Symptoms, causes and types of brain atrophy

Cerebral atrophy of the brain most often becomes the result of pathological processes that occur in the human body. Moreover, several factors can become the cause of the disease at once, exacerbating the situation. Atrophy of the brain may occur as a result.

Atrophic changes occur against the background of the development of Peak and Alzheimer’s disease. Peak disease is primarily characterized by damage to the frontal and temporal parts, which is manifested in specific symptoms in the patient. These symptoms, together with the methods of instrumental diagnostics, can quickly and accurately identify pathology.

Thinking, memory of the patient worsen, a decline in intellectual activity is observed. The patient degrades as a person, becomes closed, in communication you can notice mainly the same type, simple phrases, it is possible to repeat the same thought, speech takes on a primitive character.

  • Cerebral Atherosclerosis and Hypertension

Atherosclerosis is fraught with the formation of plaques and clogging of blood vessels, which interferes with blood flow and cell nutrition. Such a pathology leads to oxygen starvation of brain neurons and subsequent death.

  • Brain cell intoxication

Obtained from the use of alcoholic beverages, potent medicines. With this effect, both the cerebral cortex and the subcortical structures are affected. Brain cells have a low ability to regenerate, and with prolonged constant negative impact, the pathological process is aggravated.

Damage, including those resulting from neurosurgical interventions. Cortical atrophy can occur as a result of vascular compression. When injuring the head, vascular damage can also occur, which leaves brain cells without food, they begin to die.

  • Increased intracranial pressure
  • Chronic anemia

With a low level of red blood cells or hemoglobin. This leads to disruption of the oxygen circulation process, therefore, a sufficient amount of oxygen does not enter the brain cells, and brain cells die.

One of the main causes of brain atrophy is a hereditary predisposition to this disease. But a violation can appear for other reasons:

  1. The poisonous effects of alcohol, certain drugs and medicines. In this case, damage to both the cortex and subcortical formations of the brain can be observed.
  2. Injuries, including those received during neurosurgical intervention. A damaging effect on brain tissue appears when blood vessels are squeezed and ischemic abnormalities manifest. In addition, this can also occur in the presence of benign formations that compress the bloodstream.
  3. Ischemic manifestations can also occur due to significant damage to blood vessels by atherosclerotic plaques, which is characteristic of elderly people, which causes deterioration in the nutrition of nervous tissue and its death.
  4. Chronic anemia with a significant decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood or hemoglobin in them. This deviation causes a decrease in the ability of blood to attach oxygen molecules and bring them to the tissues of the body, and to the nervous ones too. Ischemia and atrophy appear.

However, there is a list of conditions conducive to such a violation:

  • low mental stress;
  • excessive smoking;
  • hydrocephalus;
  • chronic low blood pressure;
  • long intake of vasoconstrictor substances.

Today in medicine there is no clear answer to the question of why brain atrophy occurs. But it was revealed that the predisposition to the disease can be inherited. It is also formed from birth injuries and intrauterine diseases. Specialists distinguish congenital and acquired causes of the onset of the disease.

The prerequisites for the development of the disease can be different, but most often the following causes of brain atrophy are distinguished:

  • Hereditary mutations and spontaneous mutagenesis.
  • Radiobiological effects.
  • Infectious diseases of the central nervous system.
  • Dropsy of the brain.
  • Pathological changes in cerebral vessels.
  • Craniocerebral injury.

Genetic abnormalities that can cause the disease include Peak’s disease, which occurs in old age. The disease progresses within 5-6 years and ends in death.

Radiobiological effects can be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, although the degree of its negative impact is difficult to assess.

Neuroinfections lead to acute inflammation, after which hydrocephalus develops. The fluid accumulating in this case has a compressive effect on the cerebral cortex, which is the mechanism of damage. Dropsy of the brain can also be an independent congenital disease.

Cerebrovascular pathologies occur most often due to atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension and result in cerebral ischemia. Circulatory disorders become the cause of dystrophic, and then atrophic changes.

Congenital

  • genetic factor;
  • intrauterine infectious diseases;
  • genetic mutations.

One of the genetic ailments that affects the cerebral cortex is Peak’s disease. Usually it is observed in middle-aged people, which manifests itself in a gradual lesion of the frontal and temporal neurons. The disease can develop rapidly and after 5-6 years leads to death.

Infection of the baby during pregnancy also leads to the destruction of various organs, including the brain. For example, infection with toxoplasmosis in the early stages of gestation leads to damage to the nervous system in him. After this, usually babies do not survive or are born with congenital abnormalities and oligophrenia.

Degrees of atrophy

According to international classification, there are different degrees of brain atrophy and the location of the pathology. Each stage of treatment of an ailment has its own symptoms:

    The first degree is called brain subatrophy. At this stage, minor changes in human behavior and rap >

With further development, complete destruction appears, life systems fail. At this stage, it is better to hospitalize the patient in a psychiatric clinic, since it is difficult to control.

At the location of the affected cells, there are the following types of ailments:

  1. Cortical atrophy of the brain. Appears in the elderly. With cortical atrophy of the brain, the frontal lobes are affected. It lasts a lifetime.
  2. Diffuse atrophy of the brain. There is a violation of blood supply, atherosclerosis, hypertension and a decrease in mental abilities develop. With the first degree of this form of the disease, the first manifestations are noticeable in the cerebellum, and then the remaining parts of the organ are affected.
  3. Multisystem atrophy of the brain. It develops due to mutations and gene disorders during pregnancy. With this form of the disease, not only the brain is affected, but also the rest of the vital system. Life expectancy is determined by the degree of mutation of the body and vitality.
  4. Local atrophy of the 1st degree occurs from mechanical lesions, strokes, focal infections and parasitic inclusions. Symptoms depend on which area is damaged.
  5. The subcortical or subcortical form of the disease is considered an intermediate state in which the centers responsible for the function of speech and thinking are damaged.

With moderate atrophy of the brain, changes in personality will be barely noticeable.

The deviation develops according to the following scheme:

  1. The initial stage or atrophy of the brain of the 1st degree – there are no clinical signs, but there is a rapid development of the disorder and its transition to the next stage of the disease.
  2. The second stage is a rapid deterioration in the patient’s communication with others. At the same time, a person becomes conflicted, cannot normally perceive criticism, catch the thread of conversation.
  3. Third stage – the patient gradually loses control over the behavior. Unreasonable outbursts of anger or despondency may appear, and behavior becomes outrageous.
  4. The fourth stage is the loss of awareness of the essence of events, the requirements of others.
  5. Final stage – The patient does not understand the events that occur, and they do not cause him any emotions.

Depending on the affected areas of the frontal lobe, speech disturbances, lethargy, indifference or euphoria, sexual hyperactivity, certain types of mania may appear at first.

The last moment often makes the patient dangerous to society, which is an indication for his placement in a psychiatric hospital.

If the blood supply to the brain is disturbed, one of the diagnostic signs may be the death of the temporal muscle, observed in some patients.

Acquired

There are also acquired reasons. Atrophy of the brain can appear from:

  1. Alcohol and smoking. This causes a spasm of the vessels of the brain, therefore oxygen starvation appears. Because of this, white matter cells will not be able to get enough nutrients, which is why they die.
  2. Infectious diseases in which nerve cells are affected – meningitis, rabies, poliomyelitis.
  3. Injuries, concussions and mechanical damage.
  4. Severe renal failure. This becomes the cause of general intoxication of the body, due to which metabolic disturbance is observed.
  5. Violations of hydrocephalus. This phenomenon is manifested in an increase in the subarachnoid space and ventricles.
  6. Chronic ischemia, which leads to vascular damage and a small influx of nutrients into neural connections.
  7. Atherosclerosis, which manifests itself in a narrowing of the lumen of the veins and arteries, due to which increased intracranial pressure and a risk of stroke.

Atrophy of the cerebral cortex can occur due to insufficient intellectual and physical stress, lack of a balanced diet and an improper lifestyle.

Symptoms

Atrophy of the brain in the initial stages has virtually no symptoms. Even if they manifest themselves, they are often attributed to fatigue or general malaise. As the pathology develops, the symptoms are more pronounced.

The patient easily performs the usual things, works. Manifestations of the disease are attributed to age. Periodically there are problems with memory, the patient finds it difficult to solve complex issues.

Emotionally, the patient becomes more tearful and irritable. Headache attacks may occur, slight dizziness may be felt.

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Moderate atrophy

The aggravation of the manifestations of the disease occurs in the presence of moderate atrophy. The patient begins to communicate poorly with people, there are communicative problems. Situations may arise where the patient’s behavior is out of control.

It progresses, and the severity of symptoms is clear. Moreover, the progression of pathological changes depends on the volume of dying cells. Significant deviations in motor activity and psychoemotional failures are observed.

The existing symptoms of the lesion can have significant differences, depending on which parts of the organ are destroyed. With atrophy of the cortex are observed:

  • decreased ability to think and analyze;
  • change in pace, tone and other features of speech;
  • memory impairment to an absolute inability to remember anything;
  • impaired motor skills of the fingers;
  • damage to the subcortical parts leads to the appearance of more serious symptoms.

Their feature depends on the purpose of the disturbed part:

  • atrophy of the medulla oblongata – impaired breathing, cardiovascular activity, digestion, protective reflexes;
  • cerebellar damage – a violation of the tone of the muscles of the skeleton and human coordination;
  • dying of the midbrain – the disappearance of a reaction to external stimuli;
  • atrophy of the diencephalon – loss of ability to thermoregulate, homeostasis, a failure in the balance of metabolic processes;
  • atrophy of the forebrain – loss of all types of reflexes.

A significant defeat of the subcortical structures often causes the patient to lose the ability to independently support life, hospitalization and death in the long term.

This degree of atrophy occurs very rarely, more often after severe injuries or poisoning damage to brain tissue and large blood vessels.

Regardless of the causes of the disease, common symptoms of cerebral atrophy can be detected.

Healthy brain tissue and atrophy

The main symptoms of brain atrophy include:

  • Psychiatric disorders.
  • Behavioral Disorders.
  • Decrease in cognitive function.
  • Impaired memory.
  • Changes in motor activity.

The patient leads a familiar lifestyle and without difficulty performs the previous work if it does not require high intelligence. Mainly non-specific symptoms are observed: dizziness, headache, forgetfulness, depression and lability of the nervous system. Diagnosis at this stage will help slow down the development of the disease.

Cognitive function continues to decline, self-control is weakened, inexplicable and rash actions appear in the patient’s behavior. Possible violations of coordination of movements and fine motor skills, spatial disorientation. Disability and adaptation to the social environment are falling.

As the disease develops, the symptoms of brain atrophy progress: the meaningfulness of speech decreases, the patient needs help and care of an outsider. Due to changes in perception and assessment of events, complaints become fewer.

At the last stage, the most serious brain changes occur: atrophy leads to dementia or dementia. The patient is no longer able to perform simple tasks, build speech, read and write, use household items. Signs of mental disorder, gait changes and impaired reflexes are noticeable to others. The patient completely loses touch with the world and the ability to self-care.

Involvement in the pathological process of the cerebellum leads to a significant violation of speech, coordination of movements and gait, and sometimes – hearing and vision. Changes in character and sharp deviations in the psyche indicate a pathological process in the frontal lobes.

Signs of a predominant lesion of one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex indicate the diffuse nature of atrophy.

Memory impairment is one of the symptoms of brain atrophy.

Why does the disease develop?

Brain atrophy in adults and children usually develops with a genetic predisposition to the disease, but the acceleration and provocation of neuronal death can occur from various injuries and other factors. Atrophic changes appear in different parts of the crust and subcortical substance, but with various manifestations of the disease, one clinical picture is observed.

Atrophy of the frontal lobes also develops during fetal maturation or prolonged labor due to prolonged oxygen starvation, which causes necrotic processes in the cerebral cortex. These children usually die in the womb or appear with marked abnormalities. Brain cells can die due to mutations at the gene level due to the effects of harmful components on the health of a pregnant woman and prolonged intoxication of the fetus. But it may be a chromosomal failure.

Therapy for brain atrophy

When treating brain atrophy, it is important for a person to provide good care, as well as increased attention from relatives. To alleviate the symptoms of atrophy of the cerebral cortex, only a treatment of manifestations is prescribed.

If the first signs of the processes of atrophy are detected, it is necessary to create a calm environment for the patient.

He should not change the standard lifestyle. The best is to do ordinary household chores, support and care from loved ones.

Other treatment methods include:

  • the use of sedatives;
  • use of light tranquilizers;
  • taking antidepressants.

These funds help a person maintain a calm state. The patient certainly needs to create all conditions for active movement, he should regularly engage in simple daily activities.

Among other things, it should not be that a person with such a disorder sleeps during the day.

Evidence

What are the signs of brain atrophy? At the initial stage of the disease, the symptoms are not noticeable, only close people can detect them. The patient appears apathy, lack of desires, aspirations, lethargy and indifference. Often there is a lack of moral principles and increased sexual activity.

With the progression of the death of brain cells, the following symptoms are observed:

  1. The vocabulary is decreasing, so a person searches for words for a long time to describe something.
  2. Decreased intellectual abilities in a short time.
  3. No self-criticism.
  4. Losing control over actions, there is a deterioration in body motility.

Then, with atrophy, a deterioration in well-being appears, and mental processes decrease. A person does not recognize familiar things, forgets about the rules for their use. The elimination of their behavioral characteristics is the reason for the appearance of the “mirror” syndrome, in which a person begins to copy other people. Then senility and absolute degradation of personality are observed.

The resulting changes in behavior do not accurately identify the diagnosis, therefore, to establish the causes of the changes, a list of studies is necessary. But thanks to the doctor, it will be possible to establish what place of the brain has undergone destructuring. With destruction in the cerebral cortex:

  • thinking processes are reduced;
  • the tone of speech and the timbre of the voice are distorted;
  • ability to remember changes;
  • fine motor skills of the fingers are impaired.

Symptoms of changes in the subcortical substance are determined by the functions that the affected department performs, so limited atrophy has its own characteristics. With necrosis of the tissues of the medulla oblongata, respiratory failure, digestive failure are observed, the cardiovascular and immune systems suffer.

If damage to the cerebellum is observed, then a muscle tone disorder occurs, and coordination of movements is disturbed. With the destruction of the midbrain, there is no reaction to external stimuli. With the death of cells of the intermediate section, a violation of the thermoregulation of the body and a failure of metabolism appear.

With the defeat of the anterior section, all reflexes are lost. With the death of neurons, the function of self-maintenance is lost, which usually leads to death. Often, necrotic changes appear from injuries or long-term poisoning by toxins.

preventive measures

There are no effective ways to prevent this disease today. You can only advise, treat all existing disorders in time, lead an active life and have a positive attitude.

Resilient people often live to a very old age, and they do not reveal any signs of atrophy.

There are people in whom the development of atherosclerosis is much faster, which is the reason for the early wear of the body. It is they who have observed bright processes of atrophy.

Ways to prevent atherosclerosis:

  • healthy lifestyle;
  • proper nutrition;
  • high motor activity;
  • to give up smoking;
  • refusal of alcohol;
  • blood pressure control;
  • eating fresh fruits and vegetables;
  • replacement of animal fats with vegetable;
  • fasting days;
  • everyday memory training.

Atrophy of the brain is a disease that cannot be treated with modern drugs. This violation does not develop immediately, but eventually ends in dementia.

To prevent negative consequences, it is necessary to adhere to preventative measures. Among other things, in the presence of any problems, it is very important to consult a doctor on time – this will help to maintain good health for many years.

Brain atrophy in children

The death of brain cells can occur not only due to age-related changes and can be observed in elderly patients, children can undergo such pathology. Atrophy of the brain in newborns can be triggered by various factors, including:

  • congenital malformations of the central nervous system;
  • predisposition to the development of the disease at the genetic level;
  • external influences, which are the conditions for the death of brain cells.

Such a situation may arise as a result of exposure to the child’s body of various factors when the fetus is still in the womb. This may be the effect of medications, radiation, the consequences of drinking alcohol by a pregnant woman, complications of pregnancy, trauma received by the child during birth, etc.

The children’s brain has a good ability to recover and plasticity, so many negative effects pass without a trace. Therefore, it is extremely important to make timely diagnostics and provide the necessary assistance.

Brain atrophy in children may not immediately signal specific symptoms. External symptoms may appear a little later:

  • lethargic state of the child, indifference to what is happening around;
  • slow closing of fontanelles;
  • head volume decreases;
  • response to external irritation slows down;
  • deterioration of appetite.

Brain atrophy in newborns is diagnosed based on the assessment of various examinations:

  • Assessment on the Apgar scale (this assessment of the general condition of the baby immediately after birth by a number of indicators).
  • Examination by a pediatric neurologist.
  • The study of metabolic indicators.

Atrophy of the brain in a child may occur. It can be either congenital or acquired, it all depends on the age at which the disease began to develop. The acquired form appears after 1 year of life. The death of nerve cells in children begins for various reasons, for example, due to the genetic factor, different Rh factors in the mother and baby, infection with neuroinfections in the womb, prolonged hypoxia of the fetus.

Due to the death of neurons, cystic tumors and atrophic hydrocephalus occur. Based on where the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid occurs, dropsy of the brain is internal, external and mixed. A rapidly developing disease is usually observed in newborns, and this is due to serious disorders in the brain tissue due to prolonged hypoxia, since the child’s body needs intensive blood supply at this stage, and the lack of nutrient components causes serious consequences.

What disorders affect the brain?

Subatrophic changes are the precursors of global neuronal death. At this stage, it is necessary to timely identify a brain disease and prevent the rapid development of atrophic processes.

For example, with hydrocephalus of the brain in adults, free void-free voids are filled with the resulting cerebrospinal fluid. This type of ailment is difficult to diagnose, but with proper therapy it will be possible to delay the development of the disease.

Changes in the cortex and subcortical substance are caused by thromophilia and atherosclerosis, which, without treatment, lead to hypoxia and insufficient blood supply. As a result, neurons die in the back of the head and in the parietal part, so treatment is needed that will improve blood circulation.

Alcoholic atrophy

Brain neurons are very sensitive to the effects of alcohol. Neurons are poisoned from the decay products, neural connections are destroyed, and then a gradual death of the cells is observed. This leads to brain atrophy.

As a result, both cortical-subcortical cells and fibers of the brain stem are affected. Vascular damage occurs, wrinkling of neurons and displacement of their nuclei. Patients with alcoholism disappear self-esteem, memory deteriorates. If he continues to drink alcohol, this will lead to severe intoxication of the body. And even if a person changes his mind, in the future, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia will still develop.

Multisystem atrophy

This ailment is considered progressive. The onset of the disease includes 3 different disorders that combine with each other in different ways. But usually this atrophy manifests itself in the form:

  • parsionism;
  • cerebellar destruction;
  • autonomic disorders.

To date, the causes of this ailment have not been identified. Diagnosis is by MRI and clinical examination. Treatment includes supportive care and a reduction in symptoms of the disease.

Cortical atrophy

Usually this type of ailment is observed in older people and appears due to senile changes. It affects the frontal lobes, but the disease can spread to other parts. Signs of illness do not occur immediately, but the result is a decrease in intelligence and memory, dementia. An example of the effect of such an ailment is Alzheimer’s disease. It is usually diagnosed with MRI.

With the diffuse spread of the disease, a blood flow disturbance occurs, tissue repair is suffocated, and mental performance decreases. There is also a disorder of fine motor skills of hands and coordination of movements, the development of the disease changes the lifestyle and leads to absolute disability.

Cerebellar atrophy

With this ailment, the cells of the “small brain” are affected and die. The first symptoms of the disease appear in the form of discoordination of movements, paralysis and speech impairment. With changes in the cerebral cortex, atherosclerosis of the vessels and brain stem tumors, infectious diseases, vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders usually develop.

Cerebellar atrophy is manifested in the form of:

  • impaired speech and fine motor skills;
  • headache;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • hearing loss;
  • visual disturbances;
  • decrease in the mass and volume of the cerebellum.

Treatment involves blocking the symptoms of an ailment with antipsychotics, restoring metabolism, and using cytostatics for tumors. Probably the elimination of formations using the surgical method.

Diagnostics

The first step in diagnosing the disease is to thoroughly examine the patient in order to identify the symptoms that concern him, his general condition, and the threshold of thinking. Atrophic diseases of the brain suggest the mandatory x-ray examination, which examines the cerebral lobes in layers, allows you to detect the presence of tumors, hematomas, foci of changes.

The main therapy for atrophy is to provide a familiar environment for the patient, to surround him with care, attention. Any change in conditions can lead to an acceleration of pathological processes, so treatment is best done at home. The patient should be constantly busy with daily simple household chores.

It is not possible to restore the original state of the cells and the functionality of the brain. The main task in the treatment is to stop the destructive process, to preserve the functions that remain.

Nootropic drugs are widely used. They help improve blood circulation, accelerate metabolic processes and regeneration of brain cells. Such a therapeutic effect can be noticed by the patient himself, he begins to think better, the manifestation of the symptoms of the disease decreases. Dying of nerve cells and blood stasis prevent antioxidants and antiplatelet agents.

Atrophy of the brain is not an independent disease, but a consequence that leads to a number of factors and pathological processes. The atrophic process has an almost irreversible character and severe consequences, so earlier detection of pathology will maximize the preservation of the functional capabilities of the brain.

The disease is diagnosed by instrumental methods of analysis. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it will be possible to examine in detail the changes in the cortical and subcortical substance. Based on the finished images, an accurate diagnosis is made in the early stages of the disease.

Thanks to computed tomography, it is possible to consider vascular lesions after a stroke and establish the causes of hemorrhage, determine the site of cystic formations, because of which normal blood supply to tissues is disturbed. A new method of research is multispiral tomography, with which it will be possible to identify an ailment at the initial stage.

Treatment

When simple rules are followed, it is possible to alleviate the symptoms and prolong a person’s life. When the diagnosis is made, it is advisable for the patient to remain in a familiar environment, since stress aggravates the condition. A person needs feasible mental and physical stress.

A balanced diet is important, you need to restore a clear daily routine. It is necessary to abandon bad habits. Still need physical activity, the implementation of mental exercises. Diet with atrophy involves the rejection of heavy, junk food, you should not eat fast food, drinking alcohol is strictly prohibited. The menu should include nuts, seafood and herbs.

Treatment of cerebral atrophy involves the use of neutrostimulants, tranquilizers, antidepressants, and sedatives. This disease can not be completely cured, therapy can only alleviate the symptoms. The choice of remedy depends on the type of atrophy and the type of impaired functions.

With damage to the cerebellar cortex, treatment is required to restore movement. Still need to use drugs that weaken tremor. Sometimes you need an operation. Sometimes drugs are used that improve metabolism and cerebral circulation, providing good blood circulation and protection against oxygen starvation.

Usually used complex etiotropic and symptomatic therapy.

Pharmacological treatment of atrophy of the brain includes:

  • Drugs nootropics (piracetam) for ischemia.
  • Corrections of cerebral circulation (cavinton).
  • Antidepressants (amitriptyline, valdoxane).
  • Tranquilizers (phenazepam).
  • Sedatives (validol, motherwort extract, valerian).
  • Vitamins for vessels A, B, C, E to improve metabolism.
  • Antihypertensive drugs (enalapril).
  • Diuretics (furosemide) for hydrocephalus.
  • Hypolipidic drugs (statins) for atherosclerosis.
  • Antiplatelet agents (acetylsalicylic acid) with increased thrombosis.

Supplements and Vitamins to Improve Memory

At the stage of progressive symptoms, subsequent drug treatment of the brain is not enough for a patient with a diagnosis of cerebral atrophy. What is this and how to help such a patient, it is necessary to understand close friends and relatives, because it is they who have the task to provide comfort, pleasant atmosphere and communication, which are so important for him.

In severe clinical cases, surgical methods of treatment are used: stenting and bypass grafting.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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