End items of metabolic process are excreted from the body with urine. Its structure is fairly continuous. Biochemical analysis of urine permits you to evaluate the state of health, recognize pathologies of internal organs. For the dependability of the research study results, it is needed to understand and follow the guidelines for gathering product.
The essence of the analysis
Biochemical analysis of urine is an entire complex of evaluates, each indication, the material of each element is evaluated independently. Urinary fluid is produced by the kidneys filtering blood. It consists of all unneeded or excess compounds. Previously, just critical techniques were utilized to figure out the structure of urine. Today “dry chemistry” is extensive.
You can identify a compound, identify its concentration utilizing test strips. They are made of paper or plastic, covered with a reagent layer. For each urine indication, a particular designer compound is utilized. When a sample is used to a location of the strip, the preferred element responds, the color of the section modifications. The modification in color makes it possible to evaluate just how much a specific compound is consisted of. Biochemical analysis of urine permits you to recognize pathologies of the kidneys, liver, endocrine glands, even bone and muscle tissue.
A biochemical research study of daily urine is recommended to the client by a medical professional after a preliminary evaluation and anamnesis. Standard analysis consists of the meaning of such indicators:
- The existence of protein structures. An increased protein material in a -hour urine sample (DU) suggests an inflammatory procedure of the urinary system, metabolic conditions.
- Glucose material. The existence of sugar suggests diabetes or persistent kidney illness connected with impaired glucose reabsorption.
- Bilirubin. It is a bile pigment, a breakdown item of heme (a part of hemoglobin). The variance of its concentration from regular worths might show blockage of the hepatic or bile ducts.
- Ketone bodies. Their look is connected with insufficient breakdown of fats, which accompanies diabetes or dietary shortages.
- Amylase. A digestion enzyme accountable for the breakdown of carbs. Changes in concentration show pathologies of the pancreas, intestinal ulcer.
- Uric acid. Decomposition item of purines. A modification in its concentration suggests joint illness, deteriorated kidney function.
- Ions of calcium, salt, chlorine, magnesium. Usually, modifications in the concentration of these electrolytes are connected with diabetes mellitus, impaired kidney function, and incorrect food digestion.
- Phosphorus (phosphates). An increased concentration might show the existence of urolithiasis.
- Salts – oxalates, urates. They appear in the urine with kidney illness.
The lab likewise always examines the volume of excreted urinary fluid. Its modification is connected with the working of the excretory organs. The color of urine depends upon the material of the urobilin coloring pigment. Clarity is identified by the existence of protein. An extremely crucial indication is the acid-base balance of urine. Its modification can be triggered by swelling, kidney illness, etc.
Sample collection guidelines
You can collect urine for biochemical research study in a medical facility or in your home. The physician or nurse will inform the client about the algorithm and guidelines for gathering biomaterials. How to correctly collect daily urine for biochemical analysis:
- Purchase an unique 2,7 liter container at the drug store.
- In the early morning on the day of collection of biological product, perform health treatments for the external genital organs utilizing normal soap and warm water.
- Do not collect liquid after the very first urination, however record the precise time.
- Start gathering product in the container on the 2nd urination, record the time.
- Within 24 hours, urinate into a container, each time close it firmly with a cover. Before urinating, you require to wash yourself.
- The last in the container to collect the very first early morning urine part of the next day.
- From the overall volume, put 100-200 ml of liquid into a different sterilized container, document the start and end times of the collection of product, the overall volume of urine launched throughout the collection of the analysis, along with the name, surname, date of the analysis, body weight.
- Return the container to the lab.
The gathered urine need to be saved in a firmly closed container in the fridge at a temperature level of 4–8 ˚С. If the collection and storage guidelines are breached, the research study will be undependable. If doubtful outcomes are acquired, the analysis is duplicated.
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Preparation for the test
They start to prepare for the collection of product in advance. The day prior to the daily urine test, you require to stop taking any medications. If this cannot be done, you require to inform the physician which medications are being taken. It is likewise prohibited to consume alcohol, smoke, consume fatty and spicy foods. For females throughout menstruation, daily urine analysis is carried out just as a last hope. During the collection of product, sanitary swabs need to be utilized to avoid secretions from getting in the sample.
Deciphering the outcomes of urine biochemistry
The content rate of one or another element depends upon the sex and age of the client, his diet plan, exercise. Only an expert is included in deciphering the outcomes of a biochemical research study.
The rates of indicators for a grownup are shown in the table:
Increase: diabetes, hyperthyroidism, muscle atrophy, liver disease.
Above regular: gout, viral liver disease, pneumonia, leukemia, epilepsy.
Increase: osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome, tumor development.
Increase: osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome, tumor development.
Excess: Addison’s illness, first-degree kidney failure.
More than regular: kidney disability, aldosteronism, Itsenko-Cushing’s illness, dietary shortages.
Normal urine color is straw or dark yellow. Any kidney pathology, damage to the liver or gallbladder leads to a modification in its color. The urine has a somewhat acidic pH (5-7) regular. Alkalization of urine is observed with inadequate kidney function, hyperfunction of the parathyroid gland, ureaplasma, neoplasms in the kidneys, bladder, after extended throwing up. High level of acidity is particular of diabetes, extreme dehydration, and hunger.
Additional analysis indicators
If needed, the expert can recommend the decision of extra elements in the urine. These consist of:
- Creatinine. The female norm is 0,43-1,43 g/l, the male norm is 0,64-1,58 g/l. The level increases with kidney pathologies, diabetes mellitus, and hypothyroidism. Low creatinine is particular of anemia, leukemia, muscle dystrophy.
- Creatine – 380 μmol/day. An boost in the indication in the sample might show nephritis, liver disease, thyroid hyperfunction, vitamin shortage E.
- Mercury, copper, lead, strontium. Their existence is examined if there is a suspicion of heavy metal poisoning.
If needed, the product is checked for hormonal agents. There are techniques for spotting adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine, cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormonal agents. The analysis permits you to evaluate the performance of the endocrine glands, to recognize pathologies.
Biochemistry of urine in children
The standards of the elements of the biochemistry of daily urine in babies, young children and schoolchildren are strictly specific. Interpretation of the outcomes is performed taking into consideration the evaluation of scientific signs and the impact of physiological elements.
Table: Norm of indicators of biochemical analysis in children
|Index||Rate depending upon age|
|Up to 1 years||1-6 years||7-14 years||Older than 14 years|
|Protein||Up to 0,033 mmol/L|
|Ketone bodies||Not discovered|
|Uric acid, mg/day||+40||+120||+400||+270|
|Creatinine, mg/day||+27||+207||+500||Boys: 800-2000|
In children, due to active development, the concentration of urea is increased, and protein is frequently increased in infants with bad physical advancement. Collect urinary fluid for analysis from babies with the aid of a urine collection bag, from older children according to basic guidelines. The biomaterial needs to be saved in the fridge.
Study of daily urine in pregnant females
The expectant mom takes a scientific analysis of urine routinely up until the kid is born. Any discrepancies from the norm need to be thought about adequately, given that the unique state of the body impacts the performance of all organs, consisting of the genitourinary system. If the going to doctor does not like these research studies, he might recommend a re-analysis, along with extra diagnostics, for example, bacterial culture.
Daily urine analysis throughout pregnancy is recommended in the 3rd trimester to evaluate the work of the kidneys, which are experiencing increased tension. In the early phases, such a research study is performed in the existence of signs (suspicion of kidney swelling, etc.). A small boost in protein concentration in pregnant females is a physiological norm. The exact same uses to urea, however a high salt material can be an indication of severe conditions in the genitourinary system, due to the fact that typically phosphate-acid substances are invested in the development of the fetal skeleton. An boost in urine density and the number of ketone bodies is observed with toxicosis.
Biochemical evaluation of urine is a complex and tiresome procedure. The analysis is vital in the medical diagnosis of kidney illness and metabolic conditions. The rates of indicators might vary depending upon the age, weight of the client, his diet plan, the existence or lack of exercise. Drug metabolites are likewise excreted in the urine, so they cannot be taken in the past analysis.