Preinfarction condition symptoms in men what then

Acute necrosis of the heart muscle develops in the presence of an atherosclerotic plaque. Its growth in diameter or detachment of fragments contribute to blockage of the lumen of the coronary arteries. The blood supply to a certain area of ​​the myocardium is disrupted, and the affected area dies. The most common localization is the anterior wall and the interventricular septum. Less commonly, pathology occurs due to spasm or clogging of the coronary arteries with a blood clot (blood clot).

My medical practice has confirmed that the causes of heart attack in men are most often:

  • psycho-emotional overload, chronic stress;
  • excessive physical exertion;
  • smoking and alcohol abuse;
  • excess fatty, salty, smoked food in the diet.

In my opinion, an important factor is also the unwillingness to treat such serious diseases as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Their main danger is the absence of pain. The presence of these pathologies significantly increases the likelihood of a cardiovascular accident.

In addition, estrogen – a hormone that protects the heart – is produced in men in much smaller quantities than in women. That is why myocardial infarction up to 50–55 years (before the onset of menopause) often affects the stronger sex.

Most often, people aged 40 to 60 years have to deal with a heart attack. However, the presence of various diseases, as well as the constant impact of stresses, can contribute to the development of heart attack at a younger age.

Every third patient who encounters this disease dies, and this is subject to timely and qualified assistance, otherwise this indicator increases.

In 9 out of 10 cases, a heart attack develops due to thrombosis of the coronary (coronary) artery, which provides blood supply to the heart. The French call it the “artery of death.”

Atherosclerosis is one of the aggravating factors of myocardial infarction.

    However, signs of a heart attack in women, as well as in men, can occur for another reason:

  • spasm of the artery responsible for the blood supply to the heart;
  • heart trauma;
  • blockage of a parietal thrombus;
  • blood clot on an artificial heart valve.
    1. In addition to direct causes, there are so-called risk groups – factors that do not directly cause a heart attack, but significantly increase the risk of its occurrence:
  • Diabetes.
  • Arterial hypertension.
  • High blood cholesterol.
  • Smoking.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Overweight.
  • Even individually, such factors can trigger the development of a heart attack, but the situation is significantly worsened by the simultaneous presence of several of them.

    There are more predisposing factors for the occurrence of MI in men than in women. Most often, the attack occurs in young and middle age. This is primarily due to the sedentary lifestyle of modern men. Many of them are engaged in office work, smoke and often drink alcohol, suffer from obesity or diabetes, so they sooner or later face a heart attack.

    Other common causes of MI in men, not women, are as follows:

    • The tendency to rivalry, confrontation, scandals.
    • More frequent occupations by harmful types of work.
    • Lack of proper diet.
    • The presence of bad habits.

    The more risk factors are determined in a patient, the higher the risk of developing primary or recurrent myocardial infarction.

    Forerunners may indicate the approaching heart catastrophe:

    • growing weakness, drowsiness, and increased fatigue;
    • feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath;
    • numbness of the limbs, tingling in the limbs;
    • dizziness, which may be accompanied by a short-term loss of consciousness;
    • a sharp drop in blood pressure;
    • increased sweating;
    • cyanosis of the skin;
    • rapid pulse.

    Such signs-precursors usually appear 3-7 days before a heart attack, but can occur from time to time and in a month and a half. As a rule, they are short-lived, and therefore often do not attract attention.

    The first sign of a heart attack that has begun is a sudden intense pain behind the sternum in the area of ​​the heart, which lasts more than 10 minutes and does not stop with conventional painkillers. The pain can be compressive, burning, wavy, it gives to the arm, shoulder blade, jaw, perineum, and in men it often extends to the right half of the body.

    Myocardial infarction may have an atypical course. In the presence of atypical symptoms, a heart attack may be mistaken for another pathology and not diagnosed in a timely manner. This variant of the disease is more common in women, but in men it is not excluded, so it is advisable to know its possible signs.

    The atypical manifestations of myocardial infarction can be: left jaw pain, toothache, pain in the neck, left half of the body, asthma-like suffocation, fever, heartburn, nausea and vomiting, pain in the stomach, arm pain (often little finger).

    Cardiac infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus can occur without characteristic pain behind the sternum or not have any pronounced symptoms, manifested by weakness, depression and anxiety. Signs of a painless heart attack that is carried on the legs can be a sudden violation of the heart rhythm, a sharp decrease in blood pressure, pulmonary edema.

    Recently, myocardial infarction is increasingly recorded in young people. If earlier signs of a heart attack were usually diagnosed in men over 60 years of age, then in recent decades, the disease has been increasingly recorded in men after 30 years of age. According to statistics, men in the age group of 40-60 are most vulnerable to heart attack.

    After 40 years and up to 60, the likelihood of a heart attack increases, then it begins to decline, and at 70 years old, heart attacks are diagnosed much less frequently. The reason is that with frequent attacks of angina pectoris collateral vessels are formed, which are activated in case of circulatory disorders in the central arteries. In men older than 50 years, the incidence of heart attack is the same as in women in this age group.

    The most common causes of heart attack in men include atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels. Often, the pathological process develops in the presence of a genetic predisposition, kidney disease (with damage to the renal glomeruli), arterial hypertension, endocrine disorders.

    A passive lifestyle, chronic stress, an unbalanced diet, alcohol abuse, overweight, and elevated blood cholesterol contribute to a heart attack. One of the main risk factors for myocardial infarction is smoking, which leads to microtrauma of lung tissue, subsequent thrombosis and obstruction of the coronary arteries. The risk of developing myocardial infarction increases in the spring-autumn period.

    The main sign of a heart attack is chest pain, reminiscent of an attack of unstable angina, but characterized by a greater intensity, duration. People who have had a heart attack describe her with the words “as if an elephant is sitting on your chest.” In men, it is usually localized in the left, central areas of the chest, less often – the right. Pain can also be given to other parts of the body (table 1).

    Other symptoms include (1):

    • rapid, strong, irregular heartbeat (“heart pops out of the chest”);
    • indigestion resembling indigestion;
    • shortness of breath;
    • dizziness, fainting;
    • cold sweat.

    Distinctive features of myocardial infarction in men, uncharacteristic for women:

    • symptoms are more pronounced;
    • pain tolerance worse;
    • chest pain rarely has several locations;
    • more often large vessels are clogged;
    • the area of ​​necrosis is much broader (3);
    • atypical forms are uncharacteristic;
    • blockages are better visualized on angiography;
    • painless form is typical only for patients with diabetes, the elderly;
    • at the time of the development of a heart attack, men are better examined, many have established coronary heart disease;
    • the classic picture of MI is most often found in men older than 50 years.

    In addition to typical forms, there are atypical ones. Their symptoms are very similar to other diseases, chest pain may be absent or mild. Atypical course is much less common in men than in women. The main contingent of patients with atypical forms – patients with diabetes mellitus, renal failure, dementia (dementia).

    There are several varieties of the non-classical course of the disease:

    • Abdominal – pains are localized in the upper abdomen, accompanied by hiccups, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. It is easy to confuse it with acute pancreatitis.
    • Asthmatic. Dyspnea, which develops due to pulmonary edema. Its manifestations are very similar to bronchial asthma. A typical time of occurrence of an attack is the first half of the night.
    • Cerebral Mandatory component – fainting. Possible signs are impaired coordination, memory impairment, incoherent speech, paralysis of certain parts of the body. Such symptoms are easily confused with stroke.
    • Collaptoid form – manifested by sudden cardiovascular failure, loss of consciousness. Blood pressure (BP) drops sharply, patients complain of severe dizziness, the appearance of cold sweat, darkening in the eyes.
    • Arrhythmic. The main symptom is a variety of heart rhythm disturbances;
    • Peripheral. There are no pains behind the sternum. Pain syndrome is localized in the throat, lower jaw, left arm, reach the end of the left little finger, cervical, thoracic spine.
    • Edematous. It develops when the right ventricle ceases to cope with its functions. It is manifested by the rapid appearance of edema, the accumulation of fluid inside the abdominal cavity (ascites), weakness, shortness of breath.
    • Combinations. The combination of symptoms of various atypical forms.

    Evidence

    Symptoms of a pre-infarction condition, or harbingers of impending disaster, manifest themselves in different ways, depending on the presence of other diseases, age and gender. But there are general signs of trouble. The patient develops a clinic of unstable angina and autonomic abnormalities. Of particular concern should be:

    1. First appeared pain behind the sternum.
    2. The progression of seizures, which become more frequent, prolonged, changes their nature and irradiation (pain radiates to the sublingual region, the right side of the chest, arms).
    3. To stop the attack requires more time and the amount of Nitroglycerin.
    4. The appearance of angina pectoris at rest, when physical activity is absent.
    5. The occurrence of pain after a heart attack for a short time (from day to month).
    6. Sudden circulatory failure after bypass surgery.
    7. Morning angina attacks caused by coronary spasm.

    According to my observations, elderly patients, people with diabetes mellitus and pathologies of the nervous system do not feel the approach of a heart attack. The necrosis itself in them also appears in an atypical way or proceeds without pain. The only way to prevent a heart attack is to regularly do an electrocardiogram.

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    Women

    Men and women have different seizures and describe them. The fairer sex is characterized by an erased clinical picture. I usually pay attention to such phenomena:

    • sharp pains or pressure behind the sternum with or without radiation;
    • shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing;
    • a feeling of fullness in the stomach;
    • dizziness;
    • unmotivated weakness;
    • heartburn, nausea;
    • loss of appetite;
    • of unknown origin fear, agitation, irritability and aggression;
    • increased sweating;
    • cooling hands and feet.

    In men

    In the stronger sex, the clinical picture is more typical, and it is usually not difficult to make a preliminary diagnosis. There is a clinical picture of unstable angina, which is described above, in addition, there may be the following symptoms:

    • fatigue, inability to do the usual work even after rest;
    • sleep disturbance, frequent waking up at night;
    • anxiety attacks without cause;
    • headache, decreased visual acuity;
    • discomfort behind the sternum;
    • digestive disorders not related to food quality (heartburn, nausea, flatulence);
    • blanching of the skin, sweating, chills.

    For any signs that indicate a possible impending heart attack, you should immediately call an ambulance team. Prior to her arrival, the patient is given first aid. The patient must be laid on a hard surface, to ensure access to fresh air. If the doctor has recommendations, the patient should be given medications, for example, Nitroglycerin.

    Fast (no later than 12 hours from the onset of the first symptoms) medical assistance to a patient with a heart attack reduces the risk of adverse effects.

    A disease can be recognized with absolute certainty only in a hospital, the diagnosis is confirmed on the basis of electrocardiography. For clarification, echocardiography and a biochemical blood test may be needed.

    The onset of myocardial infarction is preceded by the development of coronary heart disease, the most common cause of which is atherosclerosis. As the growth of cholesterol deposits can overlap the lumen of the cardiac artery, tear off or collapse, causing thrombosis.

    The cells of the heart muscle stop receiving an adequate amount of oxygen due to which symptoms of unstable angina appear. Its simpler name is a pre-infarction condition. This disease is very similar to a heart attack, but is not accompanied by cell necrosis.

    Signs of unstable angina pectoris:

    • pressing pain of moderate intensity or a feeling of discomfort behind the sternum. It can be given to the shoulder, neck, jaw;
    • sweating;
    • nausea or vomiting
    • lightheadedness or fainting;
    • dyspnea;
    • a sense of impending death;
    • agitation or lethargy.

    The preinfarction state differs from ordinary angina pectoris in the nature of the attack:

    • it lasts longer than usual, the pain may be more intense;
    • the onset of an attack is not associated with excitement, stress, physical activity. The pain occurs even during rest, sleep;
    • the attack is accompanied by concomitant symptoms;
    • taking a nitroglycerin tablet does not completely eliminate the pain syndrome.

    Episodes of unstable angina pectoris do not always lead to a heart attack. However, the risk of myocardial infarction is always present. In 85% of people (1), MI occurs within 2 hours after the first manifestations of a pre-infarction condition.

    Early signs of myocardial infarction in men may be absent. According to statistics, only 50% of people feel their presence (1). Most often, they are not present in young, elderly men, patients with diabetes mellitus. For young men, the sudden onset of severe symptoms is typical, with a high prehospital mortality rate of almost 48% (2). In elderly patients, diabetics, the disease can proceed secretly.

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    There are a number of symptoms of myocardial infarction that are not always so pronounced as to attract the attention of the patient or those around him. But to know them is extremely important, since the rapid provision of first-aid and medical care saves valuable time.

    1. Irradiation of pain (usually in the arm). Typical sternal pain does not always occur. Unpleasant sensations in the chest can be mild, while the main pain spreads to the arm, lower jaw, thoracic spine, etc.
    2. Dizziness . Patients with MI can feel a loss of balance or instant weakness. This condition is often combined with discomfort in the chest or behind the sternum.
    3. Pain in the lower jaw or throat. Such a sign most likely does not have a direct connection with damage to the heart muscle, but when determining it, you should definitely consult a doctor.
    4. Snoring. Slight snoring is not particularly dangerous. If snoring becomes protracted, like breathing, then this may indicate sleep apnea.
    5. Cough that does not bring relief. This symptom is not characteristic of a heart attack, but with a frequent occurrence of dry cough and a history of heart disease, you need to pay attention to it.
    6. Swelling of the legs in the ankles and feet. The sign indicates heart failure, which in some cases develops immediately after MI. It occurs against the background of a weak pressure function of the heart, due to which blood begins to accumulate in the veins of the legs and its liquid part penetrates into nearby tissues, leading to their edema
    7. Disturbed heart rhythm (arrhythmia). With a pronounced course of the disease, this symptom should alert, which will allow them to seek medical help at an early stage of MI. Sometimes arrhythmia occurs due to lack of sleep or the use of caffeine in large quantities. But at the same time, a similar symptom may indicate the presence of atrial fibrillation, in which an ambulance is required.

    The first symptoms of a heart attack

    I want to note that the first signs of a heart attack in men are usually sudden and they do not feel the approach of the disease. The main symptom is an attack of burning, baking, pressing pain behind the sternum that occurs in the early morning hours (4-6 in the morning). Pain radiates to the left half of the body, throat, lower jaw, stomach and interscapular region. Other manifestations:

    • dyspnea;
    • a feeling of interruption in the work of the heart;
    • lowering blood pressure;
    • cyanosis or pallor of the skin;
    • fear of death.

    Autonomic disorders – excessive sweating, impaired consciousness – are less common. Also, the likelihood of developing serious acute complications, such as heart and kidney failure, bleeding, is also low. Dressler’s syndrome, rhythm and conduction disturbances, post-infarction angina pectoris occur with the same frequency.

    infarkt muzhskoy - Preinfarction condition symptoms in men what then

    The probability of relapse or recurrent myocardial infarction in the male is 74% of cases, female – 41%. Harbingers – malaise and a feeling of lack of air.

    The disease is associated with a very sharp disturbance in the normal functioning of the heart, which causes dysfunction in many organs and systems of the body. Depending on the type of nervous irritation, one or another symptomatology is determined, among which pain is of primary importance. Most often, it is with her that myocardial infarction begins and a person understands that something is wrong with him.

    Pain with MI can be of several types:

    • Zagrudnaya
    • By type of discomfort or pressure in the heart
    • Pain in other parts of the body.

    This is the most common symptom of a heart attack in men and women. Most often, it develops slowly, starting with mild pain or discomfort. The sudden onset of serious symptoms is sometimes referred to as a “Hollywood heart attack,” since typical cases of MI are very often portrayed in movies and on television. In the traditional version of development, a heart attack is not so common.

    Chest discomfort or pressure

    Pain can be difficult to tolerate, but it is not necessary. Often there is a feeling of “fullness”, squeezing or squeezing. With insufficient awareness, this condition can be mistaken for heartburn. An uncomfortable sensation often occurs in the left or central part of the chest. The feeling can last several minutes or drag on for half an hour or more.

    priznaki infarkta - Preinfarction condition symptoms in men what then

    Pain in other parts of the body

    Pain or discomfort sometimes has a different location, because with myocardial infarction there is an incorrect distribution of blood in different organs, most often in the brain. The parts of the body that are above the waist are usually affected, including the upper abdomen, shoulders, one arm (possibly the left), or both, the back, neck, or jaw, sometimes even the teeth.

    Shortness of breath caused by difficulty breathing can be combined with chest pain or manifest without it. This symptom is often the first to indicate a developing violation of cardiac activity. Usually shortness of breath occurs when the patient performs increased physical activity or even at rest after a hearty dinner. Shortness of breath develops due to accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Also nearby people who are sick can hear wheezing at a distance.

    Feeling severe fatigue for no reason is another common symptom in which appropriate precautions should be taken.

    Another possible symptom is increased cold sweat. Additionally, nausea and vomiting may be felt, but these symptoms are more common in women than in men.

    The more symptoms are determined, the higher the risk that there is a heart attack. But you should know that the disease can occur without any symptoms. Such heart attacks are called silent and are more common in elderly patients.

    When considering a pre-infarction condition, it should be noted that it is characterized by the development on a progressive scale of angina pectoris, which, moreover, is in a neglected own stage. After some time, with inadequate or incomplete treatment, as well as under the influence of stress and under the influence of a different type of complications, angina can go directly to myocardial infarction. Often, it also stops on its own, which, accordingly, allows the patient to recover.

    A progressive pre-infarction condition is characterized by increased pain in the sternum, an additional symptom is an increase in pressure.

    ea6801c73640992bbec244045f90b0c3 - Preinfarction condition symptoms in men what then

    The condition is characterized, as we have already noted, by an extremely pronounced pain syndrome, which in particular consists in pain in the area behind the sternum, in addition, this pain is similar to pain that occurs during exertional angina. Meanwhile, if the manifestation of pain with angina pectoris can be eliminated by taking nitroglycerin, then with a pre-infarction state, nitroglycerin does not eliminate the pain, the number of attacks that occur throughout the day only increases.

    The accompanying pre-infarction state pain gives away under the clavicle and in the hyoid region, in the right side of the sternum and in the hands. Cold sweat forms, the patient experiences severe anxiety, agitation, the heartbeat intensifies, in addition, he also experiences a fear of death. Often, nausea, suffocation is added to these conditions.

    The course of the preinfarction state is also possible on an atypical scale. So, the patient complains of dizziness and severe weakness, sleep disturbances, insomnia occur. Atypical pain is absent. The course of this pathology in this form provokes the occurrence of shortness of breath and cyanosis, arising without any reason for them and when at rest.

    Diagnosis is possible only with the help of an electrocardiogram, which will indicate the formation of blockade in the patient, as well as decompensation in the blood circulation, paroxysmal tachycardia and extrasystole. A predominantly atypical picture of preinfarction conditions in this course is observed among older persons aged 79-90 years.

    In certain cases, an abdominal syndrome occurs in which the localization of pain is concentrated in the left hypochondrium, as well as in the upper abdomen. The patient experiences a characteristic burning sensation of the epigastric region, as for pain, it can be by the nature of the manifestations of cutting, stitching or aching.

    This condition can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, hiccups, flatulence. In some cases, pain occurs in the neck, throat, or lower jaw area. There are also possible cases in which only shortness of breath or disturbances noted in the rhythms of the heart are noted. With a cerebrovascular form of the pre-infarction state, fainting, dizziness, and nausea are possible.

    What to do if there are signs of a heart attack

    People with a tendency to myocardial ischemia and their loved ones need to know how to behave when developing signs of pre-infarction, whether it is necessary to go to the doctor or call an ambulance. I also want to tell you how to behave before the doctor arrives and what measures will be taken after the patient enters the hospital.

    If even the most minor symptoms appear, you should immediately go for an examination and begin treatment of a pre-infarction condition in a hospital. This is important, since it is an untimely visit to the doctor that often causes death in the first hours of myocardial necrosis.

    If acute pain suddenly appears, if it occurs more often and more intensively, and a picture of autonomic disturbances is also observed, it is best to transport the patient in a special machine with a medical team. She will begin emergency care and take an ECG. In the case when the symptoms are not severe, you can go for a consultation with a cardiologist at the place of residence. But you do not need to stand in line, it should be clarified that a person has an acute attack and requires a quick response from a specialist.

    Treatment of preinfarction begins with simple actions at home:

    • take the most relaxed and comfortable position (lying or sitting);
    • unfasten squeezing clothes;
    • open the window and give access to air;
    • calm down, drink a sedative;
    • put a tablet of “Nitroglycerin” under the tongue;
    • if there is no result, repeat the medication (every 5 minutes);
    • use Aspirin, and chew Captopril at high pressure.

    Features of treatment

    According to the leadership of the American College of Cardiology, the treatment of patients with unstable angina (pre-infarction) and myocardial infarction without raising the ST segment is carried out in full without gender differences. But in practice, men are more often subjected to invasive medical procedures:

    • coronary angiography;
    • percutaneous coronary interventions.

    Beta-blockers can adversely affect potency.

    A heart attack in men requires complex treatment. An important role is played by proper first aid. Before the ambulance crew arrives, you must:

    1. Give the patient a semi-recumbent position. If possible, raise the head of the bed and place a pillow under the back. Feet are recommended to be bent.
    2. Measure blood pressure. If this indicator is too high, the patient is given a hypotensive drug.
    3. Give the patient a tablet of aspirin and nitroglycerin. The drugs dilate large arteries and thin the blood. This helps limit the affected area.
    4. Do not allow patient to move. Physical activity increases the load on the heart muscle.

    With a heart attack, the patient is delivered to the cardiology department, treatment includes:

    1. Compliance with bed rest and a special diet. Eat low-calorie foods, portions should be small.
    2. Elimination of pain. For this, narcotic analgesics and antipsychotics are used. Nitroglycerin is administered intravenously.
    3. Thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolytics (Alteplase, Retaplase) are administered on the first day after the onset of an attack. The drugs dissolve blood clots that overlap the gaps of the large arteries.
    4. Symptomatic treatment. It is aimed at normalizing heart rate and preventing cardiogenic shock. Antiplatelet agents (aspirin, heparin), antiarrhythmic drugs (lidocaine), beta-blockers (atenolol), calcium channel blockers (verapamil) are prescribed.

    With the ineffectiveness of drug therapy, surgery is performed. Blood supply to the heart muscle is restored by coronary artery bypass grafting or balloon angioplasty. In the first case, a workaround is created for the blood flow, in the second case, the lumen width of the artery is restored by installing a stent.

    The outcome of the disease greatly depends on the time of medical care, the presence of concomitant diseases in the patient, and the localization of the thrombus. Compared to women, men go to the doctor earlier and receive more complete treatment. Doctors explain the regularity of men with greater sensitivity to pain, a classic picture of the disease, better visualization of blockage on the angiogram.

    First aid

    If the deterioration of health resembles the symptoms of a heart attack, you must immediately call an emergency ambulance. Even if you have doubts about the correct diagnosis.

    Before the doctor arrives:

    • provide fresh air;
    • to remove clothes compressing the chest or at least to unbutton the collar;
    • take a half-sitting position, move less;
    • chew, swallow an aspirin tablet with a little water;
    • put a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. Repeat administration of nitroglycerin twice more with an interval of 5 minutes.

    If there are people at home, ask them to perform all the above manipulations.

    Hospitalization

    If there is a suspicion of myocardial infarction, the introduction of drugs begins during the transportation of the patient. After all, the faster it is possible to restore normal circulation of the heart muscle, the better the prognosis. Further treatment is continued in a hospital setting.

    A heart attack is an indication for the introduction of:

    • Painkillers, sedatives. Eliminating pain significantly improves the chances of survival. Nitroglycerin is a first-line drug. If the drug is ineffective, the patient is injected with narcotic analgesics: morphine, a combination of fentanyl with droperidol.
    • Medications that prevent blood clots. Myocardial infarction increases the likelihood of a re-formation of a blood clot. To prevent a relapse of a heart attack, the following drugs are used: aspirin, heparin, ticagrelor, clopidogrel, bivalirudin.
    • Thrombolytics. You can achieve the elimination of a blood clot not only surgically. There are drugs that can dissolve blockage. Their effectiveness is inferior to the operation, but significantly improve the forecast. Doctors use the following thrombolytics: streptokinase, purolase, tenecteplase, alteplase.
    • Beta blockers. Reduce myocardial oxygen demand, slow down, normalize heart rate. A heart attack is an indication for the appointment of esmolol, metoprolol, propranolol.
    • Other antihypertensive drugs. In addition to their ability to lower blood pressure, these drugs improve heart function. Their use reduces the risk of re-infarction, increases survival, minimizes complications. A treatment plan for a heart attack may include valsartan, bisoprolol, atenolol, spironolactone.

    Emergency surgical treatment involves percutaneous coronary intervention. This operation is well tolerated by most patients, since it does not involve large-scale surgical intervention. It is effective only in the first 12 hours after the onset of a pain attack.

    During the procedure, the doctor, through a tiny incision in the skin, inserts a catheter equipped with a balloon into a large vessel. Having reached the blockage site, he conducts a series of balloon inflations, due to which the lumen of the artery expands. Fix the result by installing a stent – a tiny metal frame, which will keep the walls of the vessel expanded. It is also administered via a catheter through a large vessel. The last step is optional. In some cases, ballooning is sufficient for the patient.

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    Rehabilitation

    Rehabilitation is an essential component of treating a heart attack. Its task is to reduce the likelihood of complications by reducing risk factors, increasing the duration, improving the quality of life. Rehabilitation measures after a heart attack include:

    • drug treatment;
    • to give up smoking;
    • psychological assistance;
    • diet
    • physical activity;
    • weight normalization;
    • treatment of diabetes, hypertension;
    • influenza vaccination.

    In this condition, treatment is focused on preventing the possible development of myocardial infarction after it. In other words, the treatment is aimed at eliminating severe angina pectoris. This involves prescribing the patient to bed rest, which should reduce the burden on the heart, accordingly, reducing its energy needs.

    If you experience any anxiety related to the work of the heart, as well as in the presence of one degree or another of these symptoms, you should consult a cardiologist.

    With an acute attack, the patient is taken to the intensive care unit of the cardiology profile and placed in the intensive care unit. The treatment regimen in a hospital is usually as follows:

    • oral use of beta-blockers, with a vasospastic form of angina pectoris, it is preferable to give drugs – calcium antagonists;
    • nitrates intravenously in saline in a dropper or under the tongue;
    • antiplatelet agents;
    • subcutaneous administration of direct coagulants.

    A patient with signs of a pre-infarction condition in the acute period needs bed rest, with severe pain neuroleptanalgesia or administration of opioid analgesics is used. In the future, the prevention of recurrence and the development of a heart attack requires the constant use of statins, Aspirin and beta-blockers.

    Case study

    I was approached by a woman complaining of severe weakness and fatigue in the last two weeks. At times, she feels a lack of air and pressure in the chest. Attacks occur after exercise. On the ECG, transient ischemia along the lower wall of the left ventricle is observed in dynamics. Diagnosed with angina pectoris, a high probability of developing a heart attack.

    For three weeks in a cardiology hospital, the patient took nitrates, beta-blockers, Aspirin. Discharged in satisfactory condition. It is recommended to avoid stress and stress, a diet with the exception of fatty foods, taking medications selected in the hospital.

    Advice from a specialist

    If there is a risk of developing myocardial ischemia, I recommend:

    • spend time in the fresh air, walk, move more;
    • switch to a low-calorie diet rich in vitamins and minerals;
    • check regularly the heart for ECG and donate blood for cholesterol;
    • give up bad habits (especially smoking);
    • after establishing a diagnosis of angina pectoris, take means to prevent the development of necrosis;
    • with the slightest symptoms, which may be the precursors of an acute condition, do not delay time, but immediately call a doctor.

    Aftermath

    Of course, all men who have suffered myocardial necrosis are immediately worried by several questions: how to recover faster after a heart attack, is it necessary to adhere to a diet, is it possible to drink alcohol and have sex. I will answer them in order.

    The recovery period, in my opinion, is the most important and crucial stage, because now a lot depends not only on the doctor, but also on the patient himself. Its duration depends on the severity of the heart attack and the presence of concomitant complications (post-infarction angina pectoris, aneurysms, chronic heart failure) and includes:

    • Diet therapy. I recommend significantly limiting the consumption of table salt, spices and fatty meats (pork, lamb, etc.). The multiplicity of food intake should be increased to 5-6 times a day, but the volume of servings should be reduced.
    • Lifestyle change. A healthy night’s sleep, moderate exercise, and smoking cessation are important. If possible, it is necessary to change work to a calmer one. It is important to remember that night shift work is associated with constant stressful situations (security guards, teachers, doctors and others).
    • Psychological rehabilitation. In my opinion, it is harder for a man to realize his illness and some kind of weakness associated with it. He becomes aggressive and irritable, so it is important to work with a competent psychologist.

    Alcohol after a heart attack and surgical interventions on the heart (stenting or bypass surgery), I recommend excluding it for at least a year. In a recent study, American scientists observed 2000 heart attacks and got interesting results. Patients who had a heart attack and subsequently drank alcohol moderately (up to 30 g of ethanol per day) were at risk of dying by 14% less than those who completely abandoned it. In addition, the risk of recurring heart attack was lower by 42%.

    Having sex is also not contraindicated. On the contrary, light physical exertion favorably affects health. I just want to note that positions in which the man is below or from the side are desirable.

    7da5588d2ac67988706055458df527c4 - Preinfarction condition symptoms in men what then

    According to the time of occurrence, all complications are divided into:

    • acute (0-3 days): ventricular arrhythmia, sinus block, atrioventricular node, cardiogenic shock;
    • subacute (3-14 days): mitral valve regurgitation, rupture of the papillary muscle, ventricular wall, interventricular septum;
    • delayed (more than 14 days): chronic pericarditis, arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrest.

    All the consequences of a heart attack can be fatal. The likelihood of developing complications depends on the patient’s state of health, his age, medical history, time, and the quality of medical care.

    Adverse effects on the forecast:

    • left ventricular dysfunction;
    • late medical care;
    • the presence of other diseases of the cardiovascular system;
    • elderly age;
    • diabetes;
    • specific changes in the cardiogram;
    • high concentration of CRP factor;
    • depression.

    The probability of re-hospitalization is about 40%, death – 10-12% in the first year after a heart attack. Extensive MI is characterized by a higher hospital mortality rate, but the long-term prognosis is worse for small focal.

    Clinical case

    I was approached by a woman complaining of severe weakness and fatigue in the last two weeks. At times, she feels a lack of air and pressure in the chest. Attacks occur after exercise. On the ECG, transient ischemia along the lower wall of the left ventricle is observed in dynamics. Diagnosed with angina pectoris, a high probability of developing a heart attack.

    For three weeks in a cardiology hospital, the patient took nitrates, beta-blockers, Aspirin. Discharged in satisfactory condition. It is recommended to avoid stress and stress, a diet with the exception of fatty foods, taking medications selected in the hospital.

    In the course of treatment (mask oxygen, Morphine, Aspirin, Nitrospray, Enoxaparin) and the subsequent rehabilitation period, the general condition improved noticeably. I observed a patient for 1,5 years, repeated myocardial infarction and other complications were not observed.

    The following sources of information were used to prepare the material.

    The fastest detected heart attack is a guarantee that medical care will be provided in a timely manner. Both the causes and the signs of heart attack in women and men are different. In addition, women who have had this disease are much more difficult to recover from it. Knowing how to protect yourself from a dangerous disease, you can take measures to prevent it.

    Advice from a specialist

    If there is a risk of developing myocardial ischemia, I recommend:

    • spend time in the fresh air, walk, move more;
    • switch to a low-calorie diet rich in vitamins and minerals;
    • check regularly the heart for ECG and donate blood for cholesterol;
    • give up bad habits (especially smoking);
    • after establishing a diagnosis of angina pectoris, take means to prevent the development of necrosis;
    • with the slightest symptoms, which may be the precursors of an acute condition, do not delay time, but immediately call a doctor.

    After a heart attack, medications must be taken for life. I prescribe to my patients:

    • statins – normalize the ratio of “bad” and “good” fats;
    • anti-ischemic drugs (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists or nitrates) – contribute to improving blood supply to the heart muscle;
    • antiplatelet agents (Aspirin in low doses or P2Y12 enzyme inhibitors – Clopidogrel) – improve blood fluidity and viscosity.

    Symptoms and Early Harbingers

    1. A cholesterol plaque with a tight lid forms on the artery wall.
    2. The lid is torn due to chronic sluggish inflammation.
    3. A blood clot forms, blocking the flow of blood.
    4. Without access to blood, a part of the heart muscle dies.

    The very first step is to call an ambulance. Next, the patient should be reassured, since a state of panic can worsen well-being. To do this, he can be given a tincture of motherwort, valerian.

    nevroticheskie rasstroystva - Preinfarction condition symptoms in men what then

    A person with a suspected heart attack should be placed in a horizontal position, forbidding him to move. Under the tongue you need to put a tablet of nitroglycerin (the procedure can be repeated every 15 minutes). Before the doctor arrives, you can not give more than three tablets. Close clothing must be unfastened or removed, and it is important to ensure that fresh air is available.

    How to recognize the disease

    Timely recognition that a person had to face a heart attack significantly increases the likelihood of effectively provided medical care. About 30% of all patients die due to lack of treatment within the first hour.

    Symptoms of myocardial infarction in men can appear gradually, which prevents such patients from suspecting a dangerous condition and seek medical help. It is worth worrying to find these signs:

    • feeling of lack of air;
    • discoloration of the skin (cyanosis);
    • frequent pulse;
    • dizziness;
    • weakness;
    • pain in the chest area, which medications do not help;
    • strong separation of cold sweat;
    • increase in blood pressure to critical numbers.

    These are the most common symptoms. Taking any medications can change the clinical picture and complicate the diagnosis, so if you find symptoms of a heart attack in men, you must immediately call an ambulance, and not try to cope with the problem yourself.

    It has already been said above that the signs of myocardial infarction in women are slightly different. These are:

    • pain in the lower jaw with a complete absence of dental problems;
    • strong urge to vomit;
    • pain not only in the chest, but also in the back of the head, neck;
    • severe pallor of the skin;
    • dizziness;
    • sudden fatigue in the absence of adequate loads.

    The fact that the symptoms of myocardial infarction in women are different is caused by the structural features of their heart. However, the recommendations are similar: when the first dangerous symptoms appear, seek medical help as soon as possible.

    Latent symptoms

    Myocardial infarction symptoms are nevertheless quite frightening for the patient to seek medical help. However, there is still the concept of pre-infarction: symptoms, the first signs in women and men in this case may not scare the patient, as a result of which time will be lost. It is necessary to seek medical support if:

    1. There is pain in the upper abdomen. As a rule, it is accompanied by nausea, vomiting. The patient thinks that he has been poisoned, and begins to treat not at all the disease he has encountered.
    2. Increased breathing in the absence of pain. Obvious signs of a heart attack in women, as well as in men, most often mention pain as an indispensable factor. However, if the number of breaths exceeds 20 per minute, and the breath itself feels like “bubbling” – immediately call an ambulance, even despite the absence of pain and other signs.
    3. Fatigue and shortness of breath. As a rule, such signs of a heart attack in women older than 50 years occur against the background of diabetes mellitus.
    4. Insomnia, not corrected by sleeping pills.
    5. Edema of any part of the body.

    If your well-being or that of a person near you suddenly worsens – do not understand, which was the reason: immediately call an ambulance. If a patient develops a pre-infarction, symptoms, the first signs in men and women, detected on time, can help save a life.

    Reviews

    “For many nights I could not sleep, the usual sleeping pills did not help. About a week later, severe pain in the chest area appeared, turned to the hospital for this reason, it turned out to be a heart attack. “The rehabilitation was long, the doctors said that the situation was aggravated by the late treatment.”

    “An elderly mother complained of a sharp chest pain, she turned very pale. Measurement of blood pressure showed critical numbers, which caused an ambulance to be called rather than taking pills, as usual. ”The arrived team noted a heart attack and took her mother to the hospital, where she was provided with qualified help.”

    “Faced with severe weakness, tired, barely getting out of bed, not even having time to do anything. Then, swelling on the legs began to appear, but she still turned to the doctor only after she began to suffocate after walking a hundred meters. I would never have thought that heart problems could manifest in this way, and now I am undergoing post-infarction rehabilitation. ”

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious disease that requires maximum attention from both the patient himself and the medical staff. The disease is characterized by the death of cardiomyocytes in a larger or smaller area, as a result of which the heart begins to contract less efficiently and pump blood throughout the body.

    A heart attack is most often determined at the age of 41-50 years, while in men it happens five times more often than in women. After 51 years, this ratio is 2: 1, and in old age it becomes the same, since the number of women at this age prevails.

    To determine myocardial infarction in medicine, standard methods for all cardiovascular diseases are used. First of all – electrocardiography, and then, depending on the course of the disease – laboratory tests, ultrasound of the heart, MRI, CT.

    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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