There are two types of devices – mechanical (manual), semi-automatic and electronic. The main selection criterion is ease of management. On the technical side, the main difference will be the way the cuff is inflated.
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Such a tonometer has great sensitivity and allows you to determine the pressure without errors.
Air is pumped by a special pump into the cuff, which is wrapped around, for example, the hands. Under the cuff you need to put a phonendoscope (sometimes it is sewn into the fabric of the retaining bandage). Next, it is necessary to pump up the reservoir inside the cuff, thereby squeezing the arteries. Short constant strokes will be clearly heard through a phonendoscope at certain levels of the gauge scale. The beginning of such strikes is the upper limit of pressure, and the end is the lower.
A feature of a mechanical pressure meter is that you must be very careful when listening and determining the pressure of the patient. Despite the fact that the device itself is quite accurate, often an error or an error occurs precisely at the stage of tracking the gauge scale, therefore, the rules for measuring blood pressure and the algorithm should be clearly understood and carefully followed.
Consider separately the components of a mechanical tonometer:
- Cuff: there is a large selection of such dressings – from the smallest sizes to the largest.
- Pear: two valves – one for supplying and fixing air inside the cuff reservoir, and the second for its discharge. Typically, the pump is made of rubber or elastic plastic.
- Phonendoscope (stethoscope): consists of a membrane and headphones.
- Pressure gauge: it is possible to select different options for pressure gauges – with different displays and scales.
The main advantages of mechanical blood pressure monitors are:
- value for money: such devices are rarely too expensive;
- highest sensitivity and accuracy of readings;
- rarely break;
- easy to repair and replace component parts;
- do not depend on electricity or other energy sources;
- take up little space and light weight.
Measure Blood pressure is recommended in the strictest silence.
In the medical equipment market, automated tonometer models have begun to appear more and more. Their distinctive features are ease of use and compactness.
Electronic devices are called automatic – you just need to turn on the device for measuring blood pressure and put on a cuff. The indicators will be analyzed by the tonometer system and shown on the scoreboard.
An electric blood pressure monitor has the following advantages:
- It takes up very little space.
- Large scoreboard for displaying diagnostic results.
- Universality: such devices are suitable for all age groups of patients.
- The device can save the measurement history, which helps to further trace the clinical picture.
- Suitable for transportation.
- Shows the pulse.
Negative features of electronic devices:
- Relatively high cost.
- The error is up to 15%.
- Depend on energy sources: battery batteries or mains.
- Due to the complex electronic mechanism, such devices are difficult to repair.
The main cause of errors is the algorithm for measuring blood pressure. It differs in different models of tonometers.
An apparatus that measures blood pressure is called a sphygmomanometer (tonometer). Modern devices are classified by the method of measuring arterial parameters and the place of application of the cuff, you can buy them at a pharmacy or specialized medical equipment stores, a consultant will help you choose the optimal model.
- mercury – arterial parameters are determined using the level of mercury;
- mechanical – the measurement results are reflected on the dial with an arrow;
- automatic and semi-automatic – the values are displayed in numerical value on the screen.
This device for measuring pressure is the oldest and most accurate device that is used to determine blood counts. The basis of the design is a mercury pressure gauge with divisions, a pear and a cuff.
Using a pear, you need to pump air into the cuff, while listening to heart sounds with a stethoscope or phonendoscope. Arterial parameters are determined according to a rise in the level of mercury.
Mercury models are considered professional; it is difficult for an untrained person to correctly measure pressure. The cost of such devices starts from 10 thousand rubles.
The most popular type of device for determining blood pressure values has an optimal ratio of accuracy, quality and price.
The design of the device includes cuffs, tubes made of rubber, to which a pear is attached, a phonendoscope, a round pressure gauge with digital gradation. The cost of a mechanical tonometer is 700–1700 rub., The price varies from the manufacturer.
How to measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer:
- To determine blood pressure indicators, take a comfortable sitting position – the back should have support, legs should not be crossed.
- Measurements are usually carried out on the working hand, in the presence of serious problems with the heart and blood vessels, pressure should be measured on both hands.
- The hand should be on a flat surface, the elbow should be placed at the same level with the line of the heart.
- Fasten the cuff 4–5 cm above the elbow fold line.
- Apply a stethoscope to the inner surface of the elbow bend – in this place heart sounds are best heard.
- Pump the air into the cuff with measured movements using a pear – the tonometer values should be within 200–220 mm Hg. Art. Hypertensive patients can pump the cuff more.
- Slowly bleed air, it should exit the cuff at a speed of about 3 mm / sec. Listen carefully to heart sounds.
- The first stroke corresponds to systolic (upper) indicators. When the blows completely subside, diastolic (lower) values are recorded.
- It is recommended to do 2-3 measurements with a five-minute interval – the average value more reliably reflects the true indicators of blood pressure.
The design is practically no different from a mechanical device, but the indicators are displayed on an electronic scoreboard, in almost all models, not only pressure, but also pulse values are displayed on the screen.
As additional functions, the tonometer can be equipped with a backlight, voice notification, memory for several measurements, in some models the average values of three measurements are automatically calculated. The average cost is 1, –2,3 thousand rubles.
Modern, technically advanced devices, but their cost is quite high. The whole process takes place automatically, you do not need to blow air with a pear, which is extremely convenient for people of advanced age. The design consists of a cuff, a block with a digital display, a tube that connects both parts of the device.
The measurement process is simple – put on the cuff, press the button, wait a few seconds. The screen displays blood pressure, heart rate. Many models are equipped with indicators that respond to abnormal body position arrhythmias, movements in the measurement process. The cost of economy class models is 1.5–2 thousand rubles. the price of more advanced automatic blood pressure monitors can reach 4,5 thousand rubles.
Each device has its pros and cons, which should be considered when choosing a device for use at home.
|Type of tonometer||Advantages||Disadvantages|
|Mercury||Precision standard||· Difficult to use at home;|
· Toxic effects of mercury on the body; high price.
· The results are practically independent of external factors;
· Do not demand special leaving
· It’s easier to use than mechanical devices.
· Special skills are not required to measure blood pressure;
· You can take measurements in any convenient place
· Cheap models can quickly fail;
· Regular battery replacement required;
· Can not be used for arterial hyperextension.
- The very first sphygmomanometers were mercury, which had a scale with a glass column containing mercury. They are practically not used now, but according to tradition, blood pressure is recorded in millimeters of mercury.
- The mechanical tonometer has a membrane pressure gauge with a scale. Measuring blood pressure using a mercury or mechanical blood pressure monitor gives the most accurate indicators. In this case, a membrane stethoscope is used to listen to cardiac tones on the brachial or femoral artery. The determination of the result when measuring with a mechanical or mercury tonometer is carried out by a person – he listens to the pulsation and registers the data.
New pressure measuring devices have factory calibration, which guarantees the accuracy of their readings, with a mandatory mark in the instrument passport. However, the term of metrological verification is limited. In medical institutions, all blood pressure monitors are checked annually by the metrological service.
Since the shoulder and wrist tonometers are designed for different categories of users, the popularity ratings of tonometers and reviews about them are also given separately.
“We have hypertension – a hereditary disease, so I can use a tonometer since childhood. Recently, instead of the usual mechanical device, I purchased an automatic device from Omron. Very pleased – the daily pressure measurement procedure has become much easier. “
“I saw a friend’s automatic Microlife tonometer, such a beautiful one, there are many functions. But she decided to test it at the beginning, took the usual mechanical tonometer from her mother, measured the pressure with both devices several times – the automatic one sits on average 10-15 units. ”
“They invented all kinds of automatic blood pressure monitors; it’s not known why. I have been using my old woman for about 30 years as usual, at first it was unusual, but now I measure pressure no worse than doctors. ”
The tonometer helps to determine systolic and diastolic indicators at home, which is important for many diseases. Mechanical devices are characterized by high accuracy and low price, but not every person can use them. Using automatic devices is simple, but their cost is quite high.
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