Extensive stroke – consequences and chances to survive

Extensive cerebral stroke occurs due to:

  • Atherosclerotic changes in the vessels.
  • Hypertensive or hypotonic crises.
  • Thromboembolism.
  • Skull injuries with hemorrhage under the lining of the brain.

Atherosclerosis is the process of the formation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels. The reasons for the development of formations are malnutrition, obesity, diabetes. Plaques narrow the lumen of the artery, lead to thinning of the wall, its damage and deformation. As a result, it is easily torn or clogged by a blood clot, and in some cases leads to cerebrovascular insufficiency.

Hypertensive crisis – a sharp increase in pressure. Often occurs against a background of chronic hypertension. With it, the vessels experience a large load and can burst, which will cause a hemorrhagic stroke. And also at elevated pressure there is a lack of oxygen, which leads to ischemia. The main cause of hypertension and crises is heart hypertrophy, arrhythmia, and obesity.

With a hypotonic crisis, pressure drops sharply. Arteries stick together, causing oxygen starvation and cell death. With prolonged hypotension, extensive damage develops, characterized by the mass of foci of necrosis. The main causes are alcoholism, heart failure, vegetovascular dystonia with parasympathetic activity.

Thromboembolism – blockage of a vessel with a blood clot, thrombus. Blood clots are formed due to clumping of red blood cells, which is caused by disorders of the coagulation and anticoagulation system, blood stasis, surgical interventions. When clogged with a blood clot, the vessel may burst due to increased pressure. Otherwise, a lack of blood circulation is formed.

Injuries of the skull in some cases can lead to rupture of the vessel in the subarachnoid space or under the soft membrane of the brain. The injury should have a fairly large force, which reduces the chance of developing pathology immediately after an impact, but concussion and bone displacement can cause impaired patency with the subsequent development of ischemia and stroke.

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Risk group

The high-risk group for extensive stroke includes people who:

  • Suffer from diabetes.
  • They have increased weight.
  • They smoke.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • They have hypertension, ischemic heart disease.
  • Old age.
  • They have anomalies in the structure of cerebral vessels, aneurysms.

Diabetes mellitus leads to an increased formation of blood clots, a deterioration in blood composition, an increase in pressure, and a violation of lipid metabolism. The effect of diabetes is similar to obesity, and their frequent combination greatly increases the risk of stroke. People with diabetes should constantly consult a neurologist about the state of the vessels of the brain and are present at risk.

Smoking leads to a narrowing of the vessels of the brain, impaired oxygen absorption, and a decrease in partial blood pressure. Constant exposure to nicotine leads to a loss of vascular elasticity and their easy rupture with increasing pressure.

Alcohol consumption also leads to depletion of the vascular bed, accelerated formation of atherosclerosis, thromboembolism. These factors place smokers with long experience and people who regularly consume alcohol at risk.

Hypertensive patients are also at risk, since increased pressure increases the likelihood of rupture of the vessel. This probability increases with age, as vessels lose their elasticity. Extensive cerebral stroke occurs in one out of five patients in the age category of 80 to 90 years.

Also, statistically, men often develop the disease – for one sick woman, there are three sick men, although, with age, this ratio is aligned.

Classification

The disease is divided into three main types: ischemic, hemorrhagic and stem.

Ischemic

Extensive ischemic stroke is more common than others, but its consequences are much easier than other forms. It leads to blockage of one or more large vessels of the brain. This kind can be caused by both a blood clot and a plaque. In rare cases, the disease develops due to a sharp decrease in blood pressure.

There are several varieties of ischemic stroke:

  • lacunar infarction (cavities – lacunae form in the brain);
  • cardioembolic (partial blockage of the artery);
  • micro-inclusive (blood flow is disturbed);
  • atherothrombotic (blood flow disturbance occurs due to a blood clot that has separated from the vessel wall);
  • hemodynamic (occurs due to a sharp jump in blood pressure).

Hemorrhagic

With hemorrhagic stroke, an outpouring of blood occurs in the brain tissue. Extensive cerebral stroke with cerebral hemorrhage is much less common, but its consequences are much more dangerous. The following factors lead to it: very high blood pressure (the walls of large vessels burst), congenital malformations and aneurysms of the blood vessels of the brain, the effects of hypertension or other diseases that lead to thinning of the walls of blood vessels.

There are two types of hemorrhagic cerebral stroke:

  • intracerebral (occurs due to a sharp drop in blood pressure, more often observed in older people);
  • subarachnoid hemorrhage (occurs due to rupture of the artery, this type is dangerous for obese people).

Signs of cerebral hemorrhage

The main cause of hemorrhagic stroke is a sudden rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. This is the most complex type of disease in which extensive hematomas and edema are observed in the brain tissues both on the surface and in deeper areas. Symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke can occur within a few seconds after rupture of the vessel.

Ischemic stroke is characterized by the gradual death of brain cells, mainly due to blockage of the blood vessel. This type of disease provides more opportunities for timely assistance and recovery in connection with its length of time.

Most patients with a large stroke fall into a coma. And the doctor’s task at this stage is to restore the patient’s consciousness.

Symptoms of the disease leading to a coma:

  • The patient begins to speak very quietly in incoherent words, delirium begins, he falls or settles.
  • After a few minutes, the reaction to noise, light disappears. The body becomes limp and becomes limp, vomiting may begin.
  • The pulse is slow, the patient breathes with difficulty.

Doctors divide such a post-stroke coma into four types according to severity:

  1. At the first degree, the patient loses consciousness, but reflective activity is preserved. A small area of ​​the brain is affected.
  2. At the second stage, reactions to external stimuli disappear, including the activity of pain receptors. A person is in a state of deep sleep.
  3. The third degree of coma is characterized by deeper brain damage, the pupils stop responding to light.
  4. At the deepest degree of coma, the pressure drops, breathing stops and can only be maintained artificially. The probability of such a patient returning to life is reduced to zero.

In almost all cases, a stroke develops rapidly and suddenly. He can hit a person anytime, anywhere, so everyone should know how to provide first aid:

  1. Carefully lay the victim on a hard surface and call an ambulance.
  2. If a person vomits, turn his head to the side.
  3. Open your collar, take off your tie and free your neck for breathing.
  4. Open the window: the victim needs fresh air.
  5. In no case give the patient food, water or any medicine.
  6. Rub and massage the paralyzed arm or leg.

Survival and speed of rehabilitation depends on the time that has passed since the onset of stroke.

The first symptoms are:

  • Severe, lightning fast headaches, which may be accompanied by vomiting.
  • Confusion of thinking, fainting, with transient development and extensive damage – coma.
  • The meaninglessness of speech, the difficulty in pronouncing sentences or individual words.
  • Memory impairment – difficulties in recalling today’s date, name, appearance of loved ones.
  • Visual impairment – double vision, “dark spots”, lack of light reaction of the pupils, lagging of the eye.
  • Congestion in ears, loud noise, hallucinations.
  • Changes in muscle tone – the inability to raise the limbs on one side of the body, drooping of the face, eyelids.
  • Redness of the skin, fever, chills, fever.

Any symptom presented is an occasion for an urgent emergency call.

In addition, medical practice gives a huge role to home diagnostics, which allows with great accuracy to determine the presence of an extensive stroke of the brain and even approximately determine its location. The main rating scale is the Cincinnati system or the U.D.A.R. scale.

    U – Smile. Ask the patient to smile. During the development of pathology, an asymmetry of a smile, a drooping of the corner of the mouth will be observed. Another sign is the complete omission of one of the s >

And also with the help of external inspection, you can approximately establish the localization. The nerve path to the muscles of the upper and lower extremities is designed in such a way that one half of the brain is responsible for the opposite side of the body. The affected side will be opposite to the affected hemisphere.

At the first sign of a stroke, you must:

  • Lay the patient on a hard surface, do not allow to get up, call an ambulance.
  • Turn your head sideways.
  • Remove or unfasten clothing on the body for free movement of the chest.
  • Open windows for fresh air.
  • If possible, measure the pressure, and at high rates, warm the lower limbs.

In case of loss of consciousness, it is necessary to check the pulse and breathing. In their absence, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin.

The patient should not be given water, food or medicine. It is necessary to observe the position of the legs – they should not lie above the head.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis is carried out immediately after the patient enters the hospital, and at the initial stage it is emergency. A neurologist evaluates the general condition of the patient, his reflexes, for which he conducts several simple tests. When the patient’s condition is stabilized, he is sent for an instrumental examination.

The most informative and modern diagnostic methods include MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), MPA (magnetic resonance angiography), CT with contrast, ultrasound of the neck vessels, ECG.

It is necessary to establish in which particular area of ​​the brain the stroke occurred, what is the volume of the affected tissue – treatment tactics and prognosis depend on this.

There are diseases whose symptoms are very similar to an extensive stroke, so diagnosis is simply necessary. The main examination that should be passed first is computed tomography. It is with the help of her that the doctor finds the lesion and determines the type of extensive stroke (hemorrhagic, ischemic or stem).

After computed tomography, the patient will be prescribed brain ultrasound, EEG and blood tests (general and biochemical blood tests).

Another effective diagnostic method is MRI, but due to the very high cost this examination is not in great demand.

Hardware diagnostic methods include:

  • Computed and magnetic resonance imaging (CT and MRI).
  • Electroencephalogram.
  • Ultrasound (ultrasound).
  • Biochemistry of blood and spinal fluid.

Computed tomography is used to determine the areas of neuronal death in the first day after a stroke. The study allows you to accurately determine the location of the focus, to determine the degree of brain damage.

Magnetic resonance imaging is a more advanced method and allows you to identify areas much later than with CT. Used to monitor therapy and to determine the extent of damage. It can not be used in the presence of metal pins, steel dentures, tattoos.

Electroencephalography allows you to record the electrical activity of the brain. The study is used to diagnose affected areas in order to correct subsequent rehabilitation therapy. During the diagnosis, a special “mesh” is installed on the patient, which registers the functioning of the nervous tissue.

Ultrasound is performed to determine the patency of the head arteries, the presence of stenosis, atherosclerotic plaques in them. The method allows you to find out the state of blood circulation and highlight problem areas in order to prevent the development of additional ischemia.

The biochemistry of blood and cerebrospinal fluid allows you to clarify exactly what kind of disease was, and also to determine the danger to the spinal cord and other departments. As a rule, a blood test is required, and cerebrospinal fluid is taken only according to indications.

Symptoms

The main symptoms of an extensive stroke are:

  • headache, dizziness, and migraines;
  • fatigue, a sharp deterioration in mood;
  • loss of sensation, numbness of the limbs;
  • vision problems, blurry picture;
  • problems with speech, fine motor skills;
  • deterioration with coordination of movements and orientation in space;
  • vomiting;
  • high blood pressure, breathing problems;

Even a couple of such manifestations suggests that the patient has a stroke and he urgently needs medical attention. Moreover, the symptoms appear on both sides, and a slowdown can cause great damage to the cerebral cortex.

Depending on the affected area of ​​the brain, the following symptoms may develop:

  • a sharp headache that cannot be relieved by analgesics is a hallmark of a hemorrhagic stroke; with an ischemic stroke, a headache may also be present, but usually it develops gradually and is less pronounced. The focus of pain is usually localized in the occipital and parietal lobes;
  • dizziness, impaired coordination;
  • paralysis and numbness of the facial muscles on one side of the face – the lesions during a stroke are mirror-like, that is, with the lesion in the left hemisphere, the right half of the face suffers, and with damage to centers in the right hemisphere – the left;
  • paralysis and numbness of the limbs, muscle weakness of one half of the body;
  • violation of mental functions;
  • memory lapses, disorientation in space;
  • speech disorders indicate damage to the speech center. The patient stumbles, his articulation is fuzzy (like a drunk’s speech), and the sequence of words in a sentence is often incorrect.

Cramps, sweating, palpitations, loss of consciousness are also possible. To check the condition of a patient with a suspected stroke, you should ask him:

  • raise both hands up – a person cannot raise both limbs evenly, or one deviates, lags behind;
  • smile – a patient with a stroke will not be able to do this, since one side of the face loses its sensitivity, the corner of the lips is lowered;
  • to answer a simple question, for example, “What is the weather like today?” – the patient will not be able to gather his thoughts or clearly pronounce the phrase, will mumble and be confused in words;
  • stick out your tongue – it will deviate from the midline.

If after the test the suspicions are confirmed, the patient needs urgent hospitalization.

Symptoms of the disease are noticeable even for those people who are unfamiliar with medicine:

  • loss of ability to formulate simple sentences (if you ask a person to say some phrase, he will not be able to do this);
  • violation of facial symmetry (the first thing that catches your eye is a crooked smile);
  • severe weakness in the arm or leg (when walking, one leg will drag, and if a person raises his arms, one of them will be lower);
  • a person is very worried about very severe headaches;
  • consciousness is disturbed, the patient may fall into a coma;
  • perception is impaired: the person who was struck by this disease does not understand speech and cannot read the text;
  • coordination is disturbed (the gait becomes “drunk”).

Varieties

The most rare type of stroke is symmetrical, or mirrored, occurring in both halves of the brain. It has a high mortality rate – from 95% and above.

Ischemic

Ischemia is a lack of oxygen to tissues. Extensive ischemic strokes occur due to cessation of blood access. Doctors note the following causes: thrombosis, vasoconstriction to obstruction, hypovolemia.

The consequences are much easier than the hemorrhagic form, but it happens much more often than others. According to statistics, this form occurs in 73-85 percent of all cases of stroke.

The following subtypes are:

  • Cardioembolic, with the formation of blood clots in the heart, which from there enter the cerebral circulation.
  • Micro-inclusive, due to stenosis of the network of small capillaries.
  • Aterothrombotic, developing due to separation of the atherosclerotic plaque from the vessel wall with subsequent entry into the artery.
  • Atherosclerotic, which is formed due to narrowing of the vessel by a plaque with the closure of the lumen.
  • Hemodynamic due to a sharp rise or drop in pressure.

Hemorrhagic

Extensive hemorrhagic strokes occur when an artery ruptures and blood enters the surrounding nervous tissue. Cells die due to the breakdown of red blood cells and the release of substances toxic to neurons. This form of pathology is more rare.

It is more difficult to treat. The vast form of this disease is almost always fatal.

There are separate subspecies:

  • Intracerebral, with rupture of an artery in the brain.
  • Subarachnoid, due to rupture of a vessel in the meninges, is especially common in hypertensive patients and people with obesity.

This type of stroke is distinguished by its localization. Hemorrhage occurs in the area of ​​the base of the skull, where the cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamic nuclei and other formations are located. These centers are responsible for breathing, swallowing, and vascular tone, because their damage is almost always fatal to humans.

Possible consequences

Almost all consequences follow from the fact that damaged cells cease to fulfill their tasks.

Regardless of the exact location, a person will almost always experience:

  • Paralysis of limbs and face.
  • Memory problems of all kinds.
  • Loss of coordination.
  • I’ll lose the ability to speak coherently.

The remaining consequences depend on the damaged half of the brain and the affected sector.

It is believed that the right hemisphere is responsible for imagination, spatial orientation, perception of color and emotions.

Right-sided stroke is characterized by:

  • Difficulty orienteering.
  • Difficulty in perceiving emotions.
  • Problems with remembering appearance.
  • Inappropriate behavior.
  • Difficulties with abstract perception.

Also, paralysis on the left half of the body, loss of sensitivity will be observed.

Particular complexity of treatment is difficult rehabilitation methods – to restore functions, it is necessary to work through the emotional and abstract sphere, which is more labor-intensive and less effective.

This half of the brain is responsible for logic.

With a left-sided stroke, the following are noted:

  • Difficulties with writing, mathematical calculations.
  • Problems with numerical memory.
  • Inability to perform logical operations.
  • Problems with the formation of phrases.

With an extensive stroke of the left hemisphere of the brain there will be a loss of sensation and motor activity on the right side of the body.

In almost all cases of extensive stroke, the patient develops a coma – deep inhibition of brain functions.

It is especially dangerous when the cerebellum is affected, which threatens to stop breathing and cardiac activity, because a comatose patient should be urgently taken to a hospital.

Chances of surviving a stroke

Only in 20% of cases does the patient die immediately after the onset of an extensive stroke or in the first two weeks after it, but more than half suffer from disability and lose their basic physical abilities. As for shortening life, only 30% can live more than five years after an attack, the rest die in the second year from a repeated stroke.

The probability of survival depends on the type of stroke, the extent of brain damage, and the speed of patient care. With extensive forms, the prognosis is generally worse: 30-40 percent of patients survive. In the presence of a coma, less than 20 percent.

The best chances to survive with the development of the ischemic variety, which is due to quick treatment by relieving spasm of the arteries. The lowest chance is in a hemorrhagic form with damage to the respiratory center.

Also, the chances of survival are increased by a relatively young age (up to 45 years), the absence of complications from other diseases. With proper treatment and rehabilitation, patients live as long as healthy people. The main thing is to call an ambulance at the first symptoms and start first aid measures.

How is the treatment carried out in a clinic?

The most important is the treatment in the first 3 hours after the development of the pathology, since with early help you can stop the massive process of necrosis and prevent most of the negative consequences.

First of all, they restore blood flow – relieve vasospasm, remove blood clots, lower or restore blood pressure to acceptable values.

For this, drug treatment is used:

  • With the development of the ischemic form – heparin, Enoxaparin, Warfarin and other anticoagulants.
  • With the development of hemorrhagic – hematostatics, such as Dicinon, Ethamsylate, Cyclonamide.
  • To reduce pressure – clonidine, droperidol, pentamine, benzohexonium.

Regardless of the type of disease, neuroprotectors are prescribed – Ceraxon, Vinpocetine, Cinnarizine, Complamin. Most drugs try to be administered with a moderate amount of saline, since an increased amount of fluid will cause brain edema.

With the development of severe bleeding or the ingestion of a large amount of blood in the tissue, surgery is performed to stitch the vessel and remove the hematoma. Unfortunately, with an extensive stroke of the brain, the chance of success of the operation is minimal.

When restoring blood circulation and stopping cell death, the patient is prescribed:

  • Antibiotics – ceftriaxone, minocycline, tetracycline.
  • Neurotrophins – Cerebrolysin, Cortexin.
  • Nootropics – Phenibut, Glycine.

With the development of spasms, muscle relaxants can be prescribed – Baclofen, Vecuronium, but the reviews of doctors are not always on the side of relaxing drugs due to muscle hypotrophy.

It is also important to ensure personal hygiene and prevent trophic ulcers and pressure sores. For this, the patient is changed posture every two hours, put special pillows, washed.

After a stroke, the patient is hospitalized, in the hospital, drug treatment is carried out. It consists in taking anticoagulants, thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents – drugs that neutralize the pathological coagulability of the blood and dissolve blood clots that have already formed in order to avoid relapse, better perfusion.

Infusion solutions are prescribed in combination with forced diuresis, vasodilator drugs, antioxidants. To restore cognitive functions, nootropics are indicated. To protect the vascular wall, angioprotectors are prescribed.

Recovery at home includes continuing the course of angioprotectors, applying moderate physical exertion, using a speech therapist to restore speech, physiotherapeutic procedures, monitoring diet and lifestyle.

It is very important to begin treatment in the first three hours after the development of the disease, since in this case the chances of recovery are significantly increased. The patient is hospitalized, examined, clarified the type of stroke and proceed to treatment.

First of all, doctors restore blood flow with drugs that destroy blood clots, lower body temperature (if it is elevated) and normalize blood pressure. Be sure to check your blood sugar.

In cases of ischemic stroke, a drug called Alteplase is used to destroy blood clots. This tool effectively restores blood flow, but it has contraindications:

  • after the development of the disease more than three hours have passed;
  • with the development of the disease there was a hemorrhage in the brain cavity;
  • the patient’s age is more than 80 or less than 18 years;
  • systolic blood pressure exceeds 165 mm Hg. Art.

For intravenous infusions, physiological saline is used, to which the necessary preparations are added. Other solutions can not be used, since with a stroke there is a high risk of developing cerebral edema, for its prevention, the patient is prescribed taking furosemide, magnesia or mannitol.

In order to prevent the development of severe infections, antibiotics are prescribed to the patient. Neurotrophins: Cortexin and Cerebrolysin will help restore nerve cell function. Thanks to them, the functioning of the affected limbs can be restored almost completely.

If the stroke was caused by rupture of the vessel and severe bleeding, there is a high probability of surgical intervention, since the blood must be removed. In the process of treatment in a hospital, the functions of the damaged systems of the body are restored.

If the patient falls into a coma, it is necessary to prevent pressure sores.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation after treating a major stroke can last for many years. During the recovery period, the patient must observe the following points:

  • taking medications that reduce the risk of re-development of the disease;
  • adherence to a special diet (products that contain cholesterol are completely excluded from the menu: mayonnaise and various sauces, eggs, fatty meats, caviar, sweet and spicy dishes, nutrition for cerebral atherosclerosis is suitable);
  • physiotherapy (swimming, classes on special simulators, therapeutic exercises), psychotherapy and regular classes with a speech therapist (these measures are aimed at restoring speech and motor functions, and the psychiatrist will help improve thinking).

Forecast after a brain stroke

If within 3 hours after a stroke you do not provide medical assistance to the victim, the probability of survival becomes almost zero.

The chances of survival and the prognosis for recovery will directly depend on the age, volume of the hematoma, and the state of the coma. Most of the victims, including young people, are doomed to life-long support of neurological defects. To minimize the consequences of a stroke, competent therapy should be provided, especially in the first weeks after a stroke.

In most cases (up to 70%), the victims remain bedridden and unable to service themselves. The remaining 30% are exposed to less pronounced consequences of neurological disorders – impaired limb function, movement, vision, speech, intelligence, etc.

The life expectancy of young people after a hemorrhagic stroke will depend on the presence and severity of concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, heart attack), the presence of excess weight, the duration of severe neurological deficiency, the effectiveness of treatment and rehabilitation. In a favorable combination of these factors, a person can live up to 15-20 years, and with full recovery, lead a long and full life.

Extensive hemorrhage in old age in the first 2-3 days ends in death. But there is still a chance of survival. A small percentage of survivors remain bedridden for the rest of their lives.

With a more favorable prognosis and less extensive hemorrhage, it is possible to partially get rid of the consequences of a stroke within 6 months. Most of the elderly (up to 70%) live after a stroke for 7-8 years, the rest do not survive for 2 years.

Can I survive an extensive stroke? The survival rate among the people in whom it developed is small.

If treatment was started in the first three hours, the prognosis of recovery is 30%, but in most cases this figure approaches 5-10%. The prognosis of patients who fell into a coma during an extensive stroke is unfavorable – they survive only in 20% of cases.

A person who has had this disease becomes disabled. Global behavior is undergoing in his behavior: he may not recognize loved ones, does not understand the purpose of some things he knows, speech and concentration are often disturbed. Many patients are not able to fully move, one side of the body most often remains paralyzed.

People who have had a stroke become irritable, a little inhibited, their memory is noticeably worse. Often patients suffer from depression. Along with speech impairment, visual function suffers, strabismus develops.

Mortality from a stroke is rather high, but we must not forget that the main percentage is due to late complications of the disease. A third of patients have a relapse of ischemic stroke within five years.

The risk of death or the development of severe late complications increases rapidly if proper medical care is not provided in the first three hours after a stroke. In the first month, about 25% of patients die – such figures are not directly related to organic damage, they are due to improper help and untimely treatment.

How many live after a stroke? The answer to this question cannot be given unambiguously, however, with proper treatment and timely treatment, up to 40% of patients fully recover, return to normal life without visible restrictions, more than half of them do not experience relapse. Therefore, the chances of surviving the consequences of an extensive stroke depend on how timely assistance was provided and rehabilitation was carried out correctly.

Rehabilitation

The duration of rehabilitation can be from six months to several years, while all lost functions are not always restored to the end.

In the rehabilitation of patients after a stroke, the following are used:

  • Physiotherapy. The method is aimed at restoring blood flow, the activity of the nervous system. Use UHF, darsonvalization, vibration. Physiotherapy usually accompanies the entire course of rehabilitation.
  • Passive gymnastics and massage. Nurses or relatives who have completed the training course help the patient maintain muscle tone by preventing their hypotrophy.
  • Physiotherapy exercises (LFK). A person is trained to reuse paralyzed limbs, from light movements to a full recovery of function.
  • Speech therapy and defectology. Classes with a speech therapist can restore speech, its perception.
  • Classes with a psychologist. Helps the patient to restore thinking faster, return to normal perception of the world.

It may take years to achieve at least some effect during recovery. In the absence of a threat to life, the patient is quickly transferred to home conditions.

And also the patient is prescribed a special diet with a reduced amount of low and very low density lipids, an increased amount of phosphorus, and easily digestible carbohydrates. Limit the amount of salt to 6 g per day.

Prevention

In order to reduce the risk of developing a major stroke, the following preventive measures should be followed:

  • control your blood pressure: have a blood pressure monitor with you – if your blood pressure is constantly increasing, consult your doctor;
  • watch your diet, exclude harmful products from the menu;
  • walk more in the fresh air, perform simple physical exercises;
  • Do not be nervous, avoid stress;
  • watch your body weight: obesity leads to thrombosis.

Extensive stroke is a very dangerous and insidious disease. It is important to help in the first three hours after the development of the disease, since it is in this case that the chance of recovery increases. Watch your health and in case of any ailments, contact the hospital.

Prevention is a healthy lifestyle.

To prevent a stroke, you should:

  • Follow a low fat diet.
  • Control pressure, take hypotonic drugs.
  • Refuse to smoke.
  • Have adequate physical activity, do breathing exercises.
  • Pass routine examinations.

Subject to these points, the likelihood of an extensive stroke is greatly reduced.

After a major stroke, the patient needs rehabilitation. Relatives should be patient, as many of his functions will be impaired, and the recovery period may drag on for months.

For a patient in a coma, it is best to be in a medical institution where all the conditions are created to support vital functions: sterility of the room, artificial respiration and delivery of nutrients to the body, support for heart function.

It is very important to conduct special gymnastics and regular body changes in order to avoid the formation of pressure sores. Depending on the condition of the sick person, physiotherapy may be prescribed.

If the patient regains consciousness, he needs to move, since the muscles in a supine position can gradually weaken and restore their tone will be more difficult. Within three months after an attack, a person needs to try to get up and perform simple actions.

Rehabilitation after an extensive stroke takes a long time. It is necessary to provide the patient with proper nutrition. To start, the food must be in a liquid state, other products are gradually introduced. A special menu is created that does not contain animal cholesterol, eggs, mayonnaise and some other products are prohibited.

After suffering a major stroke, treatment and rehabilitation in special sanatoriums in which the patient will be under the supervision of doctors will be useful.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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