All living organisms are constantly exposed to substances that can harm them. Most organisms have dense shells or, for example, chemical irritants that repel enemies. In vertebrates, another, more advanced protective system is formed – the immune system. An immunogram is used to study it.
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Types of immunity
Immunity is innate and acquired, non-specific and specific.
All animals have innate immunity. This is a more primitive form of protection. It includes substances circulating inside the body that kill any pathogenic microorganisms. Phagocytes, cells that find, capture and destroy (“digest”) foreign bacteria, also belong to the innate type of immunity. Congenital immunity is nonspecific, that is, it is not directed against any one pathogen, but provides general body protection.
Acquired immunity is a system that recognizes and destroys certain antigens. Antigen is a foreign protein that can be part of the bacterial membrane, fungal enzymes, and so on. The acquired immune response is directed against a specific antigen, that is, it is antigen-specific.
Another difference from innate is the ability to immunological memory, that is, the preservation of protective substances or cells in the body even after the destruction of the antigen. Immunological memory is also involved in pathological reactions, for example, in allergies or rejection of a transplanted organ.
The basis of immune defense is lymphocytes. They are formed from immature bone marrow cells.
- Some of them then migrate to the lymphoid organs, for example, to the lymph nodes, and become B-lymphocytes.
- The other part differentiates in the thymus gland (thymus) and is called T-lymphocytes.
If you do not delve into the intricacies of the immune response, we can say that T-lymphocytes are responsible for the destruction of a foreign agent and the production of aggressive substances – cytokines, and B cells, after being converted into plasmocytes, begin to synthesize antibodies (immunoglobulins). Contacting the antigen, they inactivate it.
Although the immunological parameters shown by this analysis are rather arbitrary, nevertheless, with their help, the doctor can evaluate the state of immunity.
An immunogram is prescribed primarily if immunodeficiency is suspected. It can be congenital and secondary.
Primary or congenital immunodeficiency is associated with genetic disorders. It should be suspected with such symptoms:
- cases in the family of the death of children and young people from infectious diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, sepsis and others);
- recurrence of otitis media 8 or more times a year;
- relapses of severe sinusitis 2 or more times a year;
- pneumonia transferred twice a year or more often;
- antibiotic treatment for at least 2 months throughout the year;
- complications after vaccination with live vaccines;
- stunted growth and development of the baby;
- repeated abscesses of the skin or internal organs;
- two or more severe infections per year (sepsis, osteomyelitis, meningitis);
- candidiasis of the mucous membranes, persisting throughout the year;
- digestive disorders in young children;
- repeated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria.
Secondary immunodeficiency develops in a healthy person if he has the following diseases:
- treatment with immunosuppressants, glucocorticoids or monoclonal antibodies;
- malnutrition, hypovitaminosis, diabetes, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome;
- removal of the spleen, severe burns, frequent anesthesia during operations;
- HIV infection, congenital rubella, previous infectious mononucleosis, infection with cytomegalovirus, severe bacterial infections;
- systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis and cirrhosis;
- continuous administration of anticonvulsants.
The most important role in the immunogram is played by T-lymphocytes, which are distinguished by several subgroups.
The doctor first of all assesses the indicators of cellular immunity – the content of T-lymphocytes. They are divided into subgroups depending on their functions:
- CD4 lymphocytes, or T-helpers, help the body fight infection.
- CD8 lymphocytes, or T-suppressors, regulate the activity of T-helpers and can suppress immune responses.
|CD4 (T-helpers)||CD8 (T-suppressors)||Possible pathology|
|Moderately elevated||Moderately reduced||Allergic and autoimmune processes|
|Moderately reduced||Moderately elevated||Immunodeficiency|
|Practically absent||Promoted||Malignant tumors|
|Lowered||Normal value||HIV infection, AIDS|
|Promoted||Normal value||Autoimmune diseases|
In addition, an increase in the number of CD4 cells is possible with viral infections, and their decrease with intoxication, stress, exposure to radiation or the use of immunosuppressive drugs.
An increase in the number of CD8 lymphocytes occurs in infectious diseases, after vaccinations, at the beginning of viral diseases. Their level falls for the same reasons that cause a decrease in the number of T-helpers.
The immunity B-unit is represented by B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (antibodies) that they produce.
The reasons for the increase in the number of B-lymphocytes:
- active immune process, infections;
- autoimmune diseases;
- condition after organ transplantation;
- leukemia and other lymphoproliferative diseases.
The reasons for the decrease in the level of B-lymphocytes:
- enhanced antibody production upon contact with an external antigen (infection);
- congenital b-immunodeficiency;
- the accumulation of a large number of B-lymphocytes in any organ affected by the disease.
The level of immunoglobulins reflects such pathological processes:
- increase in total Ig: active immune response, impaired liver function;
- increase in IgG concentration: infection, liver disease, autoimmune process, some types of myeloma;
- decrease in IgG level: in newborns, as well as with delayed maturation of the immune system and some diseases of blood formation;
- an increase in IgM concentration is a sign of acute infection, and also occurs with acute hepatitis;
- an increase in the content of IgA is characteristic of respiratory, intestinal infections and myeloma, and its decrease is characteristic of lympho >
In addition to indicators of T- and B-cell immunity, the doctor analyzes non-specific indicators. They provide additional information and facilitate diagnostic searches.
|NK cells (CD16)||↑||Infections of a viral or bacterial nature, malignant tumors, autoimmune processes, allergies.|
|↓||Chronic infectious pathology, allergies, lymphocytic leukemia.|
|Phagocytosis||↑||Chronic infections, rheumatological diseases (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis).|
|HLA marker cells||↑||Normal immune response upon contact with antigen.|
|↓||Autoimmune processes, tumors.|
|RTML||↓||Congenital immunodeficiency, tumors, endocrine disorders, viral infections, syphilis, tuberculosis, meningococcal infection.|
|HCT test||↑||Bacterial infection, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction, radiation, muscle injuries, hemodialysis, rheumatoid arthritis.|
|↓||Hemophilia, leukemia, anemia, erythremia.|
|Complement||↑||Acute inflammatory process, trauma, condition after surgery, amyloidosis, malignant tumor, obstructive jaundice.|
|↓||Acute infection, malignant tumor, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, Raynaud’s disease, chronic glomerulonephritis, endocarditis, serum sickness, autoimmune hemolysis.|
It is very difficult to independently analyze the data of an immunogram. Even to a doctor, she gives only approximate information about the state of the immune system. Nevertheless, deviations in immunogram indices are always alarming and give rise to in-depth diagnostics.
An immunologist or an infectious disease specialist directs an immunogram. Depending on its results, you may need to consult a hematologist, oncologist, rheumatologist, nephrologist, cardiologist, gastroenterologist, pediatrician, genetics and other relevant specialists.
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The human immune system is a system that protects our body from various “external aggressors”: pathogenic bacteria, infectious agents, viruses and other microorganisms.
There is such a thing as the patient’s immune status – the general state of human immunity, expressed in quantitative and qualitative indicators. The immune status of a person shows how ready the immune system is to fight various diseases.
An immunogram is a comprehensive diagnostic study that aims to assess the patient’s immune status.
- congenital pathological conditions of the immune system;
- injuries and operations that are accompanied by large blood loss;
- viral diseases of various origins, bacterial pathogens and parasitic infestations (herpes virus, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis, ascariasis, viral hepatitis, rubella, etc.);
- malignant neoplasms and their treatment;
- autoimmune diseases in which the processes of destruction of their own tissues begin;
- endocrine disruption;
- age or physiological characteristics of the immune system in pregnant women, the elderly and children;
- poor nutrition and neglect of the principles of a healthy lifestyle;
- adverse environmental impact, etc.
A decrease in overall immune status leads to a decrease in local immunity, which, in turn, causes severe forms of various diseases. Thus, each person may be faced with the need to pass an immunological blood test in order to possess information about the state of their immunity.
It is especially important to pass an immunological analysis to patients who are diagnosed with HIV infection. Such an analysis allows you to establish the degree of damage to the immune system by the immunodeficiency virus and makes it possible to determine the correct treatment tactics. Today, there are a number of drugs that can stop the damaging effects of HIV on human immunity.
Types of immunity
Which doctor prescribes an immunogram
A blood test for immune status is carried out by an immunologist. Any other specialist who notes violations in the work of the immune system can be sent for diagnosis. An immunogram for a child may be required at the stage of formation of the immune defense, when the pediatrician notes typical manifestations of immunodeficiency.
If a person has symptoms of impaired immune function, he can be assigned an immunogram – a study of venous blood, nasopharyngeal mucus, saliva or cerebrospinal fluid for the quantitative content of leukocytes, lymphocytes and the determination of antibodies. What is an immunogram, and how is it done in medical institutions?
What does an immunogram mean, and what are the main parameters of a person’s immune defense that this analysis determines? An immunogram is a study of the main indicators of the human immune system.
Typically, the main parameters of the human immune defense are determined:
- cellular immunity – the total number of T-lymphocytes and their population, their percentage ratio;
- humoral immunity – the level of immunoglobulins (antibodies) of classes A, M, G, E and the number of B-lymphocytes, determination of indicators of the complement system and interferon.
What does immunogram show and how is the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes and the determination of antibodies?
When counting leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes), the usual method of counting the leukocyte formula is used. To determine the phagocytic indices (the ability of leukocytes to phagocytosis of microorganisms) use a special test.
A separate study is conducted on the number and percentage of cellular immunity – T and B lymphocytes. To determine them, the method of outlet formation is most often used.
The quantity and percentage of a subpopulation of T-lymphocytes (T-helpers, suppressors, etc.) are also determined. The functional state of T-lymphocytes is also determined.
The determination of antibodies – immunoglobulins of classes A, M, G – is most often carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Unambiguous interpretation of the immunogram is difficult. However, the immunogram allows you to specify the immunological defect, if any, and can serve as the basis for appropriate replacement therapy or immunocorrection.
For example, a severe deficiency of IgG and IgM immunoglobulins is considered as an indication for intravenous administration of immunoglobulin preparations prepared from donated blood.
If defects in T-lymphocytes are detected, medications prepared from calf thymus tissue can be used to differentiate and activate T-lymphocytes.
In detail, how to make an immunogram, the doctor will tell the patient who issues a referral for examination. The study uses venous blood or other body fluids. Being informed about how an immunogram is made, keep in mind that passing this test is not recommended against the background of acute infectious diseases with high fever and after a heavy meal.
So, now you know what it is – an immunogram, it’s time to find out when it is prescribed.
First of all, the indications for this analysis are immunodeficiencies, in which one or more parts of the immune system are affected. These are primary and acquired immunodeficiencies.
These are blood diseases (for example, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura), endocrinological diseases (some forms of diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, lupus erythematosus).
An undoubted indication for the study of immunity is transplantation (organ transplantation), especially in bone marrow transplantation.
In addition, laboratory methods can determine antibodies in the blood to a huge number of diseases – both viral and bacterial.
Studies can be carried out to detect immunity before vaccination and revaccination against measles, mumps, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, etc.
Decreased immunological parameters reflect a decrease in the body’s defense.
Reduced number and functional activity of phagocytic blood cells are found in patients with chronic suppurative processes.
With the most severe of the known immunodeficiencies – AIDS – a T-lymphocyte defect is detected.
In the immunogram, not only lower, but also increased indicators can be detected, which also alert the doctor. So, for example, normally in the blood serum IgE class immunoglobulins should not be detected.
An increased immunogram may reflect the body’s adaptive responses. For example, an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood – leukocytosis, as a rule, accompanies acute inflammation, acute infection.
With viral infections, lymphocytes can be raised in the immunogram, which are designed to perform protective functions in antiviral immunity.
The increase in blood levels of IgG and IgM immunoglobulins in infectious diseases is evaluated positively as a sign of an active immune response to pathogen antigens.
The increase in blood levels of the same immunoglobulins in patients with autoimmune diseases is regarded as an unfavorable prognostic sign of increasing production of autoantibodies against the body’s own antigens.
Given the dynamics of immunograms, treatment of allergic and infectious diseases becomes more targeted.
An immunogram is an auxiliary study, and not an unconditional answer to all questions.
In the conclusion, compiled on the basis of the analysis of the immunogram, the leading is always the presence of pronounced clinical symptoms.
- The real information about the change in the immunogram is carried only by strong shifts of indicators (20-40% of the norm or more).
- The analysis of immunograms in dynamics (especially in comparison with clinical dynamics) is more informative in terms of both diagnosis and prognosis of the course of the disease.
- In the vast majority of cases, the analysis of immunograms makes it possible to make indicative, rather than unconditional, conclusions of a diagnostic and prognostic nature.
- For a diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of an immunogram, individual indicators of normalcy in a given patient are of utmost importance (especially taking into account age and the presence of concomitant and chronic diseases).
If one or more indicators of the immunogram are below the normal level, is it possible to conclude on this basis that a person has immunodeficiency?
No, you need to repeat the study after 2-3 weeks to check how persistently the detected changes in the immunogram are preserved, whether they were a temporary reaction to some external effect.
When assessing immunogram indices, it is necessary, first of all, to exclude the possibility of their fluctuations in connection with food intake, physical activity, a sense of fear, time of day, etc.
An expanded immunogram to determine the immune status is needed for disorders that are conditionally divided into 3 groups. The first is pathologies requiring compulsory investigation, the second is conditions that require differential diagnosis, the third are diseases in which an assessment of severity is needed.
Diseases and conditions in which an immunogram is required include:
- suspicion of genetically determined (congenital) immunodeficiency and AIDS;
- transplantation, blood transfusion;
- malignant tumors (increased level of Ca-125);
- conducting mmunosuppressive and immunomodulatory treatment;
- autoimmune pathologies;
- some severe infections, allergies.
The attending physician decides to conduct an immunogram for recurrent fungal infections, helminthic invasion, and digestive infections. The study may be required after an organ transplant and is mandatory after a blood transfusion.
Features of the analysis
A detailed immunogram is a complex diagnostic technique that requires careful preparation. A blood test for immunity (status) is given only after observing a number of conditions, without which the results cannot be considered reliable.
To test immunity, you need the following preparation:
- for 8-12 hours you need to refuse food, because blood is donated in the morning on an empty stomach;
- in the morning before the test, you can drink only clean water;
- in a few days you need to abandon active sports;
- eliminate stress and anxiety;
- exclude the use of alcohol a day before the procedure.
The accuracy of the data directly depends on how the blood is taken in the laboratory, and the correctness of the patient’s preliminary preparation. There are several rules that a patient must adhere to before collecting biomaterial. So, within 1 day until the test is passed, the patient is prohibited from:
- subjected to strong physical exertion;
- dramatically change the diet and frequency of nutrition;
- drinking alcohol;
- take medications. If necessary, the mandatory use of drugs must be warned in advance by the attending physician and medical staff who will collect the biomaterial;
- eat fatty or smoked foods.
For the study, venous blood is taken from the patient. Her surrender must be carried out on an empty stomach.
The immunogram does not give up for any ailments, during the acute course of infectious diseases, during menstrual bleeding, and also after eating. In the morning before analysis, it is unacceptable to use any drinks except plain still water.
When conducting an immunogram, 5 to 20 different indicators can be determined. In general, the patient’s immune system is evaluated at 4 different levels:
- state of cellular immunity. It is determined by the number of lymphocytes;
- features of protein structures. Particular attention is paid to gamma globulin;
- assessment of the work of cellular and humoral immunity, in which the number of T and B lymphocytes is considered;
- quantitative determination of phagocytic number, the norm of which is 1–2,5 units. Calculation of the phagocytic index, its nominal number is 40–90. Determination of complement titer, with a healthy rate of 20-30 units. Identification of the number of circulating immune complexes, which should be no more than 5 conventional units.
Normally, these immunograms have the following meanings:
- T-lymphocytes, CD8 marker, 40–80% of the total number of lymphocytes;
- B-lymphocytes, marker CD19, 5-30% of the total number of lymphocytes;
- granular lymphocytes, or NK-killers, marker CD56 CD16, 5-15% of the total number of lymphocytes;
- the ratio of subpopulations of CD4/CD8, 1,5–2;
- phagocytic granulocytes, 20–70% of the total number of granulocytes;
- immunoglobulin IgA, 0-4. Deviation from the nominal value may indicate respiratory infections, bronchial asthma, pathologies of the connective tissues, liver or lymphoid system;
- Ig E immunoglobulin, normally should not be detected. Its value exceeding 0 indicates the presence of worms in the patient’s body or allergies;
- immunoglobulin Ig M, 0–2,4. Exceeding the value indicates the presence in the body of an infectious disease in the acute stage;
- immunoglobulin Ig G, 2,4-16. Deviations may indicate the presence in the body of respiratory viral infections, liver disease, immunodeficiency virus, allergies or antibodies to previous infections in the form of measles.
Deviation from the established norm is considered the difference in actual and nominal values, amounting to more than 20-40%. But the exact interpretation of the results obtained should be done exclusively by the doctor, based also on the results of additional diagnostic procedures.
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It is difficult for a person without a medical education to decipher the results of an immunogram. Experts admit that a 3-40% deviation from the norm is likely. The body of each patient is individual, therefore, in case of fluctuations, attention is paid to other indicators in the immunogram.
In the finished immunogram, they look:
- white blood cells are white blood cells that can detect and suppress antigens and bacteria. Cells store information in order to use it later and suppress the infection at an early stage. Types of white blood cells: granulocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and others;
- macrophage cells – without mesenchymal cells, the level of leukocytes decreases, since phagocytes, thanks to certain substances, stimulate the functioning of the cells of the immune system;
- monocytes are the largest blood cells that turn into macrophages after leaving the bloodstream. Monocytes are involved in the creation of anti-cancer, anti-infection and anti-parasitic immunity. Cells contribute to blood thinning, which means that monocytes are involved in blood coagulation;
- marker antigens CD – are localized on the surface of cells, thanks to marker clusters it is possible to differentiate one cell from another;
- eosinophils – participate in allergic reactions, which produces a fight against antigens;
- neutrophilic granulocytes are white blood cells involved in maintaining immunity, fighting bacterial infections;
- the content of basophils in the blood – the level of such blood cells is small, but this does not prevent basophils from fighting allergies and participating in phagocytosis;
- IgM (immunoglobulin M) – protects a person from pathogenic viruses and infections, which favors an increase in antibody levels. An increased content of antibodies indicates that an acute inflammatory process is going on in the body;
- IgG (immunoglobulin G) is a necessary component to fight infection, pathogens, antigens in the process of an allergic reaction;
- IgA – is responsible for primary immunity, it fights the penetration of toxins into the body through the mucous membranes;
- IgE – interacts with histamine receptors, which means that antibodies are responsible for the occurrence of allergic reactions.
We draw attention to the table below, which shows the norms of the values of the immunogram.
|leukocytes||3,5 – 9,0 × 10|
|Lymphocytes (%)||18 – 40|
|Mature T-lymphocytes (%)||50 – 85|
|Helper T-lymphocytes (%)||28 – 76|
|Killer T lymphocytes (%)||17 – 10|
|Suppressor T lymphocytes (%)||4 – 45|
|B lymphocytes (%)||3 – 30|
|RBTL spont. (imp/min)||352 38 ±|
|RBTL Steam (imp/min)||6347 234 ±|
|IgA (g/l)||0,4 – 4,4|
|IgG (g/l)||6 – 20,0|
|IgM (g/l)||0,35 – 3,0|
|IgD (g/l)||0,03 – 0,04|
|IgE (g/l)||0,00002 – 0,0002|
The body is protected from the harmful effects of external pathogens by the immune system. A person is daily attacked by various bacteria, viruses and germs.
With the proper functioning of the immune system, the body can cope with harmful effects without harm and health is not harmed. To determine the readiness of the body to fight pathogens, an immunological blood test is used.
When decoding the immunogram, the patient’s immune status and the correct functioning of the protective system are evaluated.
The immune status of a person is studied using various methods and tests. There are two main types of studies: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay analysis (RIA). To study the immune status, certain test systems are used.
In a radioimmunoassay, the results are measured on radioactivity counters. For the ELISA, there are a large number of different test systems.
The main types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are: inhibitory, “sandwich”, immunometric, solid-phase indirect ELISA, immunoblot method.
There are a number of pathological disorders in which an immunological blood test is carried out without fail. The primary analysis for organ transplantation is precisely the immunogram, especially if the patient is a child.
An immunogram is prescribed for such pathological disorders as:
- hereditary disorders in the functioning of the immune system;
- heavy blood loss;
- viral and parasitic infections of various etiologies (syphilis, giardiasis, herpes hepatitis and others);
- oncological diseases;
- endocrine system pathologies;
- physiological disorders of the immune system (during pregnancy, in senile and childhood);
- autoimmune diseases;
- HIV infection
- pneumonia with frequent relapses;
- prolonged fungal infections;
- chronic inflammatory processes;
- purulent lesions of the skin;
- severe emotional upheaval, prolonged depression;
- prolonged stay in places with polluted ecology.
The study of the immune status is especially important when examining patients with HIV infection. The analysis results allow us to assess the degree of damage to the body’s defense system.
The study of immunograms facilitates the selection of drugs for treatment and the choice of direction of therapy. A decrease in protective function can lead to the development of serious diseases.
Immunogram and immune status – what is it
Immune status (advanced) is a quantitative and qualitative characteristic of the work of various organs of immunity and defense mechanisms.
An immunogram is a way to study the immune status, a blood test to determine the state of the main indicators of immunity.
Without determining the immune status, when there are indications for an immunogram, the risk of a person’s condition deteriorating is high, because without an accurate diagnosis it is almost impossible to choose an adequate therapy. Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies are deadly. Their complications will be recurrent bacterial and viral infections, an increased risk of oncology, autoimmune diseases, and CCC pathologies.
The most important indicator of a condition is immunoglobulins:
- IgA – provide resistance to toxins, are responsible for the preservation of the state of the mucous membranes;
- IgM – the first are resistant to pathological microorganisms, the number can determine the presence of an acute inflammatory process;
- IgG – their excess indicates a chronic inflammatory process, since they appear some time after the influence of the stimulus;
- IgE – are involved in the development of an allergic reaction.
The main methods for assessing the immunological status are carried out in one or two stages. Screening test includes determination of quantitative indicators of blood serum, immunoglobulins, allergological tests.
Advanced methods for assessing immune status include studying the phagocytic activity of neutrophils, T cells, B cells, and the complement system. At the first stage, the determination of defects of the immune system is carried out, at the second – a detailed analysis. How long the study is carried out in time depends on the clinic and the method of diagnosis (screening test or extended immunogram), but on average, the execution time is 5-15 days.
The first stage is an indicative level, it includes the following tests:
- Phagocytic indicators – the number of neutrophils, monocytes, the reaction of phagocytes to microbes.
- T-system – the number of lymphocytes, the ratio of mature cells and subpopulations.
- B-system – the concentration of immunoglobulins, the ratio of the percentage and the absolute number of B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood.
The second stage is the analytical level, it includes such tests as:
- Phagocytic function – chemotaxis activity, expression of adhesion molecules.
- T-system analysis – cytokine production, lymphocyte activity, identification of adhesion molecules, an allergic reaction is determined.
- B-system analysis – IgG immunoglobulins, the secretory subclass of lgA, are being investigated.
You can take tests for immune status in the laboratories of large diagnostic and treatment centers. Due to the complexity of the study, not all clinics provide this service.
How is the research conducted?
In addition to the fact that blood sampling is performed on an empty stomach in the morning, on the eve you should stop drinking alcohol and smoking, do not overdo it with heavy physical exertion.
If it is not possible to follow these rules, it is necessary to notify the attending physician or laboratory worker about this. Before conducting an immunogram, try to avoid stressful situations, do not be nervous, be calm, which helps to obtain an accurate test result.
During the immunogram, not only venous blood is taken, but also capillary blood from the finger. This is carried out depending on the purpose of the analysis and the specifics of the work of the medical institution.
After sampling, the blood is separated and placed in two test tubes. In the first, blood coagulates under the influence of the external environment, which is a blood clot. Red blood cell clots and glues are removed and blood plasma is evaluated. So that the blood composition in the second test tube does not change, the blood is mixed with anticoagulants.
What the immunogram shows and how to decipher it
In children and adults, the immunogram values are different. In addition, normal values can vary greatly in people of the same age group. The norm varies up to 40%, therefore only an experienced doctor can decipher the result.
|The activity of neutrophils with staphylococcus||35-85%|
|Phagocytic number||6 – 9|
It is carried out with the aim of diagnosing inflammation, an infectious process, allergies, autoimmune pathologies, immunodeficiency states, atypical infections and a number of other pathologies.
The state of both cellular (T- and B-lymphocytes with their subpopulations, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, macrophages, monocytes, NK cells) and the humoral immunity (immunoglobulins of classes A, E, M, G), macrophage activity and a number of other indicators. This laboratory study is one of the most extensive, highly specialized and complex. Only immunologists can fully read an immunogram.
People who are given an immunogram are wondering where the study can be done. State clinics are not involved in immunological testing – the analysis is carried out in private medical centers.
If it is necessary to determine specific data, the attending physician will send to the clinic where, in his opinion, they will give the most correct results.
The cost of an immunogram depends on the prices of the services of a private medical center and the volume of research, because in some cases the doctor does not need to determine all indicators for making a diagnosis. With this in mind, the price of the procedure ranges from 1 to 8 thousand rubles.
Reasons for rejection
Impaired immune status has many causes, including:
- An increase in lgA level is seen in chronic diseases of the hepatobiliary system, myeloma, and alcohol poisoning. A decrease in the indicator occurs during radiation therapy, intoxication with chemicals, urticaria, autoimmune allergic reactions. In infants, the physiological norm will be a low concentration of immunoglobulin. Reduction is also possible with vasodilation.
- An increase in IgG is observed in autoimmune pathologies, myeloma, in HIV (including when people undergo antiretroviral therapy), infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus). Immunoglobulin reduction is possible with long-term use of immunosuppressants, in children up to six months, with radiation sickness.
- An increase in lgM is recorded in acute infectious processes, liver diseases, vasculitis, chronic tonsillitis. A high level is observed with helminthic invasion. A decrease in the indicator is characteristic in case of a violation of the pancreas and after its removal.
- An increase in antinuclear antibodies occurs with nephritis, hepatitis, vasculitis. The indicator increases with acute glomerulonephritis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, the activity of bacterial pathogens.
With a decrease in the level of phagocytosis, purulent and inflammatory processes are considered. A reduced number of T-lymphocytes can talk about AIDS.
Diagnostic value of the procedure
An immunogram will be the most important diagnostic procedure in cases of suspected immunodeficiency. It allows you to draw up the correct treatment regimen, taking into account the viral load in a separate period of time. An immunogram is recommended for complex diseases with the aim of differential diagnosis. Moreover, the results will be reliable only if the rules of preparation are followed and when decrypted by a competent specialist.
Performance may vary among athletes, people with active lifestyles, and those who prefer sedentary work. This and many other environmental factors should be considered in modern immunology when deciphering the results.
Primary immunodeficiencies are a congenital disorder characterized by a decrease in immunity, in which the body is not able to resist infections. They are manifested by frequent severe infectious diseases, immunity to standard therapy. Untimely diagnosis by determining the immune status causes the death of the child in the first months of life. Various infections with which the baby does not fight are fatal.
Signs of primary immunodeficiency will be:
- frequent infections (manifested by sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, meningitis and even sepsis);
- infectious inflammation of the internal organs;
- autoimmune diseases;
- quantitative and qualitative changes in the blood formula;
- persistent digestive problems, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea;
- the need for several courses of antibiotic therapy;
- persistent increase in regional lymph nodes and spleen.
To confirm the diagnosis, a number of studies are carried out, including tests for interferon status, an immunogram for the presence of deviations in the body’s defense units, and molecular genetic testing.
With primary immunodeficiency, subcutaneous immunoglobulins are required. Treatment includes drugs to combat emerging pathologies. Drug therapy involves the use of antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral agents.
Secondary immunodeficiencies appear throughout life under the influence of various factors that suppress various parts of the immune system. Such disorders can be diagnosed at any age, regardless of gender and field of activity. Acquired immunodeficiencies are distinguished by the resistance of infections to ongoing therapy, while infectious processes can be both a cause and a consequence.
A secondary disorder is characterized by repeated infections with a severe course. In this case, the respiratory tract, organs of the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system can be affected.
The reasons are specific and non-specific infections. Most often these are mycobacteria, the herpes simplex virus and measles, bacteria, parasites and protozoa. Non-infectious causes are severe chronic diseases, burns, tumors, complex operations, and long-term drug treatment. For the purpose of diagnosis, general and specific tests for immune status are used.
The number and quality of phagocytes is determined, the percentage of T-lymphocytes is estimated, an analysis for HIV is carried out. When the immune status confirms the presence of immunodeficiency, treatment will be aimed at eliminating the cause itself. The doctor will prescribe antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and other drugs, depending on the pathogens detected. In order to prevent secondary immunodeficiency, vaccination is carried out and a number of measures are prescribed for HIV prevention.