Leukocytes in the child’s urine are normal, the reasons for the increase and what to do

Leukocytes in the urine of a child are the reason for additional examination, since they are considered the main sign of a progressive inflammatory process. The reasons can be from harmless to the most serious, therefore, you should not hesitate with additional examination.

Leukocytes in urine in children: what is it?

Leukocytes play an important role in the human, in particular, the child’s body. They are cleaners and protectors from pathogens. When their increased level in the urine (leukocyturia) is detected, it is customary to talk about the body’s fight against infection, which develops into an inflammatory process.

Leukocytes are white blood cells that are normally absent in a child’s urine or are present in small quantities. Often, an increase in blood cells in children’s urine is the only symptom of a growing problem in the body, since the disease is secretive.

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Norms of leukocytes in children’s urine

Normally, blood cells in the urine of children should be absent. In rare cases, there are 1-2 cells per 1 μl (microliter). Even if they are, they may not be determined during the study after the centrifuge.

In Russia, the norm of leukocytes in urine is up to 8 cells, see the table below for details.

Table. The norm of leukocytes in urine in childhood

AgeLeukocyte level, x109 cells/l
Children up to a year+6,0
1-2 years+6,0
2-4 years+5,5
4-6 years+5,0
6-10 years+4,5
10-16 years+4,5
Older than 16 years+4,5

In the case when the pathology is not accompanied by other symptoms, except for poor urine analysis in children, the baby remains active and cheerful, the disease of the urinary system is confirmed, it will manifest itself when the mucosal lesions reach a peak.

Note! A urine test may turn out to be false positive if the child ate foods with vitamin C or ascorbic acid in the evening.

The reasons for the growth of leukocytes

Common reasons affecting the increase in leukocytes in the urine of a child of any age are problems with the organs of the urinary and reproductive system, namely:

  • Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection that, as it progresses, affects the bladder, causing it to become inflamed.
  • Cystitis occurs in girls and is often caused by stagnant urine, for example, with regular long-term patience before going to the bathroom. This trend is observed in children from 3 to 7 years old)
  • Presence of stones in the ureters, kidneys and bladder. Usually, in addition to the presence of leukocytes in urine, there are pains and cramps during urination.
  • Infection of the mucous membranes found in renal failure.
  • Lack of proper intimate hygiene in girls and boys.
  • the intake of bacteria from the intestines and genitals, accompanied by severe inflammation.
  • Allergic reactions to drugs (antibiotics), food,
  • Reduced immunity caused by teething or lack of formation,
  • Eating foods with a high protein content on the eve of testing,
  • improper collection of urine.

Note! Collecting urine in childhood for analysis should be carried out immediately after sleep. For a more accurate result, average urine is used. The study should be carried out no later than three hours after collection.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Also, signs accompanying poor urine analysis in children are:

  • Difficulty, painful, frequent urination.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen or lower back.
  • Chills, the appearance of hyperthermia.
  • General intoxication of the body (nausea and vomiting)
  • The appearance of urine noticeably worsens (it acquires a pale, pink tint, flakes are present).

With the listed complaints, they give a referral for an additional examination, namely, a bacteriological analysis of urine is prescribed. If these urine tests are insufficient, an ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys is performed, and if necessary, magnetic resonance therapy (MRI) is prescribed.

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Leukocytes in urine in a newborn: norms and deviations

In infants, it is normal: in girls, the presence of leukocytes in the urine analysis is 8-10 k/μl, and in boys, 4-6 k/μl. Exceeding these limits indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the genitourinary system. It can be caused by congenital kidney pathologies and the same diseases as in older children.

Often the composition of urine changes depending on the nutrition of the newborn. If he is breastfed, Mom’s food is to blame. If she ate foods that are not suitable for the newborn, this may affect his urine analysis as an increase in the white blood cell count.


If problems with the urinary system in a child are identified against the background of an increased number of leukocytes in urine, emergency treatment is prescribed, it includes various drugs:

  • Broad-spectrum antibiotic: Flemoxin Solutab is prescribed in tablets three times a day. The dosage depends on the age of the children. Amoxiclav injections intramuscularly twice a day, the amount is determined by the weight of each child individually.
  • Prescribed diuretic teas: urological, chamomile, as well as drugs with a similar action Furosimide 2 times a day, Urakton, Mennitol twice a day. The dose of tablets and capsules is determined by the doctor depending on the age category.
  • Necessarily therapy is accompanied by bifidobacteria: Bifiform, Linex, Rioflora, Lactazar (for infants). One capsule is prescribed three times a day. Khilak Forte is prescribed three times a day.
  • Antispasmodics and pain relievers: Spazgan, No-shpa, Spazmalgon (1 tab. 3 times a day), Nurofen for children under one year old 2,5 ml 2 times a day.


It is imperative to maintain good hygiene and avoid overcooling your child to avoid urinary tract infections. Also, doctors urge to monitor the nutrition of children, more natural products and vitamins should be present in the diet of children.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.