Intracranial hypertension in children has several causes:
- Cerebral edema. Appears due to oxygen starvation (hypoxia) during pregnancy or childbirth.
- Hydrocephalus. In this condition, the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid is impaired, and production is preserved. Dropsy occurs, accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure in the baby.
- Genetically caused disturbances in the structure and functioning of the cerebrospinal ducts can provoke the development of hydrocephalus and an increase in intracranial fluid pressure.
- Cerebral hemorrhage causes tissue compression and leads to increased pressure.
- Traumatic brain injury and subdural hematoma are common causes of increased intracranial pressure in adolescents caused by fights, falls or injuries during sports, careless behavior, skateboarding and so on.
- Toxic brain edema.
- Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges.
- Encephalitis is an inflammatory process in brain tissue that is caused by infection or toxins.
- Brain neoplasms are benign or malignant tumors. With growth, they press on brain tissue and cause an increase in intracranial pressure.
- Accelerated fusion of the bones of the skull. With him, the “fontanelles” on the baby’s head close very early, when the brain growth is not yet complete, which provokes the accumulation of fluid and increased pressure.
This condition can cause a number of unpleasant consequences for the health and psyche of the child, therefore, requires rapid diagnosis and proper treatment.
An increase in intracranial pressure in a child can be of a short-term nature, as a result of which the infant can transmit various infections or change weather conditions.
In this case, specialist advice is not so necessary. If this happens for a long time or regularly makes itself felt, then immediate consultation with a specialist and the appointment of appropriate treatment will be required.
The child’s problems associated with increased intracranial pressure have recently become frequent. Quite often, they can appear almost from birth, usually from the age of 1 month. The causes of this disease are mainly endogenous and exogenous.
- a large amount of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) in the ventricles of the brain;
- poor absorption of cerebrospinal fluid;
- poor cerebrospinal fluid outflow.
Another reason for the increase in pressure is a drop in atmospheric pressure. This factor is external and, unlike the above, is not controlled by humans.
The intracranial pressure of the child is greatly influenced by the diseases that he tolerates, especially those serious such as the flu or severe SARS. A constant continuous increase in intracranial pressure may indicate defects in the central nervous system, pathologies at the gene level, or other abnormalities caused by the following diseases:
- Various brain infections: meningitis, encephalitis
- Brain Injury
- Toxic poisoning of brain cells
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
At birth, an increased intracranial pressure may be detected in the child, but it will be wrong to say right away that the baby is suffering from such a pathology.
For kids, this condition is in most cases the norm. However, there are cases when, during pregnancy or during childbirth, the fetus experienced oxygen starvation, as a result of which brain cells experienced oxygen deficiency and began to die.
As a consequence of this condition – a violation of the developmental processes of the child, his inferiority, disability.
Quite often, during pregnancy, women are faced with toxicosis. This phenomenon is considered a normal symptom of pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. But severe toxicosis affects the absorption of oxygen by the fetus and cause hypoxia. As a result of this, an excessive amount of cerebrospinal fluid is formed, which will also entail increased intracranial pressure in the child.
Causes of decreased intracranial pressure: – damage to the bones of the skull or its meninges — vitamin deficiency — damage to the brain — poisoning of the body — endocrine diseases — infections
Diseases in which high blood pressure is observed: – hydrocephalus – brain tumor – encephalitis – meningitis – traumatic brain injury – intracranial hemorrhage – obesity – metabolic disturbance
Headaches accompanying increased intracranial pressure in a child are one of the reasons that determine restless behavior and frequent crying of babies. According to statistics, a pathology that causes severe complications is observed in every third baby in the first year of life.
How to recognize signs of increased intracranial pressure in a child, what methods of treatment of the disease modern medicine offers – the answers to these and other questions of concern to parents can be found in our article.
High intracranial pressure (hypertension) is a pathological condition characterized by exposure to brain tissue due to excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or an increase in brain size.
The brain is protected from the influence of the outside world by the skull. Its tissues are nourished with the help of a special fluid that constantly circulates in the space of the spinal cord and brain – cerebrospinal fluid. It is cerebrospinal fluid that provides a stable level of ICP, supports metabolic processes in the brain tissues and protects them from mechanical stress.
Normally, the proportions of tissues located in the skull box remain unchanged – 85% is occupied by the brain, 8% is blood and 7% is cerebrospinal fluid.
In children under the age of two years, temporary hypertension is extremely rare.
The causes of increased intracranial pressure in children can be congenital or acquired. Nevertheless, pathology is not considered an independent disease – doctors tend to regard the increase in ICP as a symptom of serious pathogenic processes.
If ICP indicators increase, the following factors may be provoking factors:
- Brain enlargement due to the development of a tumor or inflammatory processes.
- The increase in blood volume is the result of the formation of a hematoma in traumatic brain injury.
- The amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranium increases with a violation of the natural outflow through venous sinuses.
alt = “the doctor listens to the child” title = “the doctor listens to the child” Intrauterine infection and birth injuries can cause an increase in intracranial pressure
“According to statistics, in 90% of cases, increased intracranial pressure in children causes intrauterine infection, hypoxia and birth injuries.”
Pathological hypertension develops as a result of congenital or acquired diseases. Signs of a congenital form of pathology can be observed immediately after the birth of the baby. In some cases, it is possible to diagnose fetal disease during pregnancy.
Congenital causes of increased intracranial pressure in children:
- An abnormal development of the pathways of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid, due to genetic predisposition.
- Early closure of the fontanel in a one-year-old child due to craniosynostosis – premature fusion of the cranial bones.
- Hemorrhage and its consequence – a hematoma obtained during the birth process.
- Hydrocephalus is a pathology of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid against the background of its stable production.
- Cerebral edema is the result of fetal hypoxia during pregnancy or childbirth.
The causes that cause the development of the acquired form of the disease in children, in most cases, differ from the factors that contribute to the appearance of congenital pathologies, therefore, the symptoms and treatment in each case are different.
The main reasons for the acquired form of pathology in children aged 3 to 10 years:
- Traumatic brain injuries accompanied by damage to brain tissue.
- Any neoplasms of the brain.
- Diseases that provoke the development of inflammatory processes in the brain tissues – meningitis, encephalitis. Especially dangerous are pathologies transferred before the age of 5 years. Inflammations not only complicate the withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranium, but also change its composition, which can affect the development of the brain.
- Cerebral edema is a sign of exposure to toxins.
- Complications after surgery.
The initial diagnosis of the disease, which provoked an increase in intracranial pressure in the child, is based on additional symptoms – most likely, they are a sign of the main pathology. However, in children of different age categories, manifestations of pathological processes differ significantly.
A child who is 2 months old or even a year old still cannot explain what is happening to him. While children at the age of 5 are already able to outline the main characteristics of the problem. Therefore, when determining the initial diagnosis, doctors must take into account the patient’s age category.
In children under the age of three years, symptoms of increased ICP can manifest themselves as follows:
- Unreasonable crying, irritability, drowsiness, decreased activity, sleep disturbance.
- Frequent spitting up.
- Excessive increase in head size, divergence of cranial sutures.
- Changing the shape of the head – the forehead takes on a convex shape.
- The fontanel becomes convex, possibly its increase and pulsation.
- Lowered gaze – eyeballs are pulled down, a white strip appears between the upper eyelid and the iris. This symptom indicates a violation of the functions of the optic nerves.
- Increased visibility of the venous network in the upper parts of the skull due to excessive blood filling.
- Development slowdown.
- Breast rejection, due to a natural increase in ICP during sucking milk.
- Causes of intracranial pressure in a child
- Intracranial pressure – symptoms in adults. Treatment and measurement of intracranial pressure in an adult
- Signs of intracranial hypertension in children
- Causes of High ICP
- Table of Contents:
- Medicines used in the treatment
- Medicines used in the treatment
- Consequences of intracranial pressure
Causes of intracranial pressure in a child
Increased intracranial pressure in the baby has a variety of symptoms:
- Anxiety, screaming and crying mainly in the evening and at night. This is provoked by the fact that the child is lying, venous stasis occurs, the outflow of fluid worsens and slows down, which leads to increased pressure and increased discomfort.
- Sleep problems, impaired sleep, difficulty falling asleep, constant awakenings, restless shallow sleep.
- Nausea, vomiting. An increase in intracranial pressure in the newborn and infants is often accompanied by regurgitation of food, as this is a reflex phenomenon. However, regurgitation without other symptoms cannot be an accurate confirmation of the presence of precisely high intracranial pressure.
- Disproportionately large head. Although the head of a small child is already larger in relation to the body than that of an adult, excessive changes in proportions are characteristic signs of hydrocephalus.
- A noticeable network of veins on the head of the child. When the outflow of venous blood is disturbed, the vessels are filled with it and become clearly visible. Also, in the baby, fontanelles can protrude very much and even the seams between the bones of the skull partially diverge.
- Syndrome of the setting sun, or Gref’s syndrome. With it, the work of the nerves moving the eyeballs is disrupted, the eyes are shifted down, and part of the sclera is exposed at the upper eyelid.
- Refusal of breast and sucking. During the nutrition process, the fluid pressure in the skull rises, and the baby becomes very uncomfortable sucking. Refusal of food leads to weight loss, and its shortage threatens with serious pathologies – physical and psychological.
- Lag in development. The presence of intracranial hypertension negatively affects the physical, psychological and emotional development of the child.
With increased intracranial pressure in older children, the symptoms are very similar, but the child may already complain of headaches, discomfort in the eyes, nausea, vomiting, weakness and increased symptoms at night or when the body is horizontal.
Signs that make it possible to understand that the child has increased intracranial pressure are quite vivid and understandable. As a rule, they are not single, that is, they appear in a complex. Of these, there are both short-term ones and those that form over a long time. These signs or symptoms have an age characteristic. For different age periods, they are different and specific.
The main symptom that accompanies this ailment, like everything that causes discomfort to a baby or hurts him, is his hectic behavior, loud crying and poor activity.
The child’s sleep is unstable, he often wakes up or, conversely, cannot fall asleep. The baby may refuse to feed or spit up profusely, which is the result of nausea.
In children up to a year, external signs may also take place, indicating a pathology of intracranial pressure. They are expressed in visible changes in the baby’s body:
- the size of the head is disproportionate to the body, it is too large;
- fontanel swelling, an increase in the frontal part of the skull;
- the allocation of blood veins on the baby’s head, since an increase in pressure promotes a glut of the circulatory system and stagnation of blood in it;
- the so-called “symptom of the headstock” or in another way the “symptom of the setting sun”, when the child’s eyeballs bow strongly down, so that a white stripe – sclera becomes visible;
- deviations in weight gain are observed, it is too slow;
- physical and mental development slowed down.
In older children, the symptoms are much clearer. The child can already independently tell parents what and where he is worried. Therefore, determining the increase in intracranial pressure becomes much easier.
Such signs include children’s complaints about:
- severe and prolonged headache, especially in the evenings or at night;
- nausea and vomiting, after which relief still does not occur;
- pain in the eyes, which is due to pressure on the orbital region of the cerebrospinal fluid;
- shadows or flashes in front of the eyes, or bifurcation.
The child will also be inactive and will feel weak all the time. Students have a deterioration in academic performance, due to sleep problems, they can play computer games for a long time at night, which only worsens their condition. Headaches, dizziness, sometimes accompanied by nausea and vomiting, appear. Gradually, problems with concentration of attention join, and the ability to perceive and remember worsen.
Diagnostics of intracranial pressure indicators is carried out in one unique way – by taking spinal puncture. Of course, a large number of different methods are used in the diagnosis of intracranial pressure. They allow you to successfully determine the presence of this disease in a child and the degree of its complexity, but cannot give exact numbers. This is only possible with cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
In order for the patient to be prescribed such an analysis, you must first visit a neurologist. Such an analysis is performed only with the written consent of the patient. Naturally, parents give written consent for the child. Previously, it will be necessary to pass other general tests to determine the functioning of the main organs of the patient.
Taking spinal puncture is a fairly common practice in neurology. However, to determine indicators of intracranial pressure, it is used only as a last resort, since it has a large number of different safer methods for determining this pathology, but without accurate indicators.
- Ultrasound of the brain – neurosonography.
- Measurement of blood flow velocity and vascular clogging level – Dopplerography.
- Identification of violations in the structure of the skull – x-ray of the head.
- CT scan.
The main criteria for deciding whether to prescribe medications for a child with increased intracranial pressure is the weight gain, the amount and quality of sleep, and the development of the child. If these indicators in a child in the first months of life are within normal limits, then it is not worth raising a panic and treating a child with medications.
The purpose of treatment methods largely depends on the root cause, which became a provoking factor with increased intracranial pressure. However, its basic principles should be aimed at reducing intracranial pressure, improving blood circulation in the brain tissues, taking sedatives, which favorably affect the child’s mobile nervous system.
With more serious degrees of severity of this pathology, for example, with hydrocephalus, doctors resort to shunting (as a result of the procedure, excess cerebrospinal fluid flows into the abdominal cavity), and the tumors that caused the development of the disease are operated on surgically.
Before talking about the possibility of treating increased intracranial pressure in children using folk methods, it should be noted that any such treatment should be coordinated with the attending physician, which means it will not work to avoid meeting him.
This is due to the fact that if you really get into your brains, you need to be absolutely sure of the correctness of your actions. Any medicinal plant may have contraindications, which few people know about, and treatment with folk decoctions can harm the child.
If the doctor allows you to use folk remedies, then you can use fireweights, valerian, motherwort, mint, hawthorn, horsetail, mistletoe, ledum, orthosiphon and other herbs for decoctions.
For bathing newborns should use a string, birch leaf, clover, immortelle, clover, bay leaf, linden blossom.
It is useful to drink natural birch sap for both children and adults. Perfectly calms the nervous system decoction of lingonberry leaves. Using camphor oil, they wash the patient’s head, this relieves spasms and reduces intracranial pressure.
Increased intracranial pressure usually begins to manifest itself when the child begins to engage in mental work. As a rule, in the mornings, such children often have a headache, dizziness, children are listless, tearful and rude. They are in a state of chronic fatigue.
Children poorly remember poems, stories, their thinking is inhibited. Visual disturbances are observed: double vision, flying “flies”, strabismus may appear. There are signs of hypo – or hyperactivity, the most obvious of which is chin trembling.
However, children with increased intracranial pressure do not need to be completely exempted from physical education, in extreme cases they may be in special medical health groups and play sports in a lightened program.
Whatever the reason for the development of a pathological condition in a child, it must be cured. Even if the child tolerates increased intracranial pressure, there is a reason to consult a doctor.
In addition to the lag in development, sleep disturbance, the appearance of problems with memory and concentration, there are other consequences of untreated disease. For example, problems can become more severe during puberty in a teenager or at a more mature age. Weather dependence may occur, problems with memory, attention may intensify, vegetovascular dystonia, intracranial hypertension may develop.
Intracranial hypertension or increased intracranial pressure in children is quite common. Diagnosis of this disease, unfortunately, is minimized, the child in the best case is doing an ultrasound (or ECHO) of the brain once a year, which is not enough to prescribe an adequate treatment.
Important factors regarding the severity of the disease go unnoticed. But it is imperative to know how periodic the child’s seizures are, how the brain responds to a specific treatment, so that there is a need to correct it in time, especially if the problem is persistent.
- Diuretics or diuretics (the most popular are triampur, furosemide, acetazolamide) – diuretics with different principles of action can reduce intracranial pressure, but when taking such drugs it is very important to follow the dosage and doctor’s recommendations.
- Nootropic drugs (piracetam, cavinton) – their action is aimed at improving blood circulation and blood supply to the brain.
- Neuroprotectors (glycine, neurohel) – have a soothing, relaxing effect on the nervous system, stimulate the work of brain cells, tone the nervous system.
Intracranial pressure – symptoms in adults. Treatment and measurement of intracranial pressure in an adult
Every third person faces ICP. It occurs due to a lack or excess of cerebrospinal fluid – cerebrospinal fluid, which serves as a defense of the brain from mechanical damage.
It is very difficult to independently diagnose ICP. Often one cannot do without the help of a specialist, only he will be able to prescribe the necessary studies and, based on the interpretation of the results, reach a verdict. If you notice a deterioration in health, listen to yourself, maybe you are not just tired or nervous at work. The main signs of increased intracranial pressure in adults:
- severe bursting headache;
- dizziness, shortness of breath, chills;
- increase in blood pressure (BP);
- reaction to changing weather conditions;
- morning sickness, vomiting is possible;
- the appearance of dark circles under the eyes that do not pass after sleep;
- increased sweating, sweating of the extremities;
- decreased libido;
- temporary visual impairment, double vision, black spots;
- fatigue, increased excitement and nervousness.
Basically, the symptoms of intracranial pressure in women are classic. Sometimes severe swelling and soreness of the limbs can be added to them. It is noted that girls have a higher pain threshold, but it is much more sensitive to minor pain, so the disease in them can occur in a more acute form. Often among the complaints of the weaker sex can be found:
- high blood pressure;
- redness of the eyeball;
- pressing pain in the neck;
- increased heart rate;
- increased salivation;
- severe headache.
Often, symptoms of intracranial pressure in men go unnoticed due to low sensitivity and a somewhat careless attitude to their own health. It is much easier to drink a pill from the head and continue your usual lifestyle than to decide on a visit to the doctor and undergo an examination. However, it is not worth running ICP, because this is a serious pathology, because of which there is a high risk of making more serious diseases. How is intracranial pressure manifested in adult men:
- throbbing headache;
- a sharp increase in blood pressure;
- paresis of the spinal muscles;
- increased irritability and nervousness.
Diagnosis of intracranial pressure can be done in any clinic in the direction of a therapist. Basically, methods are used for this, which give only an approximate result, but this is enough to determine the need for treatment and prevention. The specialist will prescribe all the necessary recommendations and medications after a full examination.
There are three main accurate methods of measurement:
- The epidural method consists in trepanation of the cranium and the subsequent introduction of a special sensor into the hole that transmits data to the computer. In this way, ICP can be measured, but no excess cerebrospinal fluid can be removed.
- The subdural method is rarely used. During the procedure, a specialized screw is used, with which indicators are determined. It is removed immediately after the study.
- The intraventricular method is the most modern and common, it consists in introducing a catheter into the cranium through a specially drilled hole. The main advantages of this study is that it is possible to pump out excess fluid if necessary and reduce ICP.
Any of these methods is dangerous, and is used only if all the signs indicate the exact presence of the disease, there are injuries, cerebral edema, or other indications threatening the patient’s life. In other situations, less risky, non-invasive examination methods are used that are not harmful to health. However, achieving the exact result is extremely difficult.
With an increase in intracranial pressure, symptoms in adults develop in most cases gradually. A headache comes to the fore, having the following parameters:
- character – crushing, bursting, constricting, occasionally – throbbing;
- time of occurrence – in the morning after waking up, which is associated with an increase in ICP;
- provoking factors – the horizontal position of the torso, cough, sneezing, straining, over-extension of the head;
- concomitant symptoms – nausea and vomiting, noise in the head;
- not removed by the administration of analgesics.
In second place in frequency with an increase in intracranial pressure is a syndrome of autonomic dysfunction, which is accompanied by:
- fluctuations in blood pressure and pulse during the day;
- violation of intestinal motility with the development of constipation or, conversely, diarrhea;
- hypersalivation – increased salivation;
- humidity of the skin, especially in the area of the palmar and plantar surfaces;
- attacks of suffocation;
- feelings of fear, anxiety, irritability, apathy, drowsiness;
- pains in the heart, abdomen.
Much less frequently, increased intracranial pressure may be accompanied by the development of stroke-like conditions that threaten the patient’s life. In such cases, the following symptoms are observed:
- impaired consciousness up to a coma;
- severe dizziness and instability when walking;
- decreased strength in the limbs;
- speech disorder;
- indomitable vomiting;
- impaired functioning of the pelvic organs in the form of incontinence or retention of urine and feces;
- dysfunction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull: in the sinuses of the meninges, in the subarchoid and epidural spaces, and in the ventricles of the brain. Its fluctuations are associated with disturbances in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in certain parts of the cranium, which leads to its accumulation or deficiency.
In a healthy person, about a liter of cerebrospinal fluid is released per day, while intracranial pressure remains normal. This is due to the constant absorption of cerebrospinal fluid into the venous vessels of the brain. In pathological cases, cerebrospinal fluid is not absorbed where it is needed and its excess mass creates pressure on the walls of the ventricles of the brain.
Intracranial pressure may vary throughout the day. Like arterial, it rises and falls as a result of the influence of various factors, and at the same time, the person does not feel any discomfort. Pathology is a persistent increase in ICP, which is due to the accumulation in the cranium of an excess amount of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid).
In a normal state, the pressure inside the skull of an adult should be no higher than 10-15 mm Hg. Its increase to 25–35 mm is considered critical, and in this case you can lose consciousness. If this process is not stopped, then it can lead to brain death. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine the increase in intracranial pressure in an adult according to its symptoms.
Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure in adults:
- frequent headaches, especially in the morning;
- vomiting, nausea;
- increased sweating;
- visual impairment: double vision, throbbing pain;
- bruising or slight bruising under the eyes;
- fatigue, nervousness;
- decreased mobility of the joints;
- decreased potency, sexual desire.
When signs of intracranial pressure appeared after a head injury, a fall and are expressed by impaired consciousness, drowsiness, and even fainting, the patient will be suspected of brain damage. In this case, you should immediately seek medical help.
Increased intracranial pressure is a serious threat to the patient’s life. Regular pressure on the brain disrupts its activity, as a result of which intellectual abilities can decrease and the nervous regulation of the work of internal organs is disturbed.
When diagnosed with increased intracranial pressure, treatment in adults depends on the causes of the disease, age, and may include diuretics, sedatives, and vascular drugs. In addition, manual and diet therapy are prescribed, as well as gymnastics.
The diet is based on the intake of vitamin-rich foods, as well as the minimum amount of salt and liquid. Depending on the severity of the disease, invasive (associated with penetration into the body) methods are used.
Some of these methods are designed only for symptomatic relief of the patient’s condition. Others can cure the root cause of the disease. As for symptomatic treatment with drugs, diuretics (diuretics), for example, Diacarb, are a common remedy. The drug inhibits carbonic anhydrase of the brain, which leads to a decrease in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial pressure. Accordingly, the symptoms associated with it are removed. Diacarb is prescribed to reduce benign intracranial pressure.
In general, the mechanism of action of diuretic drugs is based on the removal of excess fluid through the kidneys, which reduces cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Before you start taking the drug, you should get acquainted with the opinion of professionals to make sure the safety of the prescribed therapy. Also remember that diuretics do not solve the problem when the cause of ICP is a tumor, hematoma, aneurysm, and other serious causes. Do not self-medicate.
Signs of intracranial hypertension in children
- restless behavior, especially in the evening, at night;
- problems with sleep;
- nausea, regurgitation in infants;
- refusal to eat;
- increased head size;
- Graefe symptom – lowering the eyeballs down;
- expansion of veins under the scalp;
- developmental lag.
There are several symptoms in which parents should sound the alarm. How is intracranial pressure in the baby, which is dangerous? It is urgent to contact a neurologist if:
- pulsations, swelling of the fontanel, especially at rest;
- periodic twitching;
- uneven muscle tone;
- systematic seizures;
- open eyes during sleep;
- bouts of fading;
- involuntary movements of the pupils;
- loss of consciousness.
Intracranial pressure in infants rises in the evening, which is associated with a slowed outflow of venous blood with a long horizontal position of the body. This leads to anxiety, tearfulness. Signs of ICP in infants:
- divergence of cranial sutures;
- refusal of feeding;
- spitting up;
- dropping eyeballs down;
- visible veins on the head, overflowing with blood;
- slow physical development;
- slight weight gain;
- severe vomiting.
Nevertheless, there are some external signs that may indicate that the infant has an increased ICP (which, in turn, as we have said a good hundred times, may be a symptom of one of their dangerous diseases).
In infants and babies up to a year, the main signs of increased ICP are:
- Exceeding the growth rate of the head circumference;
- “Bulging” fontanel (when it does not drag out, as it should, but on the contrary – sticks out);
- Divergence of the bones of the skull;
How to measure the circumference of the baby’s head?
To find out the true indicators of the circumference of the baby’s head, you should place a flexible ruler (a tailor’s meter is also suitable) strictly above the eyebrows – in front and at the highest point of the nape – in the back.
On average, the head circumference of newborn babies is 34 cm, and then increases (on average!) By 1 cm every month. That is, in the first year of life, the baby’s head adds about 12 cm.
It is very important to know: none of the listed signs of increased intracranial pressure is an obvious reason for making a diagnosis of “increased ICP.” Symptoms should be manifested in a complex and supported by subsequent studies – for example, ultrasound of the brain and others.
Remember, symptoms of increased intracranial pressure are NOT:
- Slow closure of the fontanel;
- Any developmental delays (“late” began to roll over, sit down or walk, silent, not talking, etc.);
- Trembling, trembling or tremors (arms, legs or lips);
- Hyperactivity syndrome;
- Impaired sleep or appetite;
The main symptoms of ICP include:
- severe crying and restlessness. One distinctive feature that is characteristic of high blood pressure is that the child can be completely calm throughout the day, but at night he begins to cry loudly. This is due to the specific structure of the venous system. Since the child is mainly in the supine position at night, the outflow of blood during this period gradually slows down, the veins of the brain are extremely crowded, which significantly increases the volume of CSF. This is what leads to increased pressure inside the cranium;
- sleep disturbance, endless awakenings, difficulty falling asleep. These signs of intracranial pressure in a child are also due to the cause described in detail above;
- nausea, vomiting and fairly frequent profuse regurgitation. These phenomena are considered reflex, but it is also impossible not to take them into account;
- head enlargement in volumes. Disproportionate size of the head, bulging “fontanelles”, an increase in the frontal lobe and divergence of the sutures of the skull. This is due to the fact that cerebrospinal fluid gradually accumulates in the brain. The consequence of this is hydrocephalus;
- translucence of veins under the scalp. When blood overflows the veins of the head and stagnates there, this leads to the expansion of the subcutaneous vessels. As a result, veins are clearly visible under the skin;
- Gref’s symptom. It is characterized by a serious disruption of the oculomotor nerves, which occurs as a result of birth trauma. The manifestation is characterized by deviations of the eyeballs down, after which you can see the strip of sclera below the upper eyelid;
- rejection of mother’s milk. Since the pressure rises in the process of feeding the baby, as a result, he refuses it due to the presence of painful sensations. As a result of this, the baby does not gain weight, which negatively affects his health and general condition;
- inhibition in physical and psychoemotional development. This alarming symptom is the result of prolonged high blood pressure and refusal to feed.
For the most part, the main symptoms are very similar to those noted in infants.
They can also include pain on the inside of the eyeballs, which occurs as a result of the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid on the part of the head located behind them.
Also, children may notice symptoms such as double vision, the occurrence of bright flashes or ribbons in front of the eyes. They appear due to irritation of the optic nerves.
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The list of symptoms that signal the presence of increased cranial pressure includes:
- increased drowsiness;
- intense headaches;
- blue circles under the eyes;
- nausea, vomiting;
- Firstly, this is due to the presence of a fontanel. Before reaching the age of one year, the bones of the skull grow, so the sign of ICP is most noticeable. The child has a fontanel swelling and divergence of sutures of the bones of the skull. Due to the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, the frontal part of the head increases, thereby disproportionately growing head. The last sign indicates the development of hydrocephalus
- Secondly, due to increased pressure in the baby, the veins of the head are dilated, in the temple and forehead, the most viewed
- Thirdly, due to disruption of the oculomotor nerves, strabismus develops
Signs of ICP in newborns also include: constant regurgitation, lethargy, crying when coughing or sneezing, and constantly lowering the head down.
Liquor regulates respiratory activity, blood circulation, participates in the excretion of certain metabolic products, protects the brain from mechanical damage, and performs a transport and immune function.
During the day, from 40 ml is formed, in a newborn healthy child, up to 1 liter of cerebrospinal fluid, in an adult.
In most cases, this condition does not require special treatment and is not life threatening.
But there are situations when treatment is simply necessary, since sometimes increased intracranial pressure in children is a symptom of a serious disease that requires immediate treatment.
ICP is the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, which is located in the spinal canal and ventricles of the brain. Its volume also affects the pressure inside the cranium.
In the normal state, its level is stable, and the composition periodically changes. When the amount of cerebrospinal fluid rises, so does the pressure.
If this condition is observed constantly, then the doctor talks about increased intracranial pressure.
Causes of High ICP
There is also temporary or benign intracranial hypertension, in children it develops after prolonged crying, physical exertion, changes in weather, changes in muscle or vascular tone, or in vegetative-vascular dystonia. This condition goes away on its own and is found only in infants. In some cases, it may occur before the age of 2 years.
This form is diagnosed in infants and is associated with:
- Genetic defects and abnormalities in the development of cerebrospinal fluid outflow pathways, resulting in stagnation of cerebrospinal fluid.
- Hydrocephalus – a violation of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
- Hemorrhage during childbirth. As a result of the appearance of a hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid pressure appears on the brain tissue.
- Cerebral edema, which can develop due to fetal hypoxia during fetal development or during childbirth.
In almost 90% of all cases of congenital pathology, the cause is infection of the fetus with some infections or birth injury. Its feature is that congenital ICP in children is detected immediately after childbirth or in the first weeks of life. Sometimes doctors can diagnose it during the last trimester of a woman’s pregnancy.
Today, there are effective diagnostic methods that make it possible to determine high intracranial pressure in the baby and prescribe adequate treatment, which guarantees a favorable outcome for the baby. Subsequently, such children are no different from their peers.
Increased intracranial pressure in a child under 7 years of age can occur for the following reasons:
- Traumatic brain injury, which leads to the appearance of edema of brain tissue and high cerebrospinal fluid pressure.
- Early closure of the fontanel. The norm is the closure of a large fontanel by 12-18 months of the baby’s life. But, sometimes this can happen earlier. In this case, the brain continues to grow and an increase in intracranial pressure is possible.
- Brain hemorrhage. At the same time, compression of the tissues appears in the hemorrhage center and the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid on the surrounding tissues increases.
- Inflammatory processes of brain tissue (encephalitis, meningitis). As a result of inflammation, brain tissue swells, and in the case of purulent forms of disease, the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid changes. In this case, it becomes too thick, which complicates its outflow.
- Swelling of brain tissue due to exposure to toxic substances.
- Any neoplasms (malignant or benign) in the brain that press on its tissue and disrupt the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
- Surgery on the brain, as a result of which adhesions may form, hampering the movement of cerebrospinal fluid.
Signs of ICP in a young child include:
- protrusion and intense tension of the fontanel;
- swollen veins on the surface of the head:
- seams may extend between the bones;
- restless behavior of the child, causeless crying and screaming;
- head size too large compared to the body;
- Eye rolling out;
- increased lethargy, increased muscle tone;
- violations of certain reflexes: the absence of some or the appearance of others, pathological;
- convulsive syndrome;
- gag reflexes, regurgitation, which are not associated with food intake;
- trembling hands and feet;
- hypersensitivity to pain;
- the appearance of strabismus, nystagmus and other pathological defects on the face and head is also characteristic.
Sometimes the signs of intracranial pressure in a baby can become so pronounced that the baby can lose consciousness, feel temporary hearing loss, and fall into a coma.
Often, symptoms of ICP in older children may not be recognized immediately after birth or may arise as a result of any external causes: illness, head damage, or infection.
Signs that should alert parents are as follows:
- the presence of nausea or vomiting reflexes;
- soreness in the eyes due to excessive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid on the orbits;
- double vision in the eyes;
- migraine attacks in the evening;
- excessive emotionality of a son or daughter, aggressiveness, moodiness;
- frequent fatigue;
- convulsive reflexes;
- difficulty remembering;
- distraction of attention;
Such symptoms of ICP in a child may indicate a pathology. In order for a specialist to be able to diagnose intracranial hypertension, the baby should undergo an examination of the cranial cavity and organs of the central nervous system.
When to sound the alarm? What are the signs of intracranial pressure in a child? Depending on age, symptoms of increased ICP are different. In babies whose fontanelles are not yet overgrown, the bones of the skull are able to slightly move apart. With excessive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, you can notice an increased head size, bulging fontanelles, well visible under the scalp of a vein.
The first thing that mom notices is that the baby is calm if his head is raised, but when the baby is put to bed, he soon begins to cry a lot, can not calm down. The reason is that the outflow of blood from the veins is getting worse. Other symptoms join night crying:
- regurgitation becomes more frequent and larger in volume;
- nausea and vomiting;
- loss of appetite and lag in weight (when sucking, the baby strains muscles, pressure on the brain increases, hurts the baby, and he throws his chest);
- eyeballs deviate down, between the upper eyelid and the iris, a white stripe is visible;
- noticeable lag in mental and physical development.
- crying for no reason, nervousness;
- persistent drowsiness and hypoactivity;
- irregular shape of the skull, forehead becomes high and extended forward;
- bulging fontanel;
- early overgrown fontanel;
- vivid severity of saphenous veins on the head;
- accelerated skull growth;
- slowdown of mental and physical progress;
- weight gain stops.
Table of Contents:
- bulging of large and small fontanelles, as well as their pulsation;
- the divergence of the bones of the skull with an increase in the size of the joints;
- a change in the behavior of the child: drowsiness, lethargy, or, conversely, irritability, tearfulness;
- chin tremor;
- repeated vomiting (“fountain”), which does not bring relief;
- impaired vision;
- oculomotor disorders in the form of strabismus, restrictions on the range of movements of the eyeballs;
- violation of the level of consciousness, in severe cases, the development of a coma is possible;
- convulsive syndrome;
- an increase in the size of the head circumference;
- decrease in strength in the limbs up to complete immobility;
- spitting up while eating.
- excessive pronounced bulging fontanel,
- a strong lag in overall development in relation to peers,
- excessive anxiety
- the child spits up too much and gains little weight,
- lethargy and drowsiness.
- Gref’s symptom, when the child’s eyes are not looking straight ahead, but down.
- Swelling and pulsation of the fontanel.
- The divergence of the bones of the skull, which occurs due to the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid under them.
- Symptom Gref – violation of the functioning of the oculomotor nerve. A symptom may develop due to increased ICP. In this case, the eyeballs periodically deviate downward, and a white strip is clearly visible above the iris. Another name for this condition is the “setting sun symptom.”
- Increased tearfulness and anxiety, especially at night. This is due to the fact that at this time the baby is mainly horizontal, and in this position the venous outflow is significantly slowed down. As a result, the volume of cerebrospinal fluid increases.
- With ICP, many veins are clearly visible on the head, which turn out to be crowded with blood.
- Regular, abundant regurgitation is one of the symptoms of the disease, although not very reliable, since such a condition can be associated with other causes.
- Lethargy of the infant and muscle hypotension. With ICP, vomiting is considered reflex and is associated with the fact that those parts of the brain that are responsible for the occurrence of nausea and vomiting are irritated.
- Lag in development.
- A small weight gain. It is associated with the fact that a child with high ICP often refuses to feed. The fact is that during sucking, intracranial pressure naturally increases, and in such situations, the baby experiences pain and refuses to breast.
If the symptoms of intracranial pressure in a child of 6 years are pronounced, then you should immediately visit a specialist. He will definitely prescribe the child the appropriate studies, allowing to measure the pressure inside the cranium as accurately as possible. Since infants have a large fontanel open, an ultrasound can be performed. This method is called neurosonography.
Be sure to visit an ophthalmologist. He will carefully examine the fundus and determine whether more radical methods of examination are needed or not. If one of the signs of increased intracranial pressure in a child is retinal vein expansion, then additional research is urgently needed.
Be sure to do a tomography and an echoencephalogram of the brain. These types of studies make it possible not only to measure pressure, but also to accurately assess the state of the ventricles of the brain.
If all the previously used methods have not brought the expected benefit, and the signs of increased intracranial pressure in a child who is 1 year old are very alarming, you need to turn to more radical procedures.
One of these methods is ventricular puncture and cerebrospinal puncture, which provide an opportunity to learn more about the data characterizing the magnitude of the pressure inside the skull. They should be carried out according to strict guidelines.
High intracranial pressure in newborns is a fairly common occurrence. Usually it is a manifestation of a birth injury or a sign of a pregnancy pathology, so newborns are immediately checked for high blood pressure. If this is not done and the baby is not treated, high blood pressure will increase, and the child’s condition will worsen.
To begin with, the child will be examined by a neurologist, then if signs characteristic of high blood pressure are found, he can be referred to an ophthalmologist to check eye reflexes and the condition of nerves.
In children under the age of 12 months, the best diagnostic method is neurosonography. The fontanelles are not yet closed during this period, therefore, ultrasound penetrates the brain well and gives a full picture of its condition, formation and development.
Up to six months, neurosonography can be performed three times, since at the first examination only beginning changes may be unnoticed.
Since high intracranial pressure has an extremely negative effect on children, timely diagnosis is very important for the rapid start of treatment and improvement.
Two main possibilities to do this: monitor the condition of the fontanel and regularly measure the circumference of the baby’s head. In the first case, a clearly convex fontanel indicates violations. As for the second, you need to measure your head once a month, placing a meter above the eyebrows and at a high point of the head. In a newborn, the circumference of the skull is / – 34 cm, another centimeter is added monthly. If this figure is much larger, there is reason to consult a doctor.
Additionally, it is necessary to monitor the onset of symptoms of high ICP described above.
It is extremely difficult to determine intracranial pressure at home without minimal knowledge in medicine. Unfortunately, an apparatus that helps to know the level of ICP outside a medical institution does not exist. Do not postpone a visit to a specialist if you begin to notice symptoms of intracranial pressure in adults. It is much safer at the initial stage to recognize the disease and take action than to deal with the consequences.
Before you figure out how to treat high intracranial pressure, you must correctly diagnose. Therefore, for the diagnosis of intracranial hypertension in adults, it is prescribed:
- General blood analysis ;
- Blood test for electrolytes;
- MRI or CT;
- Measurement of cerebrospinal fluid pressure (lumbar puncture);
- Laboratory study of cerebrospinal fluid;
- Differential diagnosis with systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis.
According to the results of the diagnosis, as well as depending on the severity of the course and the severity of symptoms of intracranial pressure, a treatment regimen is determined.
To begin the correct treatment, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis. It includes the following procedures:
- ICP measurement (in severe cases in conditions of neuroresuscitation).
- Inspection by a neurologist.
- History taking.
- Blood tests.
Is intracranial pressure dangerous? This condition poses a rather serious threat to the body, since the brain constantly undergoes oxygen starvation due to increased ICP. This, in turn, leads to a violation not only of its work, but also of other internal organs and systems.
Treatment of high ICP should take place in a hospital with careful medical supervision. General treatment is selected based on the reason that contributed to the appearance of this ailment. In turn, drug therapy involves the intake of such groups of drugs:
- Antibacterial drugs (for various neuroinfections).
- Tumor removal and further chemotherapy (for oncological pathologies).
- Pumping liquid (with hydrocephalus).
- Taking diuretics.
- Taking vasodilator drugs.
- Prescribing sedatives.
In addition, manual therapy, massage and therapeutic exercises are very effective. Intracranial hypertension does not mean a sentence for a person. With the right approach to its treatment, this condition can be stabilized. Intracranial pressure is not a diagnosis, but a symptom of some diseases. Therefore, if high ICP is suspected, competent doctors will look for the cause of intracranial pressure.
To measure intracranial pressure, doctors use the following methods:
- CT scan .
- A catheter is inserted into the patient in one of the ventricles of the brain or the spinal canal with further measurement using a special pressure gauge.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
- Ophthalmologists diagnose by studying the condition of the fundus.
- Ultrasound of the brain or neurosonography (how neurosonography in newborns is read here).
For babies who are not yet 1 year old, it is preferable to use neurosonography or echoencephaloscopy to measure ICP. Adults who have a history of cerebrovascular accident are prescribed magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, which makes it possible to identify abnormalities.
How to determine that a child has changed ICP? First of all, you need to consult a neurologist for a consultation. After a thorough interview and examination, the doctor will prescribe instrumental studies and consultations of related specialists as necessary.
The following diagnostic methods may be used:
- Neurosonography is an ultrasound examination of a child’s brain, which is carried out through an unclosed fontanel. This technique is informative only until the fontanel closes.
- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography – which will allow to assess the presence and level of changes in the structures of the brain tissue, determine the presence of neoplasms, to identify changes in the lumen of the pathways along which cerebrospinal fluid is excreted.
- X-ray examination – determines anomalies in the structure of the bones of the skull.
- Dopplerography is a study of the state of the vessels of the brain.
- Lumbar puncture is a technique for studying cerebrospinal fluid, which allows precise determination of changes in ICP. But before checking the indicators of this study, a whole range of other procedures is prescribed, and only if they are ineffective, puncture is prescribed.
- The method of direct pressure measurement inside the cranium is how the ICP is measured using this method: you need to insert a needle with a manometer into the baby’s head, which will allow you to get accurate pressure values and compare them with normal ones.
In some cases, intracranial pressure is determined in a child after a visit to an ophthalmologist, since a prolonged increase in ICP causes changes in the fundus – there is an expansion of the lumen of the veins and narrowing of the arteries, swelling of the eye disc.
The only method that makes it possible to compare the normal values in a child with the indicators of a sick baby is to conduct a spinal puncture. But in practice it is used very rarely, since modern medicine has many other safer ways to diagnose ICP by its signs and symptoms:
- Examination of the child by a neurologist who can notice disturbances in reflexes, swelling of the fontanel, an increase in the volume of the head and Gref’s symptom. The doctor will ask the mother about the child’s behavior, sleep patterns and the period of wakefulness, changes in the baby’s weight and appetite.
- Inspection by an ophthalmologist, during which the doctor will check the fundus. With intracranial pressure, dilated veins, spasmodic vessels, and changes in the optic disc will be clearly visible.
- How to measure intracranial pressure? For infants whose fontanel has not yet closed, the most informative way is brain neurosonography or ultrasound, which allows you to measure and detect an increase in ventricular volumes, interhemispheric fissures, displacement or deformation of brain structures, and the presence of volumetric neoplasms.
In the photo, the procedure for neurosonography of the brain of the baby
In order to identify the problem in time, it is recommended to undergo neurosonography at the age of 1, 3 and 6 months. Regardless of what the first examination showed, it is necessary to repeat it again, since the problem can hit the baby at any time. If necessary, the doctor may advise you to do an examination until the fontanel of the child is completely closed. This procedure will not bring harm, but if necessary it will allow you to identify pathology at the initial stage and successfully cure it.
For a child whose fontanel is already closed, computed or magnetic resonance imaging is used.
Medicines used in the treatment
After passing the examination, only the doctor can prescribe the appropriate treatment.
The range of measures aimed at eliminating ICP includes:
- complete elimination of the consequences of severe pregnancy and childbirth with complications, which include prolonged breastfeeding, adherence to sleep patterns, maintaining emotional contact and long walks in the fresh air;
- the appointment of appropriate medications that are aimed at calming the nervous system, improving blood circulation, and saturating the body with vitamins;
- taking diuretics;
- the use of physiotherapeutic procedures;
- if the cause of increased intracranial pressure is precisely the anatomical disorder, it is necessary to immediately undergo surgery in order to completely restore the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from the brain.
In addition to drug treatment, a few simple rules should be followed:
- limiting the amount of fluid used;
- restriction of fried and salty foods;
- the inclusion in the diet of lemons, oranges, herbs, potatoes and dried apricots;
- the introduction of the rule of sleep on high pillows (this contributes to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid down).
Treatment of intracranial pressure in children is directly related to the causes of this condition. Most often, the following means and methods of exposure are used:
- Nootropic drugs that improve cerebral circulation: Nootropil, Piracetam, Cavinton, nicotinic acid and other drugs at the choice and prescription of the attending physician.
- Neuroprotectors are glycines.
- Diuretics – diuretics (Triampur, Diacarb and so on).
- Mild sedatives.
- Massaging the collar zone to improve fluid outflow.
- Long walks in the fresh air.
- Physical education, especially swimming. A newborn can swim from birth, for a child with ICP in the first months and years of life, this is especially useful, since it allows you to remove intracranial hypertension in a natural way.
- Compliance with a clear daily routine, sleep, wakefulness, walking and feeding infants.
- In the presence of congenital pathologies of the structure of the cerebrospinal fluid or the presence of neoplasms, treatment of intracranial hypertension is performed surgically.
- In an infant with intracranial pressure caused by hydrocephalus, shunting is performed as an effective treatment for the syndrome. It improves fluid outflow and reduces manifestations of high pressure.
With the permission of the attending physician and under his control, treatment with folk remedies can be carried out. Basically, it includes the use of various drugs based on extracts, decoctions or infusions of medicinal herbs:
- Lavender oil is heated and gently rubbed into the whiskey to relieve a severe headache and cause relief.
- Birch juice. This healing drink must be natural. It is given to the baby 2 to 3 glasses a day or is replaced by half the daily intake of fluids in younger children.
- Lemon with garlic. To obtain the medicine, a whole head of garlic and two lemons are ground in a meat grinder. The child is given 30 ml of the mixture, previously diluting it in water before bedtime. It must be remembered that a composition with citrus fruits can cause the development of an acute allergic reaction.
- A decoction of mulberry branches, or mulberries. The branches are boiled in a liter of distillate for a quarter of an hour, the broth is filtered and given to the child in a cup before bedtime.
- A decoction of dried lavender flowers. Take a tablespoon of flowers, pour boiling water, cook for no more than three minutes, insist for half an hour, filter and use for a month with a break of two weeks. It is also useful to rub this decoction into the scalp, performing a light massage.
It must be remembered that alternative methods of treating hypertension cannot replace full-fledged complex therapy with medications, especially surgical intervention. Independently, without the supervision of a doctor, treating a sick child can be very dangerous for his health.
- diuretics such as diacarb
- potassium-containing medicines
- corticosteroid administration
For reduced pressure, apply:
- nootropic drugs
- amino acids
- vitamins (Glycine, Magnesium B6)
- and caffeine-containing products
Therapeutic measures are based on the use of medicines that:
- contribute to improving cerebral circulation, such as Cortexin, Actovegin, Somazina, Ceraxon, Pantogam, Cavinton, Cinnarazine.
- Eliminate Postpartum Effects – Traumeel
- have a calming effect – Nervochel
- normalize sleep – Dormikind
- A decoction of lavender. To do this, 1 tbsp. dry lavender flowers pour boiling water and boil for 3 minutes. After which the broth should insist 30 minutes. Take the medicine for 30 days, with an interval of 14 days. Before going to bed, you can rub a decoction into the scalp of a child
- Mulberry broth. A bunch of mulberry branches, for 15 minutes, boils in 1 liter. distilled water. After which it is filtered and consumed. It is necessary to take only freshly cooked one cup before meals.
- Lavender oil. Used when the first pains appear, rubbing it in the whiskey while hot
- A mixture of lemon and garlic. For cooking, you need to take two lemons and one head of garlic and pass through a meat grinder. Drink 30 ml at bedtime in a diluted form so as not to injure the stomach
- Birch juice . Drink 2-3 glasses a day, or if the child is small, replace with juice 1/2 of the daily intake of the liquid drunk
To normalize the pressure, a collar zone massage session, physiotherapy exercises, swimming and the use of vitamins are also prescribed.
Intracranial pressure is a “diagnosis”, which should not scare its name by hearing it in a clinic. First of all, it is important to monitor the development of your child and immediately contact a neurologist if symptoms of ICP are detected. Secondly, follow all his treatment recommendations. During the measures taken, the child will not cause complications.
To prescribe the right treatment, the doctor must understand the causes of increased intracranial pressure in the child and eliminate the underlying disease. Mom should not refuse prescribed examinations. Even if the child is healthy, ultrasound examination is recommended at 1 month, 3 months and six months.
Do not refuse this procedure, it will not bring any harm, this is the only method that determines all the pathologies of the brain. If the first time nothing dangerous is found, you should not calm down and ignore the following procedure. The body of the baby changes very quickly, problems can occur in the second month after the examination.
In mild cases, sometimes no treatment is required. The pediatrician can recommend adjusting the regimen of the day, more often taking the child to fresh air, doing physical therapy and swimming in the pool. Increased intracranial pressure is found in almost half of babies, and severe illnesses in which it occurs are very rare. Do everything to ensure a healthier lifestyle for the child, often this is enough.
Do not give your baby medication yourself. If there are no serious diseases, and you just need to reduce the suffering of the child, the doctor can prescribe:
- medications that improve blood circulation in the brain;
All these methods have a specific spectrum of action, only the doctor after the examination can decide whether it is necessary to reduce the amount of fluid in the body, strengthen the blood vessels or calm the too active and excited child. Do not read forum posts or listen to acquaintances who have been helped by a miracle drug to completely heal a child in one go. Each case is individual, inept treatment can only harm.
If the diagnosis was disappointing and you find out that the baby is seriously ill, there can be no talk of any home treatment or traditional medicine. Hydrocephalus, tumors, or complex anatomical defects are treated only in a hospital, often surgically. Your task is not to try to do something yourself, but if possible, find the best medical center for this profile and ensure that the child is sent there.
Remember that stress increases intracranial pressure even more. Do not worry the child, do not show him your anxiety. Learn to smile and say that everything is fine, soon all the pains will pass.
If, nevertheless, the condition of the baby is worse, and it is necessary to reduce the pressure, use such means:
- nootropic drugs;
Diuretic drugs contribute to the removal of excess cerebrospinal fluid from the body, due to which there is a decrease in pressure. Nootropic drugs are used to improve blood circulation in the brain.
If the cause of the pathology is a serious problem, for example, hydrocephalus, in certain cases, the child may need a bypass procedure.
Neoplasms are removed surgically.
Treatment begins after establishing the cause of the disease.
Stage One – Elimination of the cause of the disease.
- In the event that an intracerebral formation – a tumor, hematoma, aneurysm – led to an increase in intracranial pressure, after an appropriate additional examination, surgery is performed on an emergency basis (removal of the volumetric formation).
- In case of excessive secretion of cerebrospinal fluid during hydrocephalus, shunting operations are performed, the purpose of which is to create an additional outflow path for cerebrospinal fluid, which leads to a decrease in intracranial pressure.
Medicines used in the treatment
If the patient has problems in the functioning of the vessels, he is prescribed Magnesia injections and is recommended to take the pills: Cinnarizine, Sermion, Niceroglyn and Cavinton, which contribute to the improvement of cerebral circulation and normal ICP.
The price of the drug in Russian pharmacies is about 280 rubles for 30 tablets
In addition to tablets, vitamin therapy and homeopathic remedies are prescribed that increase the therapeutic effect of drugs.
If the doctor decides that the patient needs neurometabolic stimulants, he will be advised to take Piracetam, Nootropil, Pantogam and Phenotropil.
Drugs containing amino acids that help produce hormones, enzymes and other vital substances in the body are able to relieve stress from the brain: Glycine, Cerebrolysin and Citrulline. If low blood pressure does not create serious problems for the patient, then he is recommended to drink strong coffee daily.
Glycine is an affordable medication. Its selling price is an average of 30 rubles per pack of 50 tablets
Hospitalization with increased intracranial pressure is indicated only in complex cases. If there is no danger to the life and health of the patient, then he is recommended to be treated at home. If the patient takes any medications for other diseases, he needs to consult with an observing physician regarding their further intake or replacement of these medicines with herbal remedies. This will help relieve stress from the kidneys and avoid other side effects of medications.
Consequences of intracranial pressure
If the signs of intracranial pressure in the child for some reason remain undiagnosed or are ignored, this can lead to the following complications:
- The appearance and development of epilepsy.
- Violation of psychological balance.
- Increased fatigue.
- Sleep disturbance.
- Vegetative dystonia.
- Impaired vision.
- Different types of stroke are a frequent consequence of intracranial increase in blood pressure in children.
- With compression of the cerebellum in infants, there is a violation of breathing, consciousness, weakness of the legs and arms.
To avoid such dangerous complications, you should immediately seek medical help for any suspicious symptoms in a newborn and undergo a thorough examination.
Of the negative consequences that may develop due to lack of therapy, the following can be noted:
- the occurrence of epileptic seizures;
- visual disturbances;
- ischemic stroke;
- hemorrhagic stroke;
- violation of psychological conditions.
Newborns often cry and are moody. Many mothers do not pay this due attention. However, restless behavior, sleep disturbances, moodiness can become signs of pathological intracranial processes. In order to protect your son or daughter from negative consequences, it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis, and, if the diagnosis is confirmed, apply the appropriate therapy.
If the child does not pay attention to the symptoms of the disease, does not engage in treatment, this will cause serious problems. The effects of intracranial pressure will be observed:
- deterioration of vision;
- respiratory failure;
- impaired consciousness;
- epileptic seizures;
- developmental delay;
- movement coordination disorder;
- decreased muscle tone;
- change in the work of the heart;
- difficulty in cerebral circulation;
- deterioration of the emotional state;
- violation of reflexes.
A life-threatening condition is a sudden increase in intracranial pressure, leading to death (death) in the absence of appropriate treatment. Other complications characteristic of high ICP include:
- infringement of the cerebellum in the large occipital foramen, which is accompanied by impaired breathing, decreased strength in the limbs, impaired consciousness;
- epileptic syndrome;
- decreased vision up to blindness;
- violation of mental functions;
- ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes.
Increased ICP is acute and chronic. An acute condition usually occurs with severe brain injuries, heavy hemorrhage or stroke. It is important to know that if you do not treat a person in such a condition on time, this can lead to the death of the patient.
The chronic form is a pathology that takes a fairly long time. It has a wavy nature (it is exacerbated, then stabilized). Chronic ICP most often it develops as a result of taking medications.
The consequences of chronic intracranial pressure can be:
- deterioration of vision;
- depression and mental disorders;
- memory impairment;
- chronic migraine;
- chronic fatigue.
Important! While a person has high intracranial pressure, the brain does not receive proper nutrition and oxygen saturation.
Suddenly increased ICP without quality treatment can cause death. Other complications that may result from high ICP include:
- Mental disorders.
- Epileptic syndrome.
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- Infringement of the cerebellum, which can cause a disturbance of consciousness, impaired respiratory function and the occurrence of muscle weakness.
- Decreased vision and blindness.
If high intracranial pressure is not treated, then serious consequences may develop, including:
- Violation of the mental state of the child.
- The development of epilepsy.
- Deterioration of vision.
- The occurrence of ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes.
- If there is an infringement of the cerebellum, then the baby’s breathing is disturbed, weakness in the limbs develops, and a disturbance of consciousness is possible.
- Delay in physical and mental development.
In newborns, this diagnosis is quite common. Many parents are aware of the existence of this frightening diagnosis, but when confronted with it face to face, they are lost and do not know what to do next.
Of course, the consequences of this phenomenon cannot but worry. This article will answer all questions regarding symptoms of intracranial pressure in children. This will help to identify the disease in time.
Symptoms of high intracranial pressure in children under 3 years old can be different, so it is important to monitor the condition of the child.
If a teenager can say that he is worried, then a baby cannot. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor his health in order to notice any changes in health in time.
Typically, in most newborns, intracranial pressure returns to normal closer to six months of age.
This is possible when perinatal encephalopathy (recoverable brain damage) is promoted by the so-called hypertension syndrome.
If no changes occur, then this does not indicate that the child is already sick. Most likely, he simply is the owner of a weak nervous system. A symptom of high intracranial pressure in such a child is a deterioration in well-being. In this case, cranial pressure may increase in stressful situations.
If intracranial hypertension syndrome in children is detected at the initial stage of development, and full-fledged comprehensive treatment begins, the child’s recovery will be complete, this will not affect his development and life. Modern methods of combating hypertension using traditional and traditional medicine methods help to cure very complex cases, it is important only to quickly begin treatment and carry out it comprehensively, in several directions at once.
It is very important in this situation not to engage in amateur performances, but be sure to follow the instructions and prescriptions of an experienced doctor.Ask a Question