The blood in the vessels has a mechanical effect on their walls. Technically there is always pressure in the arteries and veins. But when measuring it with a tonometer, other points are important.
With the contraction of the heart muscle, blood is released from the ventricles into the vessels. This impulse creates the so-called “upper”, or systolic pressure. Then the blood is distributed through the vessels, and the minimum level of their filling, at which a heart beat is heard in the stethoscope, gives a “lower” or diastolic indicator. This is how the result is formed – a figure reflecting the state of the body at the moment.
In the medical environment, there are disputes about what indicators to focus on in measuring pressure. The blood pressure standards in adults have been compiled many times. The table shows the numbers from which cardiologists and therapists repelled during the period of the USSR.
– 109 (0,5 x age) (0,1 x weight),
– 63 (0,1 x age) (0,15 x weight).
The lower limit of the systolic pressure was considered 110 mmHg. Art., top – 140 mm. All indicators that were outside of this framework were taken for pathology. Similarly, the lower limit of the diastolic pressure was taken to be 60 mmHg. Art., top – 90 mm. By putting these numbers together, we get a run-up of normal values from 110/60 to 140/90. Many therapists and cardiologists of the old school in their medical practice are still guided by this.
A little later, on the basis of numerous studies, other blood pressure standards in adults were derived. The table used in our time is compiled by WHO in 1999. On the basis of this, the limits of systolic pressure are in the range from 110 to 130 mm Hg. Art., diastolic – 65-80 mm. These numbers relate primarily to patients younger than 40 years.
Today, there is no consensus among doctors about which indicators are considered the norm, and which are pathologies. During the examination, they are guided by what pressure is normal, “comfortable” for a particular patient, and record this information with his own words. In the future, in the diagnosis and treatment based on this indicator. Figures below 110/60 and above 140/90 will still be considered signs of pathological changes.
The levels of various hormones, especially steroids, also affect blood pressure. Their blood content is unstable, and over the years, during the restructuring of the body, an ever greater imbalance begins to be observed. This affects the heart rate and the fullness of blood vessels. The average norm of blood pressure in women 50 years old shifts upwards and becomes equal to 137/84, and in men of a similar age – 135/83. These are the numbers above which indicators at rest should not rise.
What other factors increase the norm of blood pressure in adults? The table (in women after 50 years old, the risk of developing hypertension is higher, since hormonal changes, the so-called menopause, begin to affect at this age), of course, they cannot all be indicated. The stresses they endured for the body are also important – pregnancy and childbirth (if they were).
The trend established in previous years, continues in the future. The rate of blood pressure in adults continues to increase (table). For women after 60, the mean is 144/85, for men, 142/85. The weaker floor is slightly ahead in terms of growth rates (due to all the same hormonal changes).
After 60 years, normal blood pressure physiologically exceeds the standard values of 140/90, but this is not the basis for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension. Practitioners are largely guided by the health status of elderly patients and their complaints. In addition to measuring blood pressure, a cardiogram is used to monitor the state of the cardiovascular system, on which pathologies are expressed much more clearly than in terms of pressure.
It is best to have your own blood pressure monitor at home and master the technique of measuring blood pressure. This is a simple procedure, and everyone can learn it. The received data should be entered in the diary or table. In the same place, you can briefly make notes about your state of health, pulse rate, physical exertion.
Often, arterial hypertension does not manifest itself by external signs until something provokes a crisis – a sharp increase in blood pressure. This condition has many life-threatening consequences, for example, hemorrhagic stroke or heart attack. It is advisable to routinely measure pressure after 40-45 years. This will significantly reduce the risk of developing hypertension.
The next indicator of the state of health, along with the numbers of blood pressure, is the pulse. A pulse is considered normal in the range of 60 . 80 beats/min. The more intensive the metabolism, the higher the number of beats per minute.
As well as for blood pressure indicators, for different age categories there are their average norms.
By measuring your pulse, you can learn to recognize an approaching problem. For example, if the number of heart beats increased after 2-3 hours after eating, then poisoning can be suspected.
A magnetic storm in people sharply reacting to a sharp change in weather causes a decrease in blood pressure. The body responds to this by increasing the heart rate in order to maintain an optimal level of blood pressure.
A tense pulse, the blows of which a person feels very clearly, indicates a sharp increase in blood pressure.
The very first pressure measuring devices were the “bloody” devices of Stephen Gales, in which a needle was attached to a vessel attached to a tube with a scale. The Italian Riva-Rocci put an end to the bloodshed by proposing to attach a mercury monometer to the cuff placed on the shoulder.
Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkov in 1905 proposed to attach a mercury monometer to the cuff placed on the shoulder and listen to pressure with the ear. Air was pumped out from the cuff of the pear, the vessels were compressed. Then the air slowly returned to the cuff, and the pressure on the vessels weakened. Using a stethoscope on the vessels of the elbow, tones of the pulse were heard. The first strokes indicated the level of systolic blood pressure, the last – diastolic.
Modern monometers are electronic devices that can do without a stethoscope and record the pressure and heart rate.
How to measure blood pressure
Normal blood pressure is a parameter that varies depending on a person’s activity. For example, with physical exertion, emotional stress, blood pressure rises, with a sharp rise can fall. Therefore, to obtain reliable parameters, blood pressure should be measured in the morning without getting out of bed. In this case, the tonometer should be located at the level of the patient’s heart. The arm with the cuff should lie horizontally at the same level.
Such a phenomenon as “white coat hypertension” is known, when the patient, regardless of treatment, stubbornly gives an increase in blood pressure in the presence of a doctor. Also, blood pressure can be slightly increased by running up the stairs or straining the muscles of the legs and hips while measuring. To have a more detailed idea of the level of blood pressure of a given person, the doctor may recommend keeping a diary where the pressure is recorded at different times of the day.
Systolic and diastolic pressure is the force of blood flow through the vessels at the time of contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. To obtain reliable results, during the measurement of blood pressure, observe some recommendations:
- 40 minutes before the measurement exclude the use of salted, spicy and fried foods, strong tea and coffee, as well as no smoking;
- excessive physical activity affects the results, therefore, one hour before the measurements, you need to engage in quiet activities;
- take a comfortable sitting or semi-sitting posture;
- the hand involved in the measurement is taken to the side and placed on a hard surface;
- to establish the exact result, two measurements are taken at intervals of 2-3 minutes.
Measurement is carried out by a mechanical or electronic tonometer. The cuff is set 6 cm above the elbow. A stethoscope is put on a bend and a pulse is heard at the moment of air descent. The first knock defines the upper bounds. Gradually, the intensity of the tones decreases, and the last sonorous beat denotes the lower bounds.
To measure blood pressure, there is a special device – a tonometer. At home, it is most convenient to use automatic or semi-automatic devices, since measuring with a manual tonometer requires a certain skill.
To get the right results, you must follow these guidelines:
- Before measuring pressure, you must completely exclude physical activity;
- no smoking;
- measuring blood pressure immediately after eating will also give incorrect results;
- measure pressure while sitting in a comfortable chair;
- the back should have support;
- the hand on which the measurement is carried out should be located at the level of the heart, i.e. pressure is measured while sitting at the table;
- when measuring pressure, you need to remain motionless and not talk;
- indicators are taken from both hands (measurement interval 10 minutes).
Significant deviations from the norm require mandatory consultation of a specialist doctor. Only the doctor, after going through all the diagnostic procedures, will be able to choose the appropriate treatment for the existing problem.
Working pressure – what is it?
This expression can be heard in everyday life. The concept of “working” pressure means such indicators at which a person feels comfortable, despite the fact that one of them or both – systolic and diastolic – is significantly increased or decreased. In general, such an attitude towards oneself reflects only the desire to ignore the existing problem.
Cardiologists have no concept of “working” patient pressure. Indicators above 140/90 in middle-aged people are classified as hypertension. Justification can be the fact that with age on the walls of blood vessels are accumulated accumulations of cholesterol, narrowing their lumen. Clinically there is no serious deterioration, but the risk of developing the pathology increases significantly.
Blood pressure chart
|20 years||123 on 76||116 on 72|
|30 years||126 on 79||120 on 75|
|40 years||129 on 81||127 on 80|
|50 years||135 on 83||135 on 84|
|60-65 years||135 on 85||135 on 85|
|Older than 65||135 on 89||135 on 89|
Blood pressure, the norm of which varies slightly with age, is reflected in the table above. Blood pressure is slightly less in women at a young age against a background of less muscle mass. With age (after 60), the risks of vascular catastrophes are compared in men and women, therefore, blood pressure levels are equalized in both sexes.
For a child, blood pressure is higher, the greater his age. The level of blood pressure in babies depends on the tone of the vessels, the working conditions of the heart, the presence or absence of malformations, the state of the nervous system. For a newborn, normal pressure is 80 to 50 millimeters of mercury.
What norm of blood pressure corresponds to this or that children’s age, can be seen from the table.
|From birth to 2 weeks||60-96/40-50|
|2 months – year||90-112/50-74|
Adolescence comes from 11 years and is characterized not only by the rapid growth of all organs and systems, a set of muscle mass, but also by hormonal changes that affect the cardiovascular system. At 11-12 years in adolescents, blood pressure ranges from 110-126 to 70-82. From 13-15 years, it approaches, and then equalizes with adult standards, amounting to 110-136 to 70-86.
Doctors use the term “normal pressure”. This is the ideal level of blood pressure and heart function of an adult individual aged 20 to 40 years.
In medicine, it is considered to be 120/80 mm RT. Art. the so-called absolute norm. At 130/85 mmHg Art. – pressure is slightly increased. Normally elevated blood pressure is considered pressure 139/89, and pathology – 140/90.
Normal human pressure is a pretty abstract concept. It can only be obtained if a person is in a state of emotional rest and physical relaxation. Our body independently controls the level of blood pressure, changing it on average by 20 mmHg. Art. one way or the other.
Depending on gender and age, the concept of norm changes. For example, for people aged 16–20 years, slightly lower pressure is 100/70 mm Hg. Art. – is considered a physiological norm.
Changes in blood pressure are affected by internal and external factors. Normal values depend on gender and age. Therefore, it is important to know your age norm and control it.
The level of two arterial parameters allows you to evaluate the work of the cardiac and vascular system, as well as the whole organism. Upper or systolic pressure determines the strength of blood flow during contraction of the heart muscle. Lower or diastolic pressure indicates the strength of blood flow at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle.
The difference between the two indicators obtained is called the pulse. Its level is in the range from 31 to 51 mm Hg. The figures depend on the well-being of the patient, his age and gender.
The normal pressure in adults under 45 years old is 119/79 mm Hg. But a person can feel great with other indicators. Therefore, an ideal systolic indicator is numbers from 89 to 131, the numbers of normal diastolic pressure are in the range from 61 to 91 mm Hg.
Measurement indicators are influenced by external adverse factors: stress, excitement, anxiety, excessive physical activity, poor diet.
In the table, you can clearly determine the rate of blood exposure to blood vessels in adults.
|Age of patient||Minimum mmHg||Maximum mmHg|
|Top level||Lower level||Top level||Lower level|
|11 – 20||105||72||120||80|
|21 – 30||108||74||131||82|
|31 – 40||109||77||133||85|
|41 – 49||114||80||139||87|
|50 – 59||117||89||143||90|
|60 – 70||121||83||148||91|
|Older than 70||120||78||147||86|
Any shifts from the normal values shown in the table indicate a pathological process. The heart rate in an adult is normally in the range from 61 to 99 beats per minute.
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Pressure in the male population is higher than in women. This is due to the physiological structure of the body. A developed skeleton and muscles need a greater supply of blood, and as a result, blood flow also increases.
The norm of pressure in men is shown in the table.
|Age of patient||The norm in men, mmHg||Heart rate|
|21 – 31||125 on 75||51 – 91|
|32 – 41||128 on 78||61 – 91|
|42 – 51||131 on 80||62 – 82|
|52 – 61||135 on 83||64 – 84|
|62 – 67||137 on 84||72 – 91|
|Older than 67||135 on 89||75 – 90|
Normal pressure in an adult should be determined only at rest, since any load (both physical and emotional) has a huge impact on his performance. The human body independently controls blood pressure, and with moderate exercise, its indicators rise by about 20 mmHg. This is due to the fact that the muscles and organs involved in the work require better blood supply.
If we talk about what blood pressure is considered normal, then at the moment, medicine has recognized indicators in the range of 91 . 139/61 . 89 mm Hg. In this case, the blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg is considered the absolute norm, slightly elevated – 130/85 mm Hg, high normal – 139/89 mm Hg. An increase in numbers higher than 140/90 mm Hg already indicates the presence of pathology.
With age, irreversible processes occur in the human body that provoke an increase in pressure throughout life. The older a person, the higher his blood pressure.
What is normal pressure in a person? The question is somewhat abstract, since the norm for each person is most often individual. Educational medical literature suggests taking figures at 120/80 mm Hg as a norm indicator. Such indicators are recorded in people aged 20 . .40 years.
Normal blood pressure for a person aged 16 . 20 years can be slightly reduced. This applies to both systolic and diastolic indicators. In general, resting pressures are 100/70 mm Hg. is a physiological norm.
As the table of human pressure shows, age-related changes relate to both upper and lower blood pressure indicators. But you need to remember that these are just average clinical indicators.
But not only an increase, but also a decrease in blood pressure indicators is a sure sign of a deterioration in the activity of body systems. That is why the ability to use a tonometer can be attributed to a good prevention of almost all diseases. And in order to track the dynamics of pressure changes it is necessary to keep a special diary.
There are many reasons that can provoke changes in blood pressure. But the most common are the following:
- The inability of the heart to work as before and with the necessary strength.
- Change in blood quality. With age, it becomes more dense. And the thicker the blood, the more difficult it is to flow through the vessels. The cause of thickening can be, for example, complex diseases such as diabetes mellitus or autoimmune pathologies.
- Decreased vascular elasticity. This leads to an improper diet, increased stress, certain medications.
- The formation of atherosclerotic plaques that form when the blood contains “bad” cholesterol.
- A sharp change in the lumen of the vessel caused by hormones.
- Abnormal endocrine glands.
The main part of the causes of pressure surges can be eliminated independently, which will help to maintain health as long as possible. Properly selected diet, maintaining an active lifestyle, a calm attitude to life, which avoids stressful situations. Compliance with these simple rules allows you to normalize the pressure.
Opinions of foreign scientists
In the countries of the post-Soviet space, on the one hand, and in America and Canada, on the other, different approaches have been adopted to determine the blood pressure norm in adults. The table shows how the patient’s condition is classified according to its indicators.
Blood pressure at the level of 130/90 can be considered as prehypertension, that is, a condition bordering on pathology. The level of systolic 110-125 mm Hg. St., And diastolic – less than 80, is called in the West “state of rest of the heart.” In our country, 130/90 pressure will be considered the norm for physically developed men who have been active in sports, or people older than 40 for years.
In Western Europe, the approach to the state of the cardiovascular system is similar, but in the scientific literature you can find some data similar to the post-Soviet norms. There is a peculiar look at the norms of blood pressure in adults: the table contains the terms unusual for us – “low normal”, “normal” and “high normal”. For the standard adopted indicator 120/80.
In healthy pregnant women, blood pressure does not change until the sixth month of pregnancy. Blood pressure is normal in non-pregnant women.
Further, under the influence of hormones, some increases can be observed, not exceeding 10 mm from the norm. In pathological pregnancy, gestosis can occur with jumps in blood pressure, damage to the kidneys and brain (preeclampsia), or even the development of seizures (eclampsia). Pregnancy with arterial hypertension can worsen the course of the disease and provoke hypertensive crises or a persistent increase in blood pressure. In this case, the correction of drug therapy, observation by a therapist or treatment in a hospital is indicated.
The older a person becomes, the more serious changes his blood vessels and heart muscle undergo. Stress, unhealthy diet, hereditary predisposition – all this affects the state of health. People with diagnosed pathology are recommended to measure pressure daily. It is better if the indicators will be recorded in a special table. There you can also enter the data after measuring the pulse.
With age, the blood pressure in adults gradually changes. The table and pulse together give objective information about changes in the state of the vessels. If the numbers at some point exceeded the usual rate for the patient, this is not a reason for panic – an increase of 10 mm Hg. Art. considered acceptable after exercise, in a state of fatigue, after a long working day. But a steady, long-term deviation is a sign of a developing pathology.
Blood pressure: normal age
Due to changes in blood vessels, which occur due to a decrease in the tone of the arteries and cholesterol deposits on the walls, as well as changes in myocardial function, the age-related arterial pressure in adults is adjusted (table).
For women 40, the average is 127/80, for men it is slightly higher – 129/81. This is explained by the fact that the representatives of the stronger sex, as a rule, can withstand greater physical exertion, and their body weight is greater than that of women, which contributes to an increase in pressure.
Deviation from the norm: probable causes
In addition to increasing, many people at a young and older age have a decrease in pressure relative to the norms. If this is a stable indicator, then there is practically no reason for concern. Physiologically low blood pressure may occur in miniature girls or in young people with asthenic complexion. Performance is not affected.
If a decrease in pressure occurs suddenly and leads to a worsening of the condition, then this may indicate heart failure, vegetative-vascular dystonia, rhythm disturbances, and even open internal bleeding. With such symptoms, a full examination is urgently needed.
- Essential arterial hypertension (hypertension, see drugs with high blood pressure) gives persistent increases in pressure and hypertensive crises.
- Symptomatic hypertension (adrenal tumors, renal vascular disease) gives the clinic a similar hypertension.
- Vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by episodes of jumps in blood pressure, not exceeding 140 to 90, which are accompanied by autonomic symptoms.
- An isolated increase in lower pressure is inherent in renal pathologies (developmental abnormalities, glomerulonephritis, renal vascular atherosclerosis, or their stenosis). If the diastolic pressure exceeds 105 mmHg. for more than two years, the risk of cerebral catastrophes has increased by 10, and heart attack by five times.
- Systolic blood pressure rises more often in the elderly, people with thyroid pathologies, patients with anemia and heart defects.
- An increase in pulse pressure is a serious risk of heart attack or stroke.
With little hypotension, people live quite fully. When the upper blood pressure drops significantly, for example, in shock, the lower blood pressure is also very low. This leads to centralization of blood circulation, multiple organ failure and the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Thus, for a long and full life, a person should monitor his pressure and keep it within the physiological norm.
In addition to age, a systematic increase in pressure provokes metabolic disorders, kidney disease, bad habits, etc. Smoking provokes narrowing of small vessels, which in the long run causes a decrease in the lumen of large arteries and, as a result, hypertension. In case of impaired renal function, the hormone aldosterone is produced, which also leads to an increase in blood pressure.