental disorders appear: hallucinations, delirium.
Signs of impaired venous blood flow to the brain are associated with weather conditions – the patient’s well-being worsens with a sharp cooling or warming. Headaches are poorly stopped by analgesics, often only a change in body position brings some relief – in a horizontal position, venous blood flow redirects along the collaterals – bypassing the affected vessel.
The patient’s psyche changes in such a way that insignificant experiences can lead to neurosis. Tearfulness increases, the patient often breaks down at a cry. Mania and depression are observed.
A severe defeat leads to psychosis, accompanied by hallucinations and delusions, this can make the patient dangerous for himself and others.
However, the personality trait before the development of the disease is important.
In most cases, venous insufficiency of cerebral circulation is secondary and occurs due to the development of the underlying disease. Therefore, the diagnosis consists in identifying an intracranial or extracranial process leading to stagnation of blood. The following research methods are used:
- X-ray diffraction determines the amplification of the skull vein pattern, which indicates the presence of a pathological process;
- angiography is a contrast method for diagnosing blood stasis, which determines vascular patency;
- computed and magnetic resonance imaging can accurately determine the presence of a pathological process in the brain, as well as in surrounding tissues;
- ultrasound examination of the veins of the brain and neck;
- rheoencephalography – a method of functional diagnostics, with the help of which the state of blood vessels is evaluated;
- elevated pressure in the ulnar vein allows you to suspect abnormalities in the vessels of the brain.
Chronic venous cerebral insufficiency in children is difficult to diagnose and treat: most of the symptoms are subjective and can characterize many diseases. The situation is complicated by the development of pathology in a child under the age of 1 year.
The smaller the child, the more difficult it is to establish the cause of the change in behavior.
Even with the correct diagnosis and treatment, the blood circulation functions of the child should be monitored, as it grows, which can be an additional factor in the deterioration of the condition and venous outflow.
If symptoms are found, you should consult a doctor: in the early stages, circulatory failure is easily amenable to therapy. Treatment of difficulty in the outflow of venous blood of the brain begins with the elimination of the factor that caused it.
Therapy is comprehensive and includes several areas
- drug treatment;
- non-drug treatment: physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy exercises;
The following drugs are used to normalize cerebral circulation:
- venotonics strengthen the vascular wall, reduce permeability, have an analgesic effect, eliminate inflammation (Detlarex);
- diuretics to eliminate puffiness (furosemide);
- neuroprotectors improve nutrition and metabolism of the brain (Actovegin, Solcoseryl);
- anticoagulants to thin the blood and prevent thrombosis (Heparin);
- vitamin therapy (vitamins of group B and PP).
To achieve the best effect of drug treatment, the patient must follow a diet, ensure moderate physical activity, follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
There are a number of non-drug therapies that are effective as an additional method of treatment and improve vascular tone.
However, before treating a violation of the venous outflow of the brain with their help, it is necessary to assess individual risks and contraindications: in some cases, such procedures can lead to the opposite effect and the patient’s condition worsen.
- head and neck massage;
- oxygen therapy;
- foot baths;
- physiotherapy exercises: breathing exercises, exercises for the neck, yoga.
The operation is necessary for organic damage to the brain or surrounding tissues, which creates a physical obstacle to the outflow of venous blood. In other cases, surgical treatment is performed in no more than 10% of patients with cerebral discirculation. With the help of the operation, the pathological discharge of blood is eliminated and varicose vessels are removed.
- numbness of limbs;
- severe aphasia;
- single epileptic seizures;
- impaired vascular-platelet hemostasis.
- excessive intake of alcohol;
- constant excitement;
- stressful situations.
Predictions for venous discirculation
Brain veins can be conditionally divided into 2 subspecies: superficial and deep. The veins that are located in the soft shell (superficial) are designed for the outflow of blood from the cerebral cortex, and those located in the central parts of the hemispheres (deep veins) serve to drain the blood from the white matter. The above vessels carry blood to the upper and lower longitudinal sinus. From these collectors, blood is pumped into the internal jugular vein, and then flows from the brain through the system of vertebral veins.
This rather simplified description of the complex route of blood outflow makes it possible to understand why, for such a long time, doctors cannot determine the true causes of cerebrovascular disease.
At the moment, doctors managed to find out that cerebral venous discirculation occurs during pathological processes in the cavity between the shells of the brain or in the cervical and vertebral plexus. In 75% of cases, these pathological processes are cervical osteochondrosis or atherosclerotic plaques.
- stop smoking and drinking alcohol;
- perform simple physical exercises daily;
- follow a diet to lower cholesterol;
- monitor blood sugar and blood pressure daily.
As for the medical treatment of patients with venous discirculation, specific therapy is prescribed, which includes taking anticoagulants or thrombolytics (depending on the medical history). But the use of systemic anticoagulation as a primary treatment is recommended to all patients without exception (even for a child and in the presence of intracranial hemorrhage).
Drug therapy is the most effective treatment for dyshemia
Most often, heparin-containing drugs are prescribed. With intravenous administration, its effect begins immediately, which is very important for patients with acute form of dyshemia.
Enoxaparin sodium is a low molecular weight heparin and is prescribed if it is necessary to resume venous outflow to patients suffering from allergic reactions, or for prevention. The main advantage of enoxaparin is the possibility of intermittent administration of the drug, which allows the patient not to go to the hospital, but to take advantage of the possibility of outpatient treatment.
Warfarin is prescribed to patients with bleeding disorders, to which heparin and enoxaparin are strictly contraindicated. The drug slightly affects the coagulation activity, but the therapeutic effect can be seen only after a few days. Therefore, such treatment is not prescribed in the acute stages of discirculation.
The dose of the drug should be carefully monitored by a doctor, so the use at home is excluded. Higher doses are administered at the beginning of treatment in order to speed up the recovery time of the normal outflow, but at the same time, such tactics increase the risk of bleeding. Warfarin treatment should be continued for 3-6 months to obtain a lasting result.
Surgical intervention to get rid of discirculation is prescribed in extreme cases
If the violations in the venous system are too serious, then the doctor may recommend a surgical operation to quickly improve the outflow of blood from the brain. But a surgical operation is prescribed only if the medical methods did not work.
- endarterectomy (removal of the inner lining of the affected artery);
- bypass surgery: a new blood vessel is placed near the site of narrowing of the vein in order to create a new blood flow route;
- angioplasty: a balloon catheter is inserted into a narrow section of the artery in order to expand the walls and improve blood flow.
The prognosis and rate of recovery will depend on several factors.
For example, the prognosis of dyshemia survival can be quite negative if the patient had a stroke or thrombosis. But if the cause of the disease is hypertension or diabetes, then the prognosis will be much better.
The presence of hypoxia
The prognosis will be poor if venous discirculation previously led to hypoxia. Even after the elimination of dyshemia, sudden loss of consciousness or problems with the musculoskeletal system are possible.
Most of all, the result of treatment will depend on the age and general health of the patient. Young people with good immunity have the best predictions for a full recovery.
Modern man is not immune from such a phenomenon as venous cerebral discirculation. Experts note that short-term disturbances occur during the usual physiological process: coughing, singing, bowel movements, head turns, physical activity. Therefore, we all came across, albeit for a short time, this phenomenon, not even suspecting what had happened.
There are three main stages of the disease:
- Latent stage. At this stage, clinical symptoms do not appear, and the person lives a normal life, without any particular complaints;
- Cerebral venous, in which there is a typical picture of paraclinical changes. A person has some symptoms, but he can continue to lead a normal lifestyle.
- Venous with the development of sustainable organic microsymptomatics. It will require the help of a specialist, otherwise the normal life of a person will be at risk.
This classification by stages has been recognized by many experts. In 1989, M. Ya. Berdichevsky introduced a classification of venous discirculation based on forms of manifestation.
The scientist identified two main forms of violation of the venous outflow.
It is expressed in the violation of blood circulation in the brain due to changes in the tone of the veins.
This may be the result of a traumatic brain injury (traumatic brain injury), hyperinsolation, with alcohol or nicotine intoxication, and diseases of the endocrine system, venous hypertension, etc.
It develops when there are mechanical difficulties in the outflow of venous blood. That is, in the cranium, the venous outflow is so difficult that it leads to the extinction of the process mechanics. In this case, one cannot do without outside interference.
As for venous pressure, it is in the range of 55-80 mm of water. Art, and arterial most often corresponds to a normal indicator.
Symptoms of impaired venous outflow may occur in dizziness, feeling of stupor, darkening in the eyes, and. In some cases, epilepsy attacks and mental disorders occur. If venous congestion is pronounced, then the patient will not be able to lower his head or take a horizontal position.
If the doctor decides that there is a likelihood of a violation of the venous outflow, the pressure in the ulnar vein is measured, and a skull x-ray and phlebography are also performed.
- Heart failure (it occurs due to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, congenital and acquired heart defects, arrhythmias, and abnormal lifestyle).
- Hypertension – due to chronically elevated pressure, blood cannot fully circulate through narrowed vessels.
- Hypotension – due to constantly lowered pressure, blood circulation slows down.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine. Osteophytes or prolapsed intervertebral discs formed during this disease can compress large vessels coming from the brain, which provokes a violation of the outflow of venous blood.
- Cerebral atherosclerosis. This is a disease in which the blood vessels of the brain are clogged with cholesterol plaques, which makes full circulation impossible.
- Endocrine diseases: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, diabetes and others. Hormonal disorders often give complications to blood vessels: increase or decrease pressure, contribute to inflammatory processes in arteries and veins.
- Goiter. A strongly overgrown thyroid gland can pinch the internal jugular vein.
- Closed head injury. In the absence of adequate treatment, the tone of the vessels of the brain changes, which leads to circulatory disorders.
- Tumors of the neck. They squeeze the veins through which blood flows from the brain.
- Vein thrombosis. A blood clot clogs a vessel, and blood cannot normally pass through it.
- Brain tumors. In this case, veins located directly in the brain are compressed.
- Arteriovenous malformations. This is a pathology in which pathological vessels are present that connect arteries and veins. This provokes a mixture of arterial and venous blood and disrupts venous outflow.
With an increase in the thyroid gland (goiter), the development of venous discirculation due to compression of the nearest veins is possible
The physiology of the venous system of the brain is still poorly understood. Therefore, only experienced phlebologists and neuropathologists know what venous discirculation is and how to treat it. Although in fact, under such a complex term lies an ordinary violation of venous blood flow. In a healthy person at rest, the average speed of venous blood movement is approximately 220 mm / min, and in those suffering from discirculation it decreases to 47 mm / min.
To put it more simply, venous discirculation of the brain is a violation of blood circulation in the veins of the head. This problem is very common and can occur for a number of reasons. Short-term blood flow disorders can occur during normal physiological processes: sneezing, coughing, turning the head, or physical exertion. There are deeper reasons for persistent violations.
Such phenomena in medical practice are most often found in the brain, vertebral vessels, but this does not mean that such phenomena cannot be in other organs and systems.
Dyshemia can develop for a short time due to coughing, sharp turns of the head, physical exertion, straining in almost every person.
Signs of dysgemia
Specialists distinguish three stages of this disease:
- Latent. The disease is hidden and clinical symptoms are practically absent. The patient lives his usual life, unaware of the disease.
- Cerebral venous dystonia. At this stage, some symptoms are already noticeable, but the patient does not always pay due attention to them.
- Venous encephalopathy accompanied by organic microsymptomatics. This disease requires medical attention, as it poses a threat to the life of the patient.
There is a classification of this disease according to Berdichevsky. He identified in 1989 two stages of the disease according to the forms of manifestation:
- primary, when the tone of the veins changes and the venous circulation in the brain is disturbed;
- stagnant, when there are mechanical obstacles to the outflow of blood: venous outflow is very difficult, which causes the extinction of the process itself.
- Primary – with this form, the tone of the veins is disturbed, which leads to difficulty in the outflow of venous blood due to:
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Acute intoxication.
- Craniocerebral injury.
- Acute urgent conditions.
- Excessive exposure to sunlight.
- Hypertension and hypotension.
- Endocrine pathology.
- Alcohol poisoning.
- Excessive use of nicotine.
- Secondary, it is also stagnant – lies in the presence of a mechanical obstruction to the blood flow. The process is often lengthy, in which a serious condition gradually grows, which leads to disruptions in the activity of organs and systems.
The pathological process itself proceeds in three stages, which are characterized by their characteristic features:
- Latent, or latent, stage – complaints and symptoms are practically absent.
- Venous cerebral dystonia – manifested by a wide range of symptoms. The quality of life at this stage is already reduced.
- Encephalopathy of venous origin – changes in micro -, macrocirculation are recorded. The symptomatology is severe, almost completely lack of working capacity, constant extraneous care is needed. In such situations, only qualified medical assistance helps to achieve the effect.
The danger and insidiousness of venous discirculation lies in the fact that clinical manifestations often make themselves felt when irreversible processes are already developing.
It is clear that, depending on the location of the venous discirculation, the symptoms will depend:
- Vertebral plexus:
- Change and violation of sensitivity in the upper and / or lower extremities.
- Discoordination of movements, gait.
- The development of seizures up to epileptic convulsive syndromes.
- Change in motor functions.
- Headaches of varying severity, especially in the morning after sleep, a feeling of heaviness in the head.
- A rumble, a ringing, a noise in the head.
- A feeling of heaviness in the head.
- Violation of the emotional sphere.
- Feeling of tingling, “goosebumps”, numbness.
- Loss of consciousness.
- Disorders of higher types of nervous activity – speech, perception of objects, space, time.
- Dilation of the vessels of the fundus even with normal numbers of blood pressure.
Pain in the head during venous discirculation is mostly dull.
Symptoms common to any level of damage are:
- Possible development of nausea, vomiting.
- Violation of vascular, platelet hemostasis.
- Gradual visual impairment.
- Sensation of tingling, irritation in the neck (usually in the left half).
- Increased symptoms with changes in atmospheric pressure.
- Cyanosis (cyanosis) of the nose, ears, cheeks, lips, lower eyelids.
- Difficulty getting out of bed.
With severe congestion, the patient is not able to lower his head or occupy a horizontal position due to severe pain, dizziness, seizures.
For a condition such as venous discirculation, seasonality is characteristic, so exacerbations often occur in autumn and spring.
Moreover, the biggest danger is that disability and strokes are a common outcome of a disease.
Manifestations in children
In children, the most common cause of such a pathology is heredity. The development of the disease can manifest itself in infancy.
In childhood, the causes of venous dysgemia and blood flow disorders are considered:
- Dysfunction of the cardiovascular system.
- Pathology of the musculoskeletal system.
- Increased mobility, tortuosity, curvature of the cervical spine (the region of 1 and 2 cervical vertebrae is very affected).
- Injuries during childbirth.
- Wrong posture.
- Anomalies in the development of organs that compress veins and trigger a series of pathological reactions leading to the development of the disease.
- Anomalies in the development of blood vessels.
- Endocrine diseases.
- Vascular stenosis.
Clinical manifestations are already noticeable in most cases when the lumen of the vein is closed by 50% or more.
The leading clinical symptom is pain at the site of circulatory disorders. During the examination, such places are palpable quite easily, since the blood deforms and destroys the tissue near the vein in order to find a place for the outflow.
The main symptoms, in addition to pain, in a child are as follows:
- Increased body temperature.
- Discoordination of movements.
- The appearance of involuntary movements.
- Full and partial paralysis.
- Bleeding from the nose.
- Change in speech, motor skills.
- Metabolic change.
- An increase in blood pressure, followed by a decrease.
- Numbness of the limbs.
Due to the “secrecy” of venous discirculation, it is not always possible to quickly put the child the correct diagnosis and prescribe treatment. Here you will need the help of parents, who should alert these symptoms.
The situation is complicated when the child is very small. In such cases, the children become nervous, irritable, sleep poorly, are naughty, constantly crying. Such symptoms can characterize a large number of diseases, therefore, timely and thorough diagnosis is necessary.
The main methods for detecting pathology in children are:
Measurement of blood pressure for at least 5 consecutive days with data recording.
Only after confirming the diagnosis can we proceed to the treatment of the child, in which the following areas are applied:
- Change in food with a high content of vegetables, fruits, greens.
- Taking medications that improve blood flow, strengthen the venous walls – venotonics (
The smaller the child, the more difficult it is to establish an accurate diagnosis. Even with the correct diagnosis and excellent treatment, the condition of the child should be monitored, as it grows, which can be an additional factor in the deterioration of the condition and venous outflow.
- traumatic brain injury;
- malignant and benign tumors;
- anomalies in the development of the venous network;
- strokes accompanied by cerebral edema;
- blockage of blood vessels by blood clots;
- trauma to the abdominal cavity and chest;
- endocrine diseases;
- protrusion and intervertebral hernia of any etiology.
The venous outflow may be disturbed due to severe intoxication of the body. Such a violation of the vascular system is not uncommon in people who have a long smoking history. In individuals who suffer from alcohol and drug addiction, this pathological condition is observed in almost 95% of cases.
Among other things, some people have a hereditary predisposition to the development of such a pathological condition as venous dyshemia. As a rule, in such cases in representatives of the same family related by blood relationship, the first manifestations of a slowdown in the outflow of blood from the vessels of the brain are observed at about the same age.
For example, if the first signs of pathology in the older generation of family members appeared at the age of 40, then in children with a high probability the onset of increase in symptoms of venous cerebral discirculation will be observed at the same age. Genes have not yet been identified that can be inherited in a dominant or recessive way, and then provoke a similar disruption of the circulatory system of the brain in the next generation.
With latent venous dysgemia, pathological symptoms are practically absent. A person who has similar problems with the outflow of blood from the vessels of the brain does not even suspect this, and writes off the existing minor manifestations of the disease to fatigue after a busy working day. In this case, the headache is not too much pain.
Cerebral venous dyshemia leads to the appearance of severe symptoms, but the existing manifestations do not interfere with a person’s life fully. As a rule, the existing signs of the disease are smoothed. Often with this form of the disease, symptoms appear periodically.
Venous encephalopathy is the most severe form of this pathological condition. Obvious signs of the disease already alarm the patient and greatly affect his daily life. In this case, without the help of a qualified doctor, changes can become irreversible.
Among other things, currently 3 subtypes of this pathological condition are distinguished, including:
- venous dyshemia of the brain;
- venous dyshemia along the vertebral plexuses;
- venous dysfunction of the ICA pool.
There are 2 main forms of the course of the disease. This classification is very useful in making a diagnosis. The primary form of venous dysgemia is a consequence of pathological conditions that cause a change in the tone of blood vessels. This option is the most common. The stagnant form of venous dysgemia is characterized by mechanical blockage of the outflow of blood.
- ultrasound dopplerography;
- duplex scanning;
- triplex scanning.
How is venous dyshemia treated?
The obvious signs of venous discirculation are diverse. They are largely similar to other ailments and often worsen in the morning:
- Dull headache.
- A feeling of lethargy and weakness, a cotton body, even after a good rest; hard to get out of bed.
- Deterioration before changes in atmospheric conditions.
- Tingling in different parts of the body.
- Decreased visual acuity, the appearance of spots and flies in the visual field.
- Swelling of the eyelids.
- Cyanosis and swelling of the nasolabial triangle.
- When coughing, hyperemia of the skin of the face may develop.
- Frequent fainting.
- Expansion of the fundus of the fundus.
- Loss of coordination, dizziness – it is especially common if blood stasis is localized in the WBB (in the vertebro-basilar basin).
- Epileptic seizures.
- Speech or swallowing may be impaired (if the vertebro-basilar pool is affected by the pathology).
Manifestations in children
As the problem worsens, symptoms tend to become more pronounced. Pain in the head can become persistent. This symptom is extremely indicative. As a rule, pain intensifies significantly in the morning. In addition, this symptom of pathology can clearly manifest itself when lifting weights and turning the head. Among other things, a clear manifestation of venous dyshemia of the brain is an increase in pain in the head against the background of spikes in blood pressure, fever and sharp turns of the head.
In severe cases, when a violation of the outflow of blood from the vessels of the brain leads to rapid damage to nerve cells, the symptoms of the disease can be more clearly expressed. Psychopathic and neurological disorders may occur. Signs of development of severe venous cerebral discirculation include:
- motor impairment;
- paralysis of limbs;
- Sensory Disorders
- pain in certain parts of the body;
- speech impairment;
- loss of ability to write and read;
- epileptic seizures;
- impaired coordination.
A particular symptom of a pathology can manifest itself to varying degrees, depending on the nature of damage to brain tissue due to malnutrition. In most patients, who for a long time suffer from a violation of the outflow from the vessels of the brain, a personality change is observed. Gradually, a person becomes irritable and even aggressive.
The more the problem of blood outflow from the blood vessels of the brain is aggravated, the more pronounced are the disorders caused by the gradual death of healthy brain cells involved in the regulation of certain processes in the body. Thus, when the slightest signs of the development of a cerebrovascular accident appear, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible to conduct a full diagnosis, since procrastination leads to a deterioration of brain cells.
- Dr. Theiss;
- Venen gel;
Any medicine should be taken according to a clear scheme indicated by the doctor. In addition to drug therapy, it is necessary, if possible, to normalize the mode of work and rest. Long walks in the fresh air and a contrast shower, which can improve blood flow, will be useful. To improve blood circulation, it is also recommended to perform at least a minimum set of physical exercises daily.
Diagnosis of venous discirculation
If the patient complains of several of the above symptoms, then all the efforts of the doctor will be aimed at identifying and treating the cause of the discirculation. For this, a physical examination is performed, and a medical history is studied. To confirm violations of the venous outflow, several studies are prescribed with visualization of veins in the brain and vertebro-basilar pool.
Complete blood count
It is prescribed to detect antinuclear antibodies and determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. If the results of the analysis confirm the presence of antibodies and a reduced ESR, an additional study is appointed to determine the components of complement and the level of antibodies to anti-deoxyribonucleic acid.
An electroencephalogram with a disturbed outflow of venous blood may be normal. But this study is highly recommended after a unilateral thalamus infarction. Slowing of the main alpha rhythm indirectly indicates coordination anomalies and problems with blood outflow.
EEG can help your doctor detect venous discirculation
CT is an important imaging technique and is often prescribed for the primary diagnosis of dyshemia. You can see on the tomograph if there was any neoplasm or thrombosis that caused the dyshemia.
CT angiography is also prescribed to visualize the cerebral venous system. Only angiography can indicate a lack of flow in the venous channels.
Contrast magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent method for visualizing the blood duct in the large cerebral veins. It is prescribed if angiography has not revealed violations of the outflow of venous blood in the WB.
The disease can be detected using three procedures:
- Doppler scanning of the vessels of the head and neck.
- Phlebography of the brain (vein examination).
- MRI of the brain.
Complete blood count
Violations of the outflow of venous blood manifest themselves in the form of dizziness, blurred eyes, stupor, fainting, and numbness of the limbs. Even mental disorders and epileptic seizures are possible. With pronounced venous congestion, a person is not able to take a horizontal position or lower his head.
Of great diagnostic value are such research methods as X-ray of the skull, on which you can see the excessive development of diploic veins, veins of the hard shell of the brain, graduates, as well as phlebography and blood pressure measurement. You should pay attention to the condition of the fundus: there you can see an increase in veins and other manifestations of stagnation of blood.
In principle, signs of venous discirculation can be detected in most adults, especially in a mild form, when the patient himself does not know about the violation. In the autumn-winter period, this ailment manifests itself most strongly. Many people suffer from inconvenience and try to cope with painful manifestations on their own.
A patient who has noticed symptoms of venous dysgemia should see a doctor.
Specialists who can help with such disorders are cardiologists and neurologists, as well as ophthalmologists and angiosurgeons.
They conduct consultations, examinations and prescribe examinations:
- MRI – to elucidate the features of vascular dysfunction and abnormalities in the structure of the structures of the cranial box.
- X-ray of the skull – to diagnose the condition of blood vessels and sinuses located in the cranium.
- Phlebography – helps to find out why the venous outflow is difficult, and where the violation of the outflow is localized.
- Blood pressure control.
- Diagnosis of the fundus structure.
The patient is recommended to keep a diary in which daily readings are displayed Blood pressure and symptoms observed at the moment.
- Assessment of venous patency using ultrasound dopplerography (especially important for damage to the brain and vertebro-basilar pool).
- CT angiography.
- MRI of the vessels of the head and spine.
- Duplex and triplex scanning to determine the state of the walls of blood vessels, identify plaques, blood clots, emboli.
- Blood pressure monitoring.
- X-ray of the skull.
- Consultation with an ophthalmologist to monitor the fundus vessels.
In addition, a standard examination is carried out, which includes a general analysis of blood, urine, and a biochemical blood test. Also, depending on the concomitant pathology, for example, atherosclerosis, research methods are used to assess the condition of the patient with a concurrent diagnosis.
Only after a full range of diagnostic procedures can we proceed to treatment.
- Quitting smoking and alcohol.
- A diet with the exception of fatty fried foods and the inclusion of a large number of vegetables, fruits, herbs, grape juice.
Drug treatment consists in taking:
- Preparations of the venotonic group of tablets, in the form of ointments, gels, creams (Detralex, Diosmin, Venitan, Eskuzan, Troxevasin, Venorm, Glivenol, Phlebodia, heparin ointment).
- Antiplatelet agents (Aspirin) to strengthen veins, improve microcirculation, increase strength, tone, and elasticity of blood vessels.
- Preparations for improving blood circulation (Actovegin, Cavinton).
- Nootropic drugs (Piracetam, Glycine).
- Symptomatic therapy of concomitant diseases.
Additional treatment methods that are aimed at improving venous outflow:
- Massage general and cervical spine. Such manipulations should be performed only by qualified specialists.
- Physical exercises as agreed with the doctor.
- Constant reception of a contrast shower.
- Walks in the open air.
- Yoga under the supervision of a specialist (after consultation with a doctor).
- 8. Full relaxation and sleep.
In the case of severe and severe violations of the venous outflow, surgical intervention by experienced specialists is recommended, which in such situations is the only treatment method:
- Angioplasty – a balloon catheter is inserted into a narrow section of the vessel to expand the lumen and improve blood flow.
- Bypass surgery – placing a new vessel in a stenotic venous area. This is necessary to ensure a new blood flow.
- Phlebectomy – removal of the affected vein.
- Stripping – used for varicose veins. It consists in the removal of the affected area of the vein.
If the patient is shown surgery, it must be carried out immediately to avoid the development of complications.
Timely diagnosis and correct therapy will help to improve well-being if the process of venous outflow is disturbed. When making a diagnosis, history data, patient complaints, symptoms and clinical features are taken into account. The doctor measures the blood pressure in the central vein passing in the retina. To detect violations, many methods are used to study the circulatory system located in the brain. Instrumental methods:
- Transcranial Doppler.
- Cerebral angiography.
- Duplex scanning of elements of the vascular system of the brain.
- MR venography.
- MRI and CT.
CT allows us to differentiate dyshemia from diseases with similar symptoms (brain tissue tumors, intracranial hematoma, abscess). Venous disturbances are presented in the pictures and in the results of studies by blockage of the sinuses and veins that lie in the head cavity. Foci of venous hemorrhages and heart attacks caused by blockage of venous blood flow may be observed.
The ultrasonic method of ECHOEG (echoencephalography) and rheographic diagnosis of REG (rheoencephalography) are used to assess cerebrospinal fluid and venous circulation in newborns and older children. An echo-encephalogram with mild dysgemia in a child shows signs of hypertension-hydrocephalic syndrome (increased values of intracranial pressure), asymmetry of blood flow in the cerebral arteries.
Venous congestion of cerebral vessels is detected using the following diagnostic measures:
- REG (vascular rheoencephalography). This method allows you to evaluate the general condition of blood vessels, blood supply of veins, the intensity of blood circulation;
- MRI of the brain. The diagnostic method allows you to determine the cause that caused the violation of the venous outflow of the brain;
- Electroencephalogram (EEG). This study is recommended if the patient has had a unilateral thalamus infarction;
- X-ray examination of the skull to detect signs of bruise, fracture;
- Dopplerography of blood vessels, the results of which demonstrate the speed of blood flow, as well as all changes concerning the structure of veins;
- CT This event allows you to detect hematomas and changes that have occurred in the structures of the brain as a result of a stroke.
Of great importance in the diagnosis of “Venous dyshemia of the brain” is the collection of anamnesis.
Venous discirculation of the brain – what is it? By this term is meant a violation of blood flow in the veins of the brain. This disease is quite common and occurs for many reasons.
Short-term disturbances in the blood supply to tissues occur during physiological processes in the body – coughing, sneezing, turning the head. More severe disorders occur in chronic pathological processes in the body.
Venous discirculation occurs in several forms. With latent clinical manifestations of pathology are absent. The patient lives a familiar life and is not aware of the presence of the disease. Cerebral impairment of venous blood flow has several characteristic symptoms, but the patient does not always pay attention to them.
Venous encephalopathy has a detailed clinical picture and requires urgent treatment. According to the classification of the disease according to Berdichevsky, a violation of the venous outflow has 2 forms. With primary, the vascular tone decreases and the venous blood flow in the brain tissue is disturbed.
With a stagnant form of the disease, blood flow obstructs the outflow of blood.
- 1. Causes of impaired blood flow
- 2. Methods of treating the disease
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