Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatment

The system of the guts and blood vessels of the kid is laid in the primary two months of fetal growth. The influence on a lady’s physique of opposed components throughout this era most frequently results in abnormalities in the constructions of the guts and coronary vessels.

Most usually, CHD are a consequence of:

  • Adverse environmental situations on the place of residence of the pregnant lady;
  • The use of various medicines. Antibiotics, sulfonamides, antiviral medication can act toxicly on the fetal cardiovascular system;
  • Infectious pathologies – cytomegalovirus, rubella virus and herpes;
  • X-ray irradiation;
  • Alcohol habit and smoking.

It is famous that in ladies over 35 years outdated, kids with coronary heart defects are born extra usually. The threat group additionally consists of sufferers with miscarriages and quite a few abortions in the previous, circumstances of the beginning of useless kids. The hereditary predisposition additionally issues.

Acquired defects in most circumstances, complication:

  • Rheumatism with coronary heart injury;
  • Lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma;
  • Chest accidents;
  • Surgical operations;
  • Atherosclerosis. With this disease, plaques type on the partitions of the vessels, which results in a narrowing of their lumen and to a violation of the movement of blood to the guts. Atherosclerosis as a reason for coronary heart disease in kids is uncommon;
  • Acute infections of the respiratory system – pharyngitis, tonsillitis.

Conventionally, all coronary heart defects are divided into two teams:

The blues. They are characterised by partial ingress of venous blood into the arteries; externally, cyanosis signifies this – cyanosis of the pores and skin below the nostril, stomach, fingertips, and below the eyes. Blue congenital coronary heart defects are most harmful, as they result in a pronounced oxygen deficiency. The most typical illnesses from this group are:

  • Tetrad Fallot. This is a mixed defect, the phrases tetrad denotes 4, that’s, with this disease 4 defects are recognized. In a typical case, it is a narrowing (stenosis) of the output a part of the suitable ventricle, its hypertrophy (enhance in dimension), a defect in the interventricular septum, and an irregular location of the aorta;
  • Atresia (fusion) of the pulmonary artery;
  • Transposition (anomalous location) of huge vessels.
  • The whites. Manifested by throwing blood into the suitable coronary heart. Children with this defect have pale pores and skin. It is such defects at an early stage of growth which can be sparingly manifested, however over time, respiratory and coronary heart failure will increase.

In extreme circumstances, CHD vivid signs seem in the primary days of a new child’s life. They are indicated by blueness of the pores and skin, respiratory failure, and the child’s abandonment of the chest. During auscultation (listening) of the guts, noise is detected.

In much less extreme circumstances, signs of abnormalities in the construction of the cardiovascular system are detected after the kid is discharged from the hospital. Congenital malformation could be suspected by the next signs:

  • Blue nasolabial triangle and ears;
  • Poor urge for food or a whole rejection of the chest;
  • Frequent burping;
  • Weakness, lethargy;
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lack of weight achieve;
  • Heart palpitations.

Sometimes, CHD additionally seems in the primary few years of a child’s life. Such kids lag behind in growth from their friends, usually get sick, and their respiratory infections happen with issues, there could also be repeated fainting. Functional coronary heart failure can be indicated by dizziness, complications, weak spot, nervousness.

Pathological adjustments in the guts and blood vessels in the occasion of acquired defects point out:

  • Shortness of breath, aggravated by psycho-emotional overstrain and bodily exertion;
  • Tachycardia;
  • Fainting;
  • Dizziness;
  • Deterioration of mind exercise – in school-age kids, research start to endure;
  • Lethargy and drowsiness.

If the above indicators of the kid seem, it’s crucial to look at as quickly as doable – well timed treatment in some circumstances avoids surgical intervention.

ECHO cardiography is taken into account essentially the most informative diagnostic examination for suspected malformations in the construction of the cardiovascular system. The examination means that you can absolutely assess the situation of partitions, valves, chambers and vessels. In addition, computed tomography, electrocardiography and radiography of the guts are sometimes prescribed.

Conservative remedy of kids with defects is principally carried out in order to cut back the signs of the disease. However, the physiological exercise of the guts could be fully restored solely by surgical intervention. The operations could be classical, that’s, with a chest incision and minimally invasive, in which entry to the guts is carried out utilizing the endovascular technique.

The sort of surgical procedure and the date of the operation are chosen for every youngster individually. In extreme circumstances, in life-threatening situations, the operation is indicated to the new child in the primary hours after its beginning.

After the operation, a protracted rehabilitation course is carried out. It relies on the prevention of blood clots and issues, bettering the vitamin of the guts muscle. At this time, the physique particularly wants vitamin A (improves tissue regeneration), ascorbic acid (will increase the physique’s defenses), and B nutritional vitamins.

To cut back the probability of getting a child with a coronary heart defect, the angle of the long run mom to her well being helps to some extent:

  • Strengthening the physique’s defenses. Prevention of infections considerably reduces the chance of irregular growth of inner organs in the fetus;
  • Complete rejection of unhealthy habits;
  • Observation by a physician all through being pregnant.

Acquired defects are much less more likely to happen in kids with a great state of the immune system. This signifies that a toddler must be tempered from beginning, fed with wholesome and fortified meals.

Every 12 months in Russia, 20-25 thousand newborns with congenital coronary heart defects (CHD) are born: for each thousand infants, from 5 to 10 sufferers with congenital coronary heart and giant blood vessels are affected.

The causes of congenital coronary heart defects in newborns are opposed results on the physique in the primary three months of being pregnant, when the fetal cardiovascular system is fashioned. Viral infections (rubella, flu, polio, rooster pox), coronary heart disease in the mom, ionizing radiation, hypovitaminosis, age over 35 years outdated can have a adverse impact. Another reason for congenital coronary heart defects in kids could also be a hereditary predisposition to malformations and chromosomal illnesses.

The scientific image of congenital coronary heart disease in a new child youngster relies on the kind of disease, that’s, on the anatomical issues, on the severity of those issues, on the state of blood circulation, on the physique’s skill to compensate for the disease.

Diagnosis of congenital coronary heart defects in kids with extreme anatomical abnormalities is carried out already in the primary hours after beginning, and some forms of defects seem solely in adolescence.

The primary signs of a congenital coronary heart disease in a new child are shortness of breath, pallor or cyanosis (cyanosis) of the pores and skin, aggravated by bodily exertion. And what sort of bodily exercise can a child have? It’s clear what: sucking and crying.

Also a symptom of congenital coronary heart disease in kids is lethargy, weak sucking reflex, poor weight achieve, and frequent sickness with respiratory infections and pneumonia. During an assault of cyanosis, a child could expertise a short-term lack of consciousness. They are pale, fragile physique, lagging behind in bodily growth.

In addition, an indication of congenital coronary heart disease in newborns stands out as the deformation of the nail phalanges in the type of “drumsticks” and “watch glasses”. The course of the disease relies on the physique’s skill to compensate for impaired blood circulation.

The solely method to deal with a new child child with congenital coronary heart disease is surgical procedure. Thanks to the trendy successes of cardiac surgical procedure, strategies have been developed for the treatment of all congenital malformations. The most favorable interval for surgical intervention is the age of three to 12 years. In the case of a severe situation of the toddler, the inefficiency of conservative treatment, the operation is carried out at an early age.

2e44179e7504668073f48826a07762c5 - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatment

One of the most typical congenital coronary heart defects in a child is an open aortic defect (OAP), which could be eradicated by itself through the first months of life.

In the human physique there are 2 circles of blood circulation: giant and small. The first begins from the left ventricle with the aorta and, branching to the smallest capillaries, feeds all organs and tissues with arterial blood. Having given oxygen and vitamins to the tissues, and taking the spent substances, the blood enters the liver via the venous system, the place it’s cleaned of poisonous substances and poured into the suitable atrium, then into the suitable ventricle.

The small circle drives blood from the suitable ventricle via the pulmonary artery into the lungs, the place it’s enriched with oxygen and returns to the left atrium and left ventricle to once more carry oxygen to all tissues.

While the child is growing in the womb, its aorta is linked to the pulmonary artery by the aortic duct. 10-15 hours after beginning in time period infants, the aortic duct turns into out of date, and its resorption happens after 2-3 weeks. In a untimely child, this course of proceeds extra slowly and the duct closes on the age of 1-1,5 months.

If for some cause the aortic duct of the guts didn’t shut in the kid, we will speak about congenital coronary heart disease. With open aortic defect, blood is discharged from the aorta to the pulmonary artery as a consequence of increased strain in the aorta, which results in overflow of the pulmonary circulation and overload of the left coronary heart, and later overload of the suitable ventricle additionally develops.

This sort of congenital coronary heart disease in kids often manifests itself in the second or third 12 months of life, when the bodily exercise of the child will increase. An early manifestation of open aortic defect happens with a large duct: shortness of breath and blueness of the pores and skin throughout exertion (sucking and crying), frequent respiratory illnesses, lag in bodily growth.

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Blue nasolabial space

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Ultrasound examination of the guts

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  1. Clinical examination by a neonatologist after beginning.
  2. Fetal ultrasound of the guts. Conducted at 22-24 weeks of being pregnant, the place the anatomical constructions of the fetal coronary heart are evaluated
  3. At 1 month after beginning, ultrasound screening of the guts, ECG.

The most vital examination in diagnosing fetal well being is ultrasound screening of the second trimester of being pregnant.

  • Assessment of weight achieve in infants, the character of feeding.
  • Assessment of tolerance of bodily exercise, motor exercise of infants.
  • When listening to a attribute noise in the guts, the pediatrician sends the kid to a pediatric heart specialist.
  • Ultrasound of the belly cavity.
  • 1 What is a coronary heart defect in a toddler

    porok serdca deti - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatment

    Heart disease in kids

    formirovanie ploda e1502959490435 - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatment

    To some, the phrase “vice” speaks of one thing horrible, of some lethal disease that inevitably makes a toddler disabled and deprives him of a protracted lifetime of happiness. Someone is aware of nothing about vice. In the medical dictionary, an identical time period characterizes the anatomical defect of the fetal coronary heart, which violates its regular functioning. Of course, not all vices, however a big minority (Tolochinov-Roger disease and right-sided association of the guts) don’t impair coronary heart perform.

    The others, to at least one diploma or one other, result in coronary heart failure (HF) in the absence of treatment for coronary heart disease in newborns. A toddler could also be born with coronary heart disease, in which case they communicate of congenital coronary heart disease (CHD). In one other case, because of illnesses (for instance, after infectious or rheumatic endocarditis), pathological adjustments happen in the guts of a small affected person. As a outcome, a vice could be fashioned, which is already known as acquired.

    UPU classification

    Classification in medical apply of coronary heart disease in a new child is split into 3 classes.

    • Transposition (veins are displaced in place of arteries and vice versa).
    • Tetralogy of Fallot (pathological enlargement of the suitable ventricle as a consequence of displacement of the aorta to the suitable aspect).
    • Atresia (the lumen in the pulmonary artery in this case is overgrown).
    • Pathology of the septum, which is positioned between the atria.
    • Pathology of the septum between the ventricles of the guts in a new child.
    • Types of CHD are additionally stenosis (too slim or too huge aortic valve).
    • Insufficiency of one of many valves.

    Any youngster could be born with defects, the primary factor is to detect and begin remedy on time. The classification of pathology varies in signs.

    1. All congenital coronary heart defects in kids are divided by the character of blood movement issues and the presence or absence of blueness of the pores and skin (cyanosis).

    Cyanosis is a bluish pores and skin. It is attributable to an absence of oxygen, which is delivered with blood to organs and programs.

    Personal expertise! In my apply, there have been two kids with dextracardia (the guts is positioned on the suitable). Such children reside a traditional wholesome life. Defect is revealed solely when listening to the guts.

    2. Frequency of incidence.

    1. A ventricular septal defect happens in 20% of all coronary heart defects.
    2. The atrial septal defect takes from 5 – 10%.
    3. The open ductus arteriosus is 5-10%.
    4. Pulmonary stenosis, stenosis and coarctation of the aorta occupy as much as 7%.
    5. The the rest is accounted for by quite a few different, however rarer vices.

    Most specialists who examine the mechanisms of growth and the causes of congenital coronary heart defects adhere to the separation of congenital malformations of the guts into “white” and “blue”. With “white” anomalies, the kid’s pores and skin turns white, with “blue” – they flip blue.

    “White” congenital malformations of the guts embody:

    • defect of the septum between the ventricles;
    • septal defect between the atria;
    • coortion of the aortic trunk;
    • pulmonary stenosis;
    • unclosed arterial duct.

    “Blue” developmental issues are divided into:

    • Tetralogy of Fallot (mixed narrowing of the aorta and interventricular septal defect);
    • lack of a tricuspid valve (between the suitable atrium and ventricle);
    • drainage of pulmonary veins (irregular movement into the atrium);
    • transposition of the aorta and pulmonary artery;
    • widespread arterial trunk (aorta and pulmonary artery merged into one giant vessel);
    • MARS syndrome (oval window, false chords in the left ventricle, mitral valve prolapse and different manifestations).

    In addition, anatomical issues of the event of the guts related to obstruction of blood movement are remoted. This consists of:

    • valve abnormalities;
    • incorrect place of the aorta and its components;
    • narrowing of the mitral and aortic openings.

    2How the guts can “make a mistake”

    porok serdca ploda stroenie - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatment

    Cardiac chambers and fetal vessels

    During the interval when the formation of the cardiovascular system in the kid is underway, any adverse components can result in the indicated penalties. Any cardiac pathology doesn’t come up merely or out of nothing. In the prenatal interval, blood circulation has its personal traits that distinguish it from an grownup physique. The coronary heart chambers and vessels of the fetus have openings via which the arterial and venous blood mixes, and the suitable and left ventricles (LV) talk with one another.

    It is that this mannequin of the work of the guts and blood vessels of the fetus that gives him with optimum growth in the prenatal interval, offering important organs with blood with a excessive oxygen content material. With the primary cry of a born youngster, the pulmonary arteries are full of blood, and the airways are full of air. The openings that functioned in the prenatal interval progressively shut, the ventricles start to work disconnected. But, if in the essential interval there wasn’t sufficient “building” materials, coronary heart defects or anomalies come up.

    Signs and signs of pathology

    In the very first hours after beginning, a low oxygen focus is recorded in the child’s blood. The pores and skin of a sick youngster is pale, blue in the nasolabial folds, the respiratory charge will increase. Due to an absence of oxygen, the metabolic charge decreases and metabolic merchandise which have a poisonous impact on the kid’s physique are usually not excreted.

    Such phenomena are attributable to a combination of arterial and venous blood because of the lack of a whole septum between the suitable and left cavities of the guts. In addition, the kid develops congestive coronary heart failure. Lowering the oxygen content material of the blood makes the kid breathe extra usually, which additionally impacts the guts charge. The child has edema, the outflow of blood from the organs is disturbed.

    In addition to the primary medical signs, there are a selection of manifestations of the congenital irregular construction of the guts in a toddler:

    • lethargy;
    • nervousness whereas feeding;
    • sluggish weight achieve;
    • violation of the feeding routine;
    • a cry for no obvious cause;
    • fast, usually labored respiration;
    • bouts of accelerating or lowering coronary heart charge;
    • elevated sweating;
    • swelling of the legs and arms;
    • bulging in the chest.

    If CHD was not recognized throughout gestation or instantly after beginning, such indicators and conduct of the child ought to appeal to the eye of the mom and father. At their first appearances, it’s crucial to point out the kid to the pediatrician. After analyzing the child and listening to coronary heart sounds, the physician ought to schedule an examination and session with a pediatric heart specialist.

    A coronary heart defect in a toddler could be seen by numerous signs.

    Symptoms of a pathology in a toddler:

    • The very first symptom is a coronary heart murmur. But usually they can’t be discovered instantly after beginning.
    • The youngster has a painful coloration of the pores and skin and mucous membrane (most frequently it’s a bluish or pale shade).
    • Lethargy, inactivity, when making an attempt to offer the child a breast, he refuses.
    • Due to an absence of oxygen in the physique, the pores and skin of the face and physique can flip blue.
    • The youngster is consistently crying and screaming.
    • Heartbeat is fast.
    • The pores and skin is dry, the limbs of the kid are chilly.
    • Arrhythmia.
    • Swelling could happen in the realm of ​​the guts.
    • The look of shortness of breath, even when the kid isn’t energetic.

    Signs of defect fluctuate relying on the kind of pathology.

    If a congenital coronary heart defect couldn’t be detected as much as a 12 months, then it may be additional acknowledged if the kid is rapidly drained, he doesn’t take in college materials effectively, after enjoying sports activities the pores and skin acquires a blue tint. Therefore, it’s higher if IPS is detected in a one-year-old youngster.

    • wheezy baby - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatmentone of many signs of vice is the looks of shortness of breath. First, it seems throughout train, then at relaxation.

    Shortness of breath is a fast respiration charge;

  • a change in the shade of the pores and skin is the second signal. Color can fluctuate from pale to cyanotic;
  • swelling of the decrease extremities. This differs from cardiac edema from renal. With kidney pathology, the face first swells;
  • a rise in coronary heart failure is thought to be a rise in the sting of the liver and a rise in swelling of the decrease extremities. These are, as a rule, cardiac edema;
  • with tetralogy of Fallot, there could also be shortness of breath – cyanotic assaults. During the assault, the kid begins to “turn blue” sharply, and fast respiration seems.
  • Blueing of the nasolabial triangle could be noticed with any bodily exertion that the child does – coughing, straining, screaming. Other doable indicators indicating a malfunction in the kid’s cardiovascular system could embody:

    • lag in development and weight achieve,
    • cooling of handles and legs at optimum temperature situations,
    • elevated drowsiness of the kid,
    • frequent colds
    • frequent respiration (for newborns, the norm is as much as 60 respiratory actions per minute),
    • trembling in the area of the guts when making use of a hand to the floor of the chest.

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    Child fatigue complaints

    Acquired coronary heart defects are extra widespread in college kids. Such sufferers can themselves formulate their complaints, and mother and father discover adjustments in the conduct of the kid, the flexibility to carry out bodily exercise. The youngster could complain of fatigue, weak spot, dizziness, lack of air, complications. Parents could discover that routine dressing may cause discomfort in the kid. Sweating, swelling of the cervical veins, tachycardia could seem.

    3 prevalence

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    Defect of the interventricular septum

    The approximate statistics of congenital coronary heart defects are as follows: roughly 30 % of all malformations are congenital coronary heart defects. The frequency of acquired will increase with age. As a rule, in the primary years of a kid’s life, acquired coronary heart defects are very not often detected. In kids of the college interval, their frequency will increase considerably and reaches 3-5 %. Among the CHD, the “Big Five” is the most typical, together with these coronary heart defects in newborns which can be extra widespread than others. Among them:

    • ventricular septal defect,
    • coarctation of the aorta,
    • transposition (incorrect discharge) of the nice vessels (arteries),
    • open ductus arteriosus,
    • tetralogy of Fallot.

    Among the acquired defects in childhood, the mitral valve disease (insufficiency, stenosis), much less usually the aortic valve disease, and so forth.

    4 Reasons

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    Flu throughout being pregnant

    Congenital coronary heart defects can happen for a number of causes. Among the doable components that play a task in their formation, the next are distinguished:

    1. Heredity. The probability of getting a sick youngster will increase if shut family have congenital coronary heart defects.
    2. Infections throughout being pregnant. Infectious illnesses similar to influenza, measles, rubella, herpes, and so forth. can pose a hazard to a pregnant lady and the fetus.
    3. Bad habits of a future mom. Alcohol abuse, smoking, drug use have a adverse impact through the formation of the cardiovascular system, and may cause the beginning of a kid with coronary heart disease.
    4. Production hazards. Inhalation of heavy steel vapors, work at a fuel station in contact with gasoline, and different occupational hazards can adversely have an effect on fetal growth.
    5. Prohibited medication throughout being pregnant: antidepressants, phenytoins, coumarins, and so forth.
    6. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus in a pregnant lady.

    The reason for acquired coronary heart defects in newborns and older kids are illnesses and accidents that have an effect on the cardiovascular system. Most usually, infectious illnesses similar to rheumatic endocarditis, infectious endocarditis, sepsis, and chest accidents involving the cardiovascular system can result in the formation of acquired coronary heart defects.

    Atrial septal defect

    The coronary heart has two ventricles which can be separated by a septum. In flip, the septum has a muscular half and a membranous half.

    The muscular half consists of three areas – provide, trabecular and outflow. This information in anatomy helps the physician make an correct diagnosis in keeping with the classification and decide the additional treatment ways.

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    Symptoms

    If the defect is small, then there aren’t any particular complaints.

    If the defect is medium or giant, then the next signs seem:

    • lag in bodily growth;
    • decreased resistance to bodily exercise;
    • frequent colds;
    • if untreated, the event of circulatory failure.

    Defects in the muscle half because of the development of the kid are closed independently. But that is topic to small sizes. Also, in such kids, it’s crucial to recollect the lifelong prevention of endocarditis.

    With giant defects and with the event of coronary heart failure, surgical measures must be taken.

    Very usually, vice is an unintended discover.

    Children with an atrial septal defect are liable to frequent respiratory infections.

    With giant defects (greater than 1 cm), a toddler could expertise poor weight achieve and the event of coronary heart failure from beginning. Children are operated on after reaching 5 years. The postponement of the operation is because of the chance of an impartial closure of the defect.

    6 Diagnosis of defects

    At the stage of auscultation, noise in the area of the guts is usually heard. Although there could also be so-called “mute” defects, which may solely be seen with an ultrasound diagnosis of the guts. Laboratory strategies make it doable to find out the diploma of saturation (saturation) of arterial blood with oxygen. The primary instrumental strategies for the diagnosis of coronary heart defects are ultrasound of the guts, chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and so forth.

    7 Treatment of vice

    Other coronary heart defects that result in signs of coronary heart failure must be operated on in the close to future below the situations of preliminary (if crucial) drug preparation. If the child’s situation is extreme or vital, the operation could be carried out in a number of levels. Today it’s doable to hold out surgical treatment of the defect not solely in the open coronary heart, but in addition with the assistance of minimally invasive surgical procedure via mini-access on peripheral vessels. In essentially the most tough conditions, a coronary heart transplant could also be crucial.

    Open aortic coronary heart disease in a new child child

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    In the looks of kids with an open aortic defect, a seasonal sample was revealed. It seems that it’s extra widespread in ladies born between October and January. That is, the laying of the cardiovascular system of the fetus falls on essentially the most “flu-like” months: January, February, March. In the 60s of the final century, the drug thalidomide was actively marketed as an efficient treatment for nausea and insomnia, created particularly for pregnant ladies. After its use, kids with congenital malformations, together with coronary heart defects, had been usually born.

    This drawback accompanies untimely infants in 50% of circumstances.

    Botallov duct is a vessel that connects the pulmonary artery and the aorta in the fetal lifetime of the child. After beginning, it’s delayed.

    If the defect is giant, the next signs are detected:

    • open bottles duct - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatmentpoor weight achieve;
    • shortness of breath, palpitations;
    • frequent SARS, pneumonia.

    Spontaneous closure of the duct, we wait as much as 6 months. If a toddler older than a 12 months he stays unclosed, then the duct should be eliminated surgically.

    When detecting untimely infants, the drug indomethacin, which scleroses (glues) the partitions of the vessel, is run even in the hospital. For full-term newborns, this process is ineffective.

    Open aortic coronary heart disease in a new child child

    This congenital pathology is related to a narrowing of the primary artery of the physique – the aorta. This creates a sure impediment to the blood movement, which varieties a selected scientific image.

    Case! A lady, 13 years outdated, complained of a rise in blood strain. When measuring the strain on the legs with a tonometer, it was considerably decrease than on the fingers. The pulse on the arteries of the decrease extremities was barely felt. When recognized with ultrasound of the guts, coarctation of the aorta was revealed. A toddler over 13 years has by no means been examined for congenital malformations.

    Usually, aortic narrowing is detected from beginning, however perhaps later. Such kids, even in look, have their very own peculiarity. Due to poor blood provide to the decrease physique, they’ve a reasonably developed shoulder girdle and sloping legs.

    It happens extra usually in boys. As a rule, coarctation of the aorta is accompanied by a defect in the interventricular septum.

    Normally, the aortic valve ought to have three valves, nevertheless it so occurs that two of them are laid from beginning.

    bicuspid aortic valve - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatmentTricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve

    Children with a bicuspid aortic valve don’t notably complain. The drawback could also be that such a valve will put on out sooner, which is able to trigger the event of aortic insufficiency.

    With the event of grade 3 insufficiency, surgical substitute of the valve is required, however this will occur by 40-50 years.

    Children with a bicuspid aortic valve must be noticed twice a 12 months and endocarditis must be prevented.

    Bicuspid aortic valve

    Mitral valve prolapse in a toddler is often recognized at an older preschool or college age, when, unexpectedly for a mom, a physician discovers a coronary heart murmur in a virtually wholesome youngster and gives to be examined by a heart specialist. Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the guts will verify the physician’s suspicions and will permit us to talk with confidence about mitral valve prolapse.

    Regular monitoring by a heart specialist is the one indispensable situation {that a} youngster must observe earlier than beginning lessons associated to bodily stress, for instance, swimming, participating in competitions or devoting himself to nice sport.

    Most individuals with mitral valve prolapse lead a traditional life, unaware of the presence of such a disease. Severe issues of mitral valve prolapse are uncommon. Basically, it is a divergence of the valves, resulting in mitral valve insufficiency, or infectious endocarditis, which have extreme signs and require specialised treatment.

    Sports coronary heart

    Regular bodily exercise results in adjustments in the cardiovascular system, that are referred to by the time period “sports heart.”

    An athletic coronary heart is characterised by a rise in the cavities of the guts chambers and myocardial mass, however on the similar time, cardiac perform stays inside the age norm.

    Sports coronary heart syndrome was first described in 1899, when an American physician in contrast a gaggle of skiers and individuals with a sedentary way of life.

    Changes in the guts seem 2 years after common coaching 4 hours a day for five days per week. Athletic coronary heart is extra widespread amongst hockey gamers, sprinters, dancers.

    Changes throughout intense bodily exercise happen because of the economical work of the myocardium at relaxation and the achievement of most capabilities throughout sports activities actions.

    In Italy, in order to watch athletes and give entry to competitions, a physician should endure a 4-year postgraduate course in sports activities drugs.

    An athletic coronary heart doesn’t require treatment. Children must be examined 2 occasions a 12 months.

    Due to the immaturity of the nervous system, a preschooler has an unstable regulation of its work, so they’re worse tailored to heavy bodily exertion.

    Acquired coronary heart defects in kids

    Causes

    • rheumatism child - Heart disease in newborns causes, diagnosis and treatmentrheumatism;
    • transferred bacterial, viral infections;
    • infective endocarditis;
    • frequent sore throats, scarlet fever.

    Of course, kids with an unoperated acquired defect should be noticed by a heart specialist or therapist for all times. Congenital coronary heart defects in adults is a crucial problem that must be reported to the therapist.

    The diploma of coronary heart disease in a toddler

    The classification of defects on the idea of diploma relies on the severity of the signs of pathology:

    • At the primary diploma, the work of the guts deviates barely from the norm;
    • In the second diploma, the signs of the disease are steadily progressing;
    • Defects of the third diploma are manifested not solely by particular signs, but in addition by a violation in the functioning of the nervous system, since oxygen doesn’t enter the mind in a traditional quantity;
    • With the fourth diploma, there’s an nearly full inhibition of respiratory and cardiac exercise, which may trigger the demise of the kid.

    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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