How to check the vessels of the brain and neck

An ultrasound examination of the vessels of the neck with the head is prescribed to identify various pathologies. The difference from a routine check is the special importance of the procedure, because the accuracy of the diagnosis and the correctness of further treatment depend on this. Indications for conducting may be: ambiguous symptoms or the need to confirm and clarify the disease.

Most often, an ultrasound is prescribed to identify pathologies that provoked severe symptoms. In some cases, a person can feel quite normal and just complain about mild deterioration in well-being, and the result of an ultrasound examination will reveal a serious illness. But such a diagnosis should not be done with any symptoms. Therefore, the need for it is determined only by the doctor.

What are the symptoms of ultrasound?

  • frequent headaches, dizziness, fainting;
  • a feeling of lack of oxygen;
  • drops in blood pressure;
  • asymmetry of pressure or pulse on the hands;
  • spasms of cerebral vessels, cramps in the body;
  • physical weakness, excessive fatigue;
  • wiggle when walking, numbness of limbs;
  • problems with speech, visual acuity or hearing impairment;
  • decreased concentration of attention, memory, mental activity;
  • motion sickness when riding in transport, heavy weather dependence.

The second reason for sending ultrasound vessels in the cervical spine or brain are various diseases. When the doctor has determined a possible diagnosis and he needs to confirm it, then he sends the patient for additional diagnostics. In a number of diseases, it is ultrasound that gives the desired result. With their help, it will also be possible to clarify the features of the detected disease in order to adjust the treatment, which is also important.

What diseases require an ultrasound of the vessels:

  • cervical osteochondrosis, facet syndrome, as well as other pathologies of the spine;
  • vegetovascular dystonia;
  • traumatic brain injury;
  • abnormalities of cerebral vessels, atherosclerosis, thrombosis;
  • stroke, heart attack, coronary disease, or angina pectoris;
  • genetic diseases of the vascular system.

Ultrasound is prescribed for children when a delay in the development of speech, restlessness, increased fatigue, and memory impairment are detected. Also, the child should undergo a check if he had a birth injury to the brain, showed abnormalities in the development of organs or during gestation he suffered intrauterine infections and malnutrition.

Indications for examination are:

  • kak delayut mrt golovnogo mozga 3 - How to check the vessels of the brain and neckoften recurring headaches, migraines, dizziness;
  • sharp deterioration in vision, hearing, tinnitus;
  • nosebleeds in the absence of injuries;
  • frequent fainting with a brief loss of consciousness;
  • hand and head tremor in Parkinson’s disease;
  • previous cerebral infarction, the presence of signs of impaired arterial blood flow (chronic ischemia);
  • injuries to the head and cervical spine;
  • symptoms indicating the presence of neoplasms, aneurysms of the vessel;
  • encephalopathy (a decrease in the volume of nerve tissue and impaired brain function against a background of another pathology);
  • arterial and intracranial pressure.

Objectives of the study

The study is designed to determine the state of blood vessels in hypertension and atherosclerosis, the severity of concussions, heart attack or encephalopathy of the brain, the risk of development and the area of ​​damage in stroke, to identify the presence of neoplasms and aneurysms. The results of the test help in the diagnosis of diseases and the choice of treatment tactics, whether it is surgery or drug therapy.

The ultrasound method is used when it is necessary to check the structure of human arteries and veins located in the brain and neck, as well as the lumen and condition. Diagnostics are prescribed when you need to check if the brain receives enough nutrients and oxygen with blood.

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As a result of Doppler ultrasound, a specialist can obtain the following information about veins and arteries:

  • Diameter;
  • Stenosis level;
  • Are there blood clots in the vessels?
  • The size and condition of cholesterol plaques on the walls;
  • Clearance;
  • Blood flow disorders;
  • Diseases of the circulatory system.

To prevent serious diseases, it is important to timely diagnose the vessels of the neck and brain. Depending on the chosen verification method, the process helps to identify numerous violations, determine changes in blood composition, problems with the direction or speed of blood flow, and much more. Specialists prescribe procedures for patients, depending on the symptoms detected. For diagnostics, various devices are used: ultrasound machines, tomographs, computers, depending on the chosen method.

Magnetic resonance imaging

In cases where you need to check the condition of the vessels of the head and neck of the patient, an excellent method is MRI. The process is based on the physical formation of special nuclear magnetic signals that resonate with each other. The device acts during the diagnosis on the patient’s body, after which the equipment picks up magnetic oscillations already reflected by the internal organs of a person.

The study of cerebral vessels by this method allows the specialist to obtain the following patient data:

  • Find out the structure of the entire network, the location of each vein, artery or capillary, where the vascular branches are located in a particular patient.
  • Identify aneurysmal enlargement, the presence of blood clots and hematomas.
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This type of examination is used in medicine in order to timely check the development of collateral circulation in a patient, as well as to detect any damage to tissues and biological structures of the brain. Before the procedure, the patient removes metal accessories and jewelry from himself, as well as pulls everything out of his pockets. The whole process takes about 30-40 minutes. Diagnosis is not suitable for people who previously had a pacemaker installed.

Commonly used types of examination of the vessels of the head and neck

Today, there are several ways to check blood vessels, but the most accurate and informative are magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. However, due to the complexity of the equipment and the lack of highly qualified doctors in small cities, examination is carried out only in a few specialized clinics and is quite expensive. The demand for MRI and CT scans, not only in the head and neck, but also in the whole body, is steadily increasing, and the cost is gradually decreasing.

In addition to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, ultrasound dopplerography and rheoencephalography are most often used as affordable, but informative methods. Checking the vessels of the brain and neck is free of charge as prescribed by a doctor in all polyclinics of large cities.

  • Non-invasive (without penetration into the body).
  • Invasive (angiographic) when a contrast agent is injected into the patient’s artery to scrupulously examine the smallest details and structures in the affected area. Angiography is used for x-ray examination, ultrasound scan, MRI and CT.

USDG is a technique based on the use of the Doppler effect. Its essence is that high-frequency ultrasonic waves directed to the study area are reflected from moving blood elements and are transformed on the device screen into a two-dimensional image that characterizes the state of the vessels.

Doppler ultrasound allows you to check the main arteries (vertebral, carotid, basilar, subclavian) and veins (anterior and internal jugular, subclavian), which are located in the neck and at the base of the skull. UZDG defines:

  • patency (lumen diameter), degree of narrowing (stenosis), blockage, elasticity and damage to the walls of blood vessels;
  • aneurysms;
  • speed and state of blood flow (hemodynamics);
  • the presence of a change in direction (tortuosity) caused by damage to the intervertebral discs and other tissues of the spine.

Doppler ultrasound is widely used because it is informative, harmless and does not require preparation of the patient. A contraindication is a serious state of health and the patient’s inability to be in a supine position.

3434ata - How to check the vessels of the brain and neck

A method of checking the vessels of the head, based on fixing changes in the degree of resistance of blood and brain tissues when a weak electric current of high frequency flows through them, is called rheoencephalography. Metal electrodes are applied to the patient’s head area, fixed with rubber bands and a current is passed through them.

REG informs about tension, elasticity, blood vessels, viscosity and speed of blood flow through the arteries and veins of the brain. It is used for traumatic brain injuries, concussions, ischemia, strokes, encephalopathies. Especially often, the method is used to determine the severity of atherosclerosis in older people, control of cerebral circulation after surgery, with headaches and dizziness.

The method is based on the interaction of a magnetic field and radio frequency pulses, as a result of which electromagnetic oscillations appear. Reflecting from the internal organs of a patient placed in a closed tomograph camera, they form a picture on the monitor screen. The device scans the study area in layers and forms a three-dimensional image. The method allows you to clearly and thoroughly consider:

  • 87 main - How to check the vessels of the brain and neckthe structure of the circulatory network, all large and small vessels;
  • inflammation of the brain tissue, nerves;
  • aneurysms, blood clots, neoplasms, areas of hemorrhage with a stroke;
  • intervertebral hernia and other lesions of the spine and spinal cord.

The procedure is almost completely safe for the patient, but has a number of contraindications. Limitations in the use of MR imaging of vessels of the neck and head are:

  • mental disorders and convulsions (lack of the possibility of the patient being in the apparatus chamber in a stationary state);
  • fainting;
  • fear of enclosed space;
  • weight over 120 kg;
  • the presence in the human body of ferromagnetic implants, hemostatic clips on the vessels of the brain;
  • the patient has renal failure and an allergic reaction during the procedure with a contrast medium.

Computed tomography uses x-rays. When exposed to the internal organs of the patient an annular ray path in a closed chamber, a three-dimensional image of the studied area is obtained. The method is used for various diseases:

  • injuries of the skull bones;
  • cerebrovascular accident;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • hydrocephalus;
  • developmental pathologies in children;
  • the presence of volumetric neoplasms and foreign objects.

Laboratory research

This method of examination does not play a special role in the diagnosis of vessels of the neck and brain. However, analyzes can identify the causes of the disease and the degree of damage to the human body. For example, a biochemical blood test helps identify atherosclerosis, which is indicated by an increased level of low-density lipoproteins.

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If an increase in eosinophils and basophils is found in the blood formula of the patient being diagnosed, then we can conclude about systemic vasculitis. If a check of the vessels of the neck and brain has established a high level of such elements in the blood as platelets, fibrinogen, prothrombin, then one can judge about increased blood coagulability.

Diagnosis of diseases

When a patient experiences malaise in the neck and head, headaches, sleep disturbances, gait instability, he turns to a neurologist, who, in the absence of contraindications, prescribes a study using one of these methods. After scanning and taking readings, the specialist who performed the procedure decrypts the images and gives the result to the patient.

m sosudy golovnogo mozga - How to check the vessels of the brain and neck

Based on the information received, the neurologist diagnoses brain diseases and prescribes treatment. If difficulties arise in the diagnosis, he will send for a re-examination of a higher level – contrast CT or MRI, which will allow you to see the affected area structurally and clearly.

Ultrasound diagnostics

Modern medicine is actively developing every year. Currently, several different methods for conducting vascular diagnostics are already known. All procedures have their own characteristics and goals, are assigned to check the structure of veins and arteries, study the composition of blood, vascular patency, and more.

The following is a detailed description of the methods:

  • Doppler ultrasound scanning is the abbreviation for duplex scanning of human blood vessels. The diagnostic method helps to check the speed of blood flow, as well as assess the anatomical structure of blood vessels. The procedure involves displaying information on a monitor, due to which the specialist can easily determine the presence of such disorders as stenosis, thrombosis, tortuosity, sutures on arteries and veins after surgery and much more.
  • USDG. This method is based on the Doppler effect. The procedure allows you to assess the condition of the vessels of the head (first of all, patency, absence of damage) as well as the direction of blood flow. Sensors of medical equipment in this case are installed intuitively on the intended area. Using a special blood flow chart, the doctor determines vascular patency. However, it is worth noting that even if the diagnosis reveals any health problems in the patient, the method does not allow to determine the causes of their appearance.
  • Triplex scanning. Compared with the previous ultrasound diagnostic method, this test option differs only in the presence of a monitor, where the necessary information about the patient’s circulatory system is visible. This method helps specialists evaluate the speed of blood movement, as well as the anatomy of the patient’s veins and arteries. In addition, the advantage is a color screen on which everything is clearly visible.

What research method to choose?

Which method is better? The answer to this question is completely in the competence of the attending physician, who will assess the patient’s condition, the presence of indications and contraindications, take into account the features, the areas of the most private use of a particular method. The availability of research is of no small importance, because not every clinic has devices for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, especially in small cities. The latest research methods, CT and MRI, are quite expensive, but they allow to obtain comprehensive data on the condition of internal organs and systems.

Dopplerography

Most modern medical centers conduct ultrasound examinations of various kinds. Doppler is a widespread diagnostic method for adults and children. It is worth noting that such a check allows you to get a lot of information about the patient’s condition and show serious violations, as well as diseases.

Protserura is prescribed when a specialist needs to know the condition of the patient’s main, carotid, vertebral arteries, as well as draw conclusions about the presence of certain disorders or diseases.

There are two options for conducting ultrasound. The specialist selects the optimal verification method for each patient, depending on what data he needs to receive:

  • Doppler ultrasound transcranial. The process involves the installation of special sensors for diagnosis on the bones of the skull in places with the smallest tissue thickness. As a result of this procedure, a specialist can find out the state of blood vessels that are in the area of ​​the human brain.
  • Dopplerography (a method for examining extracranial vessels). This diagnostic option is used to examine large vessels that belong to the neck.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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