Mitral valve prolapse can be:
- Primary. It is associated with weakness of the connective tissue, which occurs in congenital diseases of the connective tissue and is often transmitted through genetic means. With this form of pathology, the mitral valve cusps are stretched, and the chord holding cusps are lengthened. As a result of these disturbances, when the valve is closed, the flaps bulge and cannot close tightly. Congenital prolapse in most cases does not affect the functioning of the heart, but is often combined with vegetovascular dystonia – the cause of the symptoms that patients associate with heart pathology (functional pain periodically occurring behind the sternum, heart rhythm disturbances).
- Secondary (acquired). It develops with various heart diseases that cause a violation of the structure of the valve cusps or chords. In many cases, prolapse is provoked by rheumatic heart disease (an inflammatory disease of the connective tissue of an infectious-allergic nature), undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia, Ehlers-Danlo and Marfan diseases (genetic diseases), etc. In the secondary form of mitral valve prolapse, pains occurring after taking nitroglycerin, heart failure, shortness of breath after exercise and other symptoms. In case of rupture of the heart chords as a result of a chest injury, emergency medical care is required (the rupture is accompanied by a cough, during which foamy pink sputum is separated).
Primary prolapse, depending on the presence / absence of noise during auscultation, is divided into:
- The “mute” form, in which the symptoms are absent or scanty, noises typical for prolapse and “clicks” are not heard. It is detected only by echocardiography.
- Auscultatory form, which when listening is manifested by characteristic auscultatory and phonocardiographic “cliques” and noise.
Depending on the severity of the deflection of the valves, mitral valve prolapse is distinguished:
- I degree – sashes bend 3-6 mm;
- II degree – there is a deflection of up to 9 mm;
- III degree – the flaps bend by more than 9 mm.
The presence of regurgitation and the degree of its severity is taken into account separately:
- I degree – regurgitation is slightly expressed;
- II degree – moderately pronounced regurgitation is observed;
- III degree – there is pronounced regurgitation;
- IV degree – regurgitation is expressed in severe form.
- Why pathology develops
- Signs of tricuspid valve prolapse and the main causes of the development of pathology
- What is the danger of mitral valve prolapse?
- Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse
- clinical picture
- Degrees of prolapse
- Features of the disease
- Degrees and Forms
- How does the problem manifest
- How to treat mitral valve prolapse?
- How pathology is diagnosed
- Forecast for life
- How is the treatment
Why pathology develops
Mitral valve prolapse is a problem that occurs more often in young people. The age of 15-30 years is most typical for the diagnosis of this problem. The causes of the pathology are finally unclear. In most cases, MVP occurs in people with connective tissue pathologies, for example, with dysplasia. One of its features may be increased flexibility.
For example, if a person easily bends the thumb on his hand in the opposite direction and reaches them to the forearm, then the probability of the presence of one of the pathologies of connective tissue and MVP is high.
- Coronary heart disease;
- Various ides of cardiomyopathy;
- Myocardial infarction;
- Calcium deposits on the mitral ring.
As a result of painful processes, the blood supply to the structures of the heart is disturbed, inflammation of its tissues occurs, the death of cells with the replacement of their connective tissue, compaction of the tissues of the valve itself and the structures surrounding it.
All this leads to changes in the tissue of the valve, damage to the muscles controlling it, as a result of which the valve ceases to completely close, that is, the prolapse of its valves appears.
Signs of tricuspid valve prolapse and the main causes of the development of pathology
Tricuspid valve located between the right ventricle and the atrium plays an important role in heart contraction. In some cases, its flaps lose their necessary elasticity and the valve walls bend into the atrium.
Under blood pressure, their walls can diverge. The result is a reverse outflow of part of the blood, which is called regurgitation.
Tricuspid valve prolapse is rarely found alone, more often it is combined with mitral valve prolapse (MVP).
PTC is classified according to the moment of occurrence. It is divided into congenital and acquired.
- A congenital or primary form of the disease is transmitted at the genetic level. Prolapse is caused by a congenital defect in connective tissue.
- The acquired type of disease is the result of chest injuries and diseases associated with impaired activity of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac prolapse is caused by sagging valve flaps due to rupture of tendon chords or their inflammation.
Regurgitation is called the reverse flow of blood that occurs due to the deflection and incomplete closure of the valve cusps. Depending on the degree of violation and deflection, an increase in the returned part of the blood and a decrease in its entry into the pulmonary artery occur.
PTC is detected by characteristic signs. A change in the structure of the atrium causes:
- irregular heartbeats;
- rapid and difficult breathing;
- painful severity under the right rib;
- heaviness in the upper abdomen and belching;
- fainting and semi-fainting conditions during severe stress and in rooms with insufficient ventilation.
Weakness, decreased performance, impaired blood distribution throughout the body, frequent attacks of panic fear, a tendency to nosebleeds and the formation of bruises indicate the presence of this disease and MVP.
For congenital PTC, the absence of symptoms is typical, as the blood circulation is disturbed slightly. It is detected during the examination of the patient during preventive examinations or medical examination.
Acquired pathology gives signs of those diseases, the result of the development of which is, PTC.
Tricuspid valve prolapse
The disease, depending on the manifestation of PTK and the reverse outflow of blood, is divided into degrees:
- Prolapse of 1 degree – the movement of blood flow is almost impossible to determine.
- Prolapse 2 degrees – the return movement is noticeable at a distance of 2 cm.
- The third degree – the reverse movement of blood flow is determined at a distance of more than 2 cm.
- Fourth – movement can be determined over a large area.
For reasons of development, PMC are divided into two types:
- organic failure occurs when the size and shape of the atrial valve changes;
- functional insufficiency, which appeared in connection with changes in the volume and shape of the heart, the heart valve remains unchanged and corresponds to the norm.
The causes of tricuspid valve prolapse are diverse. Their appearance depends on external and internal factors.
- Congenital insufficiency is preceded by exposure to a pregnant woman’s body of radiation, infections, and other adverse factors.
- The prerequisite for acquired organic changes is:
- carcinoid heart syndrome;
- closed heart injury with a change in the valves;
- rheumatic lesions and MVP;
- inflammatory processes on the inner heart membrane;
- surgical interventions in the treatment of other diseases.
- Acquired functional deviation occurs due to:
- damage to the heart muscles as a result of a heart attack, MVP;
- an increase in heart cavities with a decrease in muscle thickness;
- insufficient blood flow from the right ventricle caused by neoplasms;
- high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery.
The main problem in detecting PTK is the rarity of its manifestation in its pure form. Basically, heart disease occurs in conjunction with MVP or tricuspid stenosis.
Pathological change in the heart valve
Diagnosis is carried out after a complete collection and analysis of the medical history.
- Clarification of the medical history of the patient and his immediate family on the ascending lines, which treatment was carried out.
- Collection of information on the duration of complaints of swelling of the legs, an increase in the size of the abdomen and other related symptoms.
- Full examination with blood pressure measurement, electrocardiographic and ultrasound examination.
- Biochemical, immunological and general blood tests.
- Coronary cardiographic and tomographic examination.
Based on the result of the examination, treatment of the disease is prescribed. If necessary, surgery is performed. Patients can only be monitored by narrow specialists. Surgery often causes specific complications.
Mitral valve prolapse is an independent disease. It is a syndrome that occurs in many diseases. Depending on the etiology, secondary MVP is isolated – it arises due to other pathologies, and the primary one is also congenital, or idiopathic.
Quite often, idiopathic MVP is detected in children and adolescents. It appears due to congenital dysplasia of the connective tissue. As a result of this disease, other disorders in the structure of the valve apparatus may develop, for example:
- lengthening or shortening of the heart chords;
- incorrect attachment of chords to valve flaps;
- the presence of additional chords;
As a result of structural changes in the connective tissue, degenerative processes occur in the valve cusps, and they become more malleable. Because of this, the valve cannot withstand the pressure created by the left ventricle and bends towards the left atrium. Connective tissue dysplasia can occur for various reasons that affect the baby in the womb, among them the following are distinguished:
- Acute respiratory viral infections during pregnancy.
- The presence of occupational hazards in women.
- The influence of environmental factors on the mother during pregnancy.
- Excessive stress on the body of a pregnant woman.
In approximately 20% of cases, congenital MVP is transmitted through the maternal side. In addition, mitral valve prolapse occurs in other hereditary diseases, such as:
- Morphan’s syndrome.
- Elastic pseudoxanthoma.
- Imperfect osteogenesis.
- Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.
Prolapse in this case occurs due to damage to the valve cusps, papillary muscles, chords, or a malfunction in the work and structure of the myocardium. Also an important role in the mechanism of development of MVP is played by disturbances in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, a deficiency of micro and macro elements (especially Magnesium) and metabolic pathology.
Another cause of secondary prolapse is stenosis of the aortic valve. As a result of this acquired defect, the opening of the aortic valve narrows and the blood cannot fully pass through it. This creates excess pressure in the left ventricle, which in turn presses on the bicuspid valve.
What is the danger of mitral valve prolapse?
Although mitral valve prolapse qualifies as a heart disease, in most cases the prognosis is positive and no symptoms are observed. Often, MVP is diagnosed accidentally during an ultrasound of the heart during a preventive examination.
Manifestations of MVP depend on the degree of prolapse. Symptoms occur if regurgitation is severe, which is possible in cases of significant deflection of the valve cusps.
Most people with MVP do not suffer from this, pathology does not affect their life and performance in any way. However, with the second and third degrees of prolapse, unpleasant sensations in the region of the heart, pain, rhythm disturbance are possible.
In the most severe cases, complications develop associated with circulatory disturbances and deterioration of the heart muscle due to distension during the reflux of blood.
- Rupture of the heart chords;
- Infectious endocarditis;
- Myxomatous changes in valve flaps;
- Heart failure;
- Sudden death.
The latter complication is extremely rare and can occur if MVP is combined with ventricular rhythm disturbances, which are life-threatening.
Are complications possible and what is the danger of mitral valve prolapse ?? Despite the fact that in most cases mitral valve prolapse with minor regurgitation occurs, which does not require special therapy, there is still a risk of complications. Complications are quite rare (only 2-4%) and include the following life-threatening conditions that require treatment in a specialized hospital:
- Acute mitral regurgitation is a condition that usually occurs as a result of the separation of tendon chords in case of chest injuries. It is characterized by the formation of a “dangling” valve, that is, the valve is not held by chords, and its flaps are in free movement, not performing their functions. Clinically, a picture of pulmonary edema appears – pronounced shortness of breath at rest, especially when lying down; forced sitting position (orthopnea), bubbling breathing; congestive wheezing in the lungs.
- Bacterial endocarditis is a disease in which microorganisms that burst into the blood from the focus of infection in the human body settle on the inner wall of the heart. Most often, endocarditis with damage to the heart valves develops after tonsillitis in children, and the presence of initially altered valves may serve as an additional factor in the development of this disease. Two to three weeks after the infection, the patient develops re-fever, chills, there may be a rash, enlarged spleen, cyanosis (blue skin color). This is a serious disease that leads to the development of heart defects, severe deformation of the heart valves with a violation of the functions of the cardiovascular system. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis is the timely rehabilitation of acute and chronic foci of infection (carious teeth, diseases of ENT organs – adenoids, chronic inflammation of the tonsils), as well as the prophylactic use of antibiotics in procedures such as tooth extraction, removal of the tonsils.
- Sudden cardiac death is a formidable complication, apparently characterized by the occurrence of idiopathic (sudden, unreasonable) ventricular fibrillation, which refers to fatal rhythm disturbances.
Despite the fact that mitral valve prolapse rarely has a malignant course and causes severe complications, this disease still needs constant medical supervision and monitoring. Do not neglect the recommendations of the doctor and take control examinations by a cardiologist on time. Such measures will help you prevent the progression of this disease, and you maintain your health and ability to work.
Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse
The severity of symptoms of mitral valve prolapse varies from minimal to significant and is determined by the degree of connective tissue dysplasia, the presence of regurgitation, and vegetative abnormalities. Some patients have no complaints, and mitral valve prolapse is an accidental finding in echocardiography.
In children with primary mitral valve prolapse, umbilical and inguinal hernias, hip dysplasia, joint hypermobility, scoliosis, flat feet, chest deformity, myopia, strabismus, nephroptosis, varicocele, which indicate a violation of the development of connective tissue structures, are often detected. Many children are predisposed to the frequent occurrence of colds, tonsillitis, exacerbations of chronic tonsillitis.
Quite often, mitral valve prolapse is accompanied by symptoms of neurocirculatory dystonia: cardialgia, tachycardia and malfunctioning of the heart, dizziness and fainting, autonomic crises, increased sweating, nausea, a sensation of a “lump in the throat” and lack of air, migraine-like headaches. With significant hemodynamic disturbances, shortness of breath occurs, increased fatigue. Mitral valve prolapse is characterized by affective disturbances: depressive states, senestopathies, asthenic symptom complex (asthenia).
Clinical manifestations of secondary mitral valve prolapse are combined with symptoms of the underlying disease (rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, Marfan syndrome, etc.). Among the possible complications of mitral valve prolapse are life-threatening arrhythmias, infectious endocarditis, thromboembolic syndrome (including stroke, pulmonary embolism), sudden death.
In childhood, MK prolapse is much more common than in adults. This is evidenced by statistical data based on the results of ongoing research. It is noted that in adolescence, MVP is twice as often diagnosed in girls. Children’s complaints are of the same nature. Basically, this is an acute shortage of air, heaviness in the heart and chest pain.
Symptoms of MVP occur in children in different ways. Some practically do not feel the abnormal work of the heart. In others, it manifests itself quite strongly.
- So chest pain is experienced by almost 30% of adolescent children who have revealed PSMK (mitral valve leaf prolapse). It is caused by various reasons, among which the following are most common:
- too tight chords;
- emotional stress or physical strain leading to tachycardia;
- oxygen starvation.
- In as many children, there is a rapid heartbeat.
- Often teenagers who spend a lot of time at the computer, preferring mental activity to physical activity, are prone to fatigue. They often experience shortness of breath in physical education classes or during physical work.
- In children with a diagnosis of MVP, in many cases symptoms of a neuropsychological nature are manifested. They are prone to frequent changes in mood, aggressiveness, nervous breakdowns. With emotional stress, they may have short-term fainting.
The cardiologist during the examination of the patient uses various diagnostic tests, through which the most accurate picture of MVP is revealed. The diagnosis is made when noise is detected during auscultation: holosystolic, isolated late systolic, or in combination with clicks, isolated clicks (clicks).
Prolapse of the heart valve in childhood often develops against the background of a lack of magnesium ions. Magnesium deficiency disrupts the process of collagen production by fibroblasts. Along with a decrease in the content of magnesium in the blood and tissues, there is an increase in beta-endorphin in them and a violation of the electrolyte balance. It was noted that children with a diagnosis of MVP are underweight (inappropriate for height). Many of them show myopathy, flat feet, scoliosis, poor muscle development, and poor appetite.
It is recommended to treat MVP with a high degree of regurgitation in children and adolescents, taking into account their age group, gender and heredity. Based on the extent to which the clinical manifestations of the disease are expressed, a treatment technique is selected and medications are prescribed.
But the main emphasis is on changing the living conditions of the child. It is necessary to adjust their mental stress. It must alternate with the physical. Children should visit the physiotherapy exercises cabinet, where a qualified specialist will select the optimal set of exercises, taking into account the individual characteristics of the course of the disease. Swimming is recommended.
With metabolic changes in the heart muscle
Tricuspid valve prolapse (PTC) is a pathological condition of the heart caused by falling of the tricuspid valve cusps into the right atrium, which provokes the development of valvular insufficiency and is accompanied by a partial return of blood flow to the right atrium – regurgitation.
This ailment can hardly be called a common disease. He is rarely diagnosed: one case in several tens of thousands of people. Most often, the disease is detected in combination with mitral valve prolapse, which, unlike the first, is diagnosed in every 5 inhabitants of our globe.
According to statistical studies, TC prolapse is more often determined in males, and in most clinical cases is the result of heart disease.
Pathological failure of the tricuspid valve is congenital and acquired. Most often, congenital abnormal defects of valve cusps and its fibrous ring arise as a result of intrauterine exposure to toxic factors on the fetus.
This happens at about 3-9 weeks of pregnancy, when the body of the unborn baby is laying the vital organ structures.
Congenital insufficiency of the tricuspid valve can also occur due to pathologies of the connective tissue, both genetic (Morphan syndrome) and acquired.
Acquired tricuspid valve prolapse develops a second time, against the background of other pathological conditions:
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- drug addiction (less often alcoholism);
- carcinoid syndrome (the development of a carcinoid tumor provokes the appearance in the blood of a hormone that causes irreparable harm to valvular structures of the heart);
- infectious heart lesions (infectious endocarditis);
- damage to the chords and muscles of the tricuspid valve;
- chest injuries.
In a healthy heart, the valve closes completely; with prolapse, the TC does not close completely
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I degree – characterized by the appearance of slight regurgitation, which does not violate the general condition of the sick person; II degree – the return flow of blood from the ventricle increases, and the force of the stream reaches 2 cm;
IV degree – strong regurgitation, when about 40% of the total amount of blood gets back into the ventricle.
It is customary to distinguish the primary and secondary forms of PTC. The primary variant of the disease proceeds without manifestations of pulmonary hypertension, when the pathological process is formed against the background of primary deviations in the normal functioning of the heart organ. Secondary prolapse of TC is a disease resulting from pulmonary hypertension and an increase in the size of the right heart.
At the early stages of the formation of TC prolapse or with the development of a pathological process of the 1st degree of severity, the patient, as a rule, does not have any complaints from the heart, and the disease can only be suspected during a medical examination. The first symptoms of the disease appear when the volume of regurgitation increases. With severe forms of tricuspid valve insufficiency, the following clinical manifestations of the pathological process occur in patients:
- feeling of fatigue, fatigue and fatigue;
- swelling of the distal lower extremities and the anterior abdominal wall;
- visible pulsation of the cervical veins;
- decreased urine output;
- palpitations with rhythm disturbances (tachycardia);
- pain in the heart;
- in severe cases, hemoptysis.
At the doctor’s appointment, patients with 2,3 and 4 degrees of tricuspid valve prolapse complain of a feeling of weakness, loss of performance and heaviness in the abdomen and legs. Often, in such patients, complaints related to a decrease in the volume of urine produced come to the forefront, which is mistakenly perceived by them for kidney pathology.
Symptoms of PTC from the side of the heart:
- hypertrophy of the right heart;
- symptoms of damage to other valves;
- pan-systolic murmur, which is amplified by inspiration;
- auscultation over the heart sounds of a “flapping sail”
In addition to changes in the heart, tricuspid valve prolapse is also indicated by an increase in the size of the liver, dyspeptic disorders, severity in the right hypochondrium and portal hypertension.
According to statistics, the most common prolapse with tricuspid valve insufficiency is diagnosed in patients who regularly use drugs.
This is due to the fact that taking stupefying drugs under unsanitary conditions is one of the main causes of infectious or toxic endocarditis, as a result of which the valve flaps lose their elasticity and the ability to fully close into diastole.
Diagnosis of PTC is an important stage in the treatment of the disease. It should be comprehensive and timely, which will increase the patient’s chances of recovery. The doctor can suggest the development of an ailment in a patient based on complaints, as well as data from an objective examination: palpation, percussion, auscultation of the heart.
The following methods of instrumental research allow you to confirm the diagnosis:
- electrocardiography, which allows to determine the dilatation of the right ventricle;
- echocardiography, which makes it possible to diagnose the presence of bending of the valves of the tricuspid valve and regurgitation;
- catheterization of the right heart, with which you can determine the increase in pressure in the heart chambers and lungs;
- chest radiography confirms the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension;
- computed tomography and MRI to detect expansion of the right heart.
Degrees of prolapse
The tricuspid valve is located between the right ventricle and the atrium, plays a crucial role in the contraction of the heart. The valve opens when venous blood passes from the atrium to the ventricle, and closes during the reverse process. Due to the valve, blood can enter the aorta and artery completely.
However, for some reason, the tricuspid valve flaps may enter the atrium, which is why it does not close completely. This condition is called prolapse of the tricuspid valve. Prolapse can not cause harm to health, but gradually progress, due to which it is complicated.
Is it possible to diagnose it by its own symptoms? Let’s analyze the points.
Features of the disease
- PTC most often affects adult males. In this case, prolapse develops against the background of other diseases.
- In children, PTC most often has a congenital form caused by intrauterine developmental disorders.
- PTC in pregnant women is often complicated by gestosis and placental insufficiency, which can lead to premature birth. That is why throughout pregnancy it is important to consult a doctor about a possible treatment.
Degrees and Forms
Tricuspid regurgitation, developing against a background of vice, can be:
- primary, not accompanied by pulmonary hypertension and appearing against the background of the primary pathology of the heart muscle;
- secondary, appearing against the background of hypertrophy of the right ventricle and pulmonary hypertension;
First one. It is characterized by a reverse blood flow, which does not violate the general process of its movement through the vessels. There is a small prolapse of the tricuspid valve without significant regurgitation.
- The second one. With prolapse of the tricuspid valve of the 2nd degree, a reverse blood flow is observed at a distance of 20 mm from the tricuspid valve.
- The third. The distance increases by more than 20 mm.
- Fourth. Regurgitation is pronounced, takes place over a large extent from the cavity of the right atrium.
- 1 degree – valve flaps bend 3-6 mm,
- 2 degree – deflection no more than 9 mm,
- 3 degree – more than 9 mm.
So, most often mitral valve prolapse is not dangerous, so there is no need to treat it. However, with a significant severity of pathology, people need careful diagnosis and help.
How does the problem manifest
Mitral valve prolapse is manifested by specific symptoms with significant regurgitation. However, when questioning patients with detected MVP, even to the smallest degree, it turns out that people experience many complaints of minor ailments.
These complaints are similar to problems with vegetative or neurocirculatory dystonia. Since this disorder is often diagnosed simultaneously with mitral regurgitation, it is not always possible to distinguish between the symptoms, however, the critical role in the changes in well-being is assigned to the PMC.
All problems, pains or discomforts resulting from mitral regurgitation are associated with a deterioration in hemodynamics, that is, blood flow.
Since with this pathology, part of the blood is thrown back into the atrium, and does not enter the aorta, the heart has to do additional work to ensure normal blood flow. Excessive load never benefits, it leads to faster wear of fabrics. In addition, regurgitation leads to the expansion of the atrium due to the presence of an additional portion of blood there.
As a result of blood overflow of the left atrium, overload of all the left parts of the heart occurs, the force of its contractions increases, because you need to cope with an additional portion of blood. Over time, left ventricular hypertrophy can develop, as well as atria, this leads to an increase in pressure in the vessels passing through the lungs.
If the pathological process continues to develop, then pulmonary hypertension causes hypertrophy of the right ventricle and tricuspid valve insufficiency. Symptoms of heart failure appear. The described picture is typical for grade 3 mitral valve prolapse, in other cases the disease goes much easier.
The vast majority of patients among the symptoms of mitral valve prolapse note periods of heartbeat, which can be of varying strength and duration.
A third of patients periodically feel a lack of air, they want the breath to be deeper.
Quite often, mitral valve prolapse is accompanied by reduced performance, irritability, a person can be emotionally unstable, sleep may be disturbed in him. There may be chest pain. Moreover, they are in no way associated with physical activity, and nitroglycerin does not act on them.
- Chest pains;
- Lack of air;
- Palpitations or rhythm failure;
- Unstable mood;
- Fast fatiguability;
- Headaches morning or night.
All these symptoms cannot be called characteristic only for mitral valve prolapse; they can be caused by other problems. However, when examining patients with similar complaints (especially at a young age), mitral valve prolapse of 1 degree or even 2 degrees is often detected.
How to treat mitral valve prolapse?
Treatment of acquired MVP in most cases is carried out in a cardiological hospital. The patient is advised to comply with bed or semi-bed rest, give up bad habits and follow a diet.
With rheumatic fever, i.e. infectious, the cause of the development of this heart disease, the patient is prescribed a course of antibacterial therapy to eliminate rheumatic heart disease. For this, antibiotics from the penicillin group are used (Bilillin, Vancomycin, etc.). If a patient reveals significant blood regurgitation and arrhythmias, other drugs can also be prescribed, the action of which will be aimed at eliminating the symptoms (diuretics, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensives, etc.).
For the treatment of MVP, which was caused by cardiological pathologies, drugs are used that are used to treat the underlying disease. Such therapy is aimed at normalizing blood circulation and eliminating arterial hypertension and arrhythmias, and in case of ineffective drug treatment, a patient may be recommended surgical intervention aimed at eliminating the mitral valve defect.
Particular attention is given to cases of MVP that have been caused by a chest injury. After correcting the condition with medication, patients undergo a surgical operation to stabilize the mitral valve. Such patients need hospitalization and close monitoring. If there is a cough with pink phlegm, medical care should be provided immediately, as any delay can be fatal.
How pathology is diagnosed
Before starting treatment, an accurate diagnosis is needed. When is the need to diagnose MVP?
- Firstly, the diagnosis can be made by chance, during a routine examination with an ultrasound scan of the heart.
- Secondly, at any examination by the therapist, a heart murmur may be heard, which will give rise to further examination. A characteristic sound, called noise, when the mitral valve is deflected, is caused by regurgitation, that is, the blood rushing back into the atrium makes a noise.
- Thirdly, patient complaints can lead the doctor to suspicions of MVP.
If such suspicions arise, you need to contact a specialist, a cardiologist. Diagnosis and treatment should be carried out by him. The main diagnostic methods are auscultation and ultrasound of the heart.
Such noise is not a pathology, it refers to physiological manifestations and does not affect the condition of a person and the work of his organs. However, if noise is detected, it is worthwhile to play it safe and conduct additional diagnostic tests.
Only the method of echocardiography (ultrasound) can reliably identify and confirm MVP or its absence. The results of the examination are visualized on the screen, and the doctor sees how the valve works. He sees the movement of his wings and a deflection under the flow of blood. Mitral valve prolapse may not always manifest at rest, so in some cases the patient is examined again after exercise, for example, after 20 squats.
In response to the load, blood pressure increases, the pressure force on the valve rises, and prolapse, even small, becomes noticeable on ultrasound.
Forecast for life
The prognosis for life is favorable. Complications rarely develop, and the patient’s quality of life does not suffer. However, the patient is contraindicated in some sports (jumping, karate), as well as professions that cause overload of the cardiovascular system (divers, pilots).
Regarding military service, it can be said that according to orders, the suitability for military service is decided individually for each patient on the military medical commission. So, if a young man has mitral valve prolapse without regurgitation or with regurgitation of 1 degree, then the patient is fit for service. If there is regurgitation of the 2nd degree, then the patient is conditionally fit (in peacetime he will not be called). In the presence of regurgitation of the 3rd degree, rhythm disturbances or heart failure of a functional class of 11 and higher, military service is contraindicated.
Thus, most often a patient with mitral valve prolapse with a favorable course and in the absence of complications can serve in the army.
How is the treatment
If MVP occurs without symptoms, then treatment is not required. With a revealed pathology, the doctor usually recommends seeing a cardiologist, doing an ultrasound of the heart annually. This will make it possible to see the process in dynamics and notice a deterioration in the condition and operation of the valve.
In addition, the cardiologist usually recommends quitting smoking, strong tea and coffee, and minimizing alcohol consumption. Physical therapy exercises or any other physical activity, with the exception of heavy sports, will be useful.
Mitral valve prolapse of the 2nd degree, and in particular of the 3rd degree, can cause significant regurgitation, which leads to a deterioration in well-being and the appearance of symptoms. In these cases, drug treatment is performed. However, no medication can affect the condition of the valve and the prolapse itself. For this reason, treatment is symptomatic, that is, the main effect is aimed at relieving the person of unpleasant symptoms.
- Stabilizing nervous system;
This may be a combination of symptoms, then the treatment should be comprehensive. All patients with mitral valve prolapse are advised to arrange the regimen so that sleep is of sufficient duration.
Among the medicines, beta-blockers are prescribed, drugs that nourish the heart and improve metabolic processes in it. Of sedatives, infusions of valerian and motherwort are often quite effective.
Exposure to drugs may not bring the desired effect, as it does not affect the condition of the valve. Some improvement may occur, but it cannot be considered stable in the acute progressive course of the disease.
At the same time, heart failure will increase very quickly, because the valve cannot close at all.
Surgical treatment is valve ring reinforcement or mitral valve implantation. Today, such operations are quite successful and can lead the patient to a significant improvement in health and well-being.
In general, the prognosis for mitral valve prolapse depends on several factors:
- the rate of development of the pathological process;
- the severity of the pathology of the valve itself;
- degree of regurgitation.
Of course, timely diagnosis and accurate adherence to the prescriptions of a cardiologist play an important role in the success of treatment. If the patient is attentive to his health, then he will “sound the alarm” on time and undergo the necessary diagnostic procedures, as well as start treatment.
In the case of uncontrolled development of pathology and the lack of necessary treatment, the condition of the heart can gradually deteriorate, which will lead to unpleasant, and possibly irreversible, consequences.