Causes of heart palpitations and treatment of tachycardia

By origin, tachycardia can be physiological and pathological.

Physiological tachycardia develops normally in healthy people on the background of the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream as a result of intense physical exertion or severe stress. In this case, stimulation of adrenoreceptors located in the heart occurs, and it begins to contract more often.

After the cessation of the active production of adrenaline, the pulse quickly returns to normal values.

Also, a kind of physiological tachycardia can be considered a rapid heartbeat that appears against the background of pathologies not associated with heart diseases:

  • High fever;
  • Intense pain;
  • Acute surgical diseases;
  • A critical decrease in blood sugar;
  • Bazedovo disease;
  • Various injuries, especially accompanied by blood loss and a decrease in blood pressure, etc.

Of course, these conditions are not normal and, in most cases, require compulsory treatment. However, tachycardia with them can be considered as a natural protective physiological reaction of the body.

A pathological increase in heart rate is associated with the presence of any heart disease:

  • With fresh or previous myocardial infarction;
  • With the defeat of the sinus node or other elements of the conduction system of the heart;
  • With heart failure;
  • With inflammatory diseases (in particular, with myocarditis);
  • With valvular heart disease, etc.

Depending on where the source of tachycardia is located, it happens:

Sinus tachycardia is the most harmless. It is characterized by the formation of pulses in the sinus node, where this happens normal. In most cases, it is physiological, while all other types of tachycardia are always pathological.

With atrial tachycardia, stimuli are formed in the atria, and with atrioventricular in the atrioventricular junction. These two types of heart palpitations are largely similar to each other in the clinical picture, as well as in the ECG image.

In addition, they require the same treatment. Therefore, very often they are combined into one type of tachycardia – supraventricular.

Depending on the duration of the increased heart rate, tachycardia is divided into a permanent and paroxysmal form.

With the constant option of increasing the heart rate, the body manages to adapt to this condition, so the patient may practically not feel any symptoms and not even suspect the existence of a pathology. With it, there are no emergency conditions leading to acute heart failure or sudden death.

However, its long existence significantly increases the load on the heart and contributes to its rapid wear.

The paroxysmal form is characterized by the appearance of sudden short-term attacks of rapid heartbeat, which occur spontaneously and, often, also pass spontaneously. At the same time, the well-being of a person during seizures can significantly deteriorate.

Many diseases of the heart and blood vessels provoke the frequent work of one of the main organs of the human body. In the normal state, the sinus node generates excitation that spreads to the myocardium. If pathological changes in the heart occur, then the nerve cells that initiate the heartbeat begin to respond incorrectly, causing the muscle to contract faster.

Among the diseases of the cardiovascular system that provoke tachycardia are:

  • congenital heart defects in children – therefore, despite the fact that frequent reduction in babies is the norm, cardiological examinations should be performed;
  • chronic heart failure;
  • hypertension;
  • myocarditis, endocarditis and other inflammation of the heart muscle;
  • myocardial infarction.

To determine what exactly caused tachycardia, the type of change in contractions of the heart muscle will help. This criterion is the main one for the diagnosis of diseases, separation of the norm from pathology and the search for the causes of the condition.

The following types are distinguished:

  • sinus tachycardia;
  • ventricular tachycardia;
  • atrial tachycardia;
  • atrioventricular tachycardia.

It is quite difficult to establish a specific type without a cardiogram, although there are peculiarities and nuances of the clinical picture. At the same time, the type of tachycardia is the main diagnostic criterion that is extremely important for the diagnosis and severity of the patient’s condition. Each type provides its own approach to therapy.

This type of arrhythmia – that is, a violation of the normal rhythm of the heart, is considered one of the most common. The main diagnostic criterion is to increase the frequency of strokes to 100 and above.

Symptoms are also characteristic:

  1. The heartbeat feels powerful and strong, a person can “hear” his pulse.
  2. Shortness of breath, and it occurs even in a state of rest, without physical exertion.
  3. A man gets tired quickly.
  4. Myocardial ischemia provokes a characteristic dull pain behind the sternum.
  5. Dizziness, blurred consciousness.
  6. A person becomes irritable, sleeps poorly, emotionally unstable.

Sinus tachycardia, as a rule, indicates the development of coronary heart disease. This condition can occur in adulthood, often in young people. Concomitant diseases are often obesity, hypertension.

In this regard, the treatment of sinus arrhythmia involves the following measures:

  • weight loss to the optimum;
  • exclusion from the diet of fatty foods containing harmful cholesterol, sweet, alcohol;
  • taking beta-blocker drugs – Anaprilin, Nebilet;
  • the use of diuretics to remove excess fluid along with potassium preparations to strengthen the heart muscle;
  • sedatives can sometimes be used.

This subspecies is also called paroxysmal, because it sharply arises against the background of previous well-being. Repeated episodes of “failure” of the heart rhythm are very dangerous, because they often lead to myocardial infarction, also being one of its symptoms.

  1. The stormy beginning is a sharp pain, darkness in the eyes.
  2. Heart rate rises to 120 and above.
  3. Often – loss of consciousness.
  4. Cardiac arrest may occur.

The condition of patients with ventricular tachycardia is always critical, so treatment should be carried out in a hospital. An ambulance must be called immediately.

Therapy measures are as follows:

  • defibrillation – electrical stimulation of the heart;
  • lidocaine solution;
  • in the future, the drug Amiodarone is indicated;
  • an operation to implant a pacemaker may also be recommended.

This type is similar to ventricular, but less dangerous. It also occurs paroxysmally without causing serious complications.

  1. Heart rate from 120 to 240 beats per minute.
  2. Pre-fainting conditions – however, loss of consciousness does not occur.
  3. Dyspnea.
  4. Chest pain of moderate intensity.

Treatment depends entirely on the causes, among which there may be both heart defects and neurosis. In general cases, sedatives are prescribed, beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, for example, Propafenone, can be used.

This is a life-safe condition caused by a structural feature of the nodes of the cardiac system. It occurs in young people, can persist in old age. Attacks occur while taking alcohol, physical activity, stress.

Despite the fact that the condition does not threaten life, it can cause a deterioration in its quality due to characteristic symptoms:

  • palpitations;
  • lack of air;
  • feeling of heaviness in the chest;
  • weakness.

In this regard, treatment is prescribed that helps to ease the course of seizures. Most of the therapy is aimed at eliminating anxiety and fear of death in the patient. The activity of the vagus is also normalized. Used drugs: Verapamil, Trifosadenin.

A rapid heartbeat does not always indicate that there are any problems in the body and it is urgent to run to the doctor. Sometimes it is caused by completely natural and harmless reasons. In this regard, the following types of tachycardia are distinguished:

  1. Physiological – it occurs in people who do not have health problems, under the influence of some environmental factors and is a manifestation of the compensatory forces of the body. It appears during active physical exercises, emotional disturbances, fear and quickly passes without any treatment, leaving no traces.
  2. Pathological – occurs against a background of various diseases of the heart or other internal organs. It can be dangerous, because when the heart beats more often than necessary, the ventricles do not have enough time to fill up with blood. As a result, cardiac output decreases, a small amount of blood enters the vessels, enters the organs and tissues. Their oxygen starvation develops. Long-term tachycardia is dangerous for the heart itself: its performance is impaired, the volume of the atria and ventricles increases, and cardiopathy can develop.

Depending on where exactly the impulse is formed, tachycardia is divided into two more types:

  • Sinus – in this case, pulses, as expected, arise in the sinus node, their number simply increases. It usually begins gradually, an increase in heart rate is observed up to 120 beats per minute. In this case, the same amount of time passes between the heart contractions, that is, there is no arrhythmia.
  • Ectopic (paroxysmal) – in this case, extra impulses arise not in the sinus node, but in another place. They can occur in the atria (supraventricular tachycardia) or in the ventricles (ventricular tachycardia). It begins abruptly, with a sudden increase in heart rate, and does not pass for several minutes, and sometimes several days.

Reasons and features of manifestation

The causes of heart palpitations are very large, but all of them can be divided into 2 main groups – intracardiac and extracardiac factors. Let’s consider them in more detail .

Diseases and pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system: heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (IHD), severe angina pectoris, heart disease, left ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, cardiosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, pericarditis, Q congenital elongation , mitral valve prolapse syndrome, arterial hypertension (hypertension), anemia (anemia), hypoxemia, acute vascular insufficiency (with the loss of a large amount of blood, shock, collapse or fainting).

  • Increased physical stress on the body, or a long stay in an uncomfortable position for the body, for example – when tilting (working in the garden, etc.);
  • A sharp change in body position, for example, from a horizontal position to a vertical one;
  • Strong feelings, stress, fears, neuroses;
  • Violation of the normal functioning of the cerebral cortex and subcortical nodes;
  • Disorders in the work of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), including vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD);
  • Mental disorders;
  • The presence of infectious diseases: sepsis, tonsillitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and other diseases that are accompanied by elevated and high body temperature – each additional 1 ° C of body temperature increases heart rate by 8 beats / minute (adults) and 10-15 beats / minute (children );
  • Disorders of the endocrine system: thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma
  • The use of certain drugs: sympathomimetics, or drugs that activate the active sympathetic nervous system (drugs adrenaline and norepinephrine), hormones (corticosteroids, thyroid-stimulating hormones), vagolitics (atropine), antihypertensive drugs (lowering blood pressure), diuretics (diuretics), psychotropic drugs (phenothiazides), some anesthetics, aminophylline, intoxication with cardiac glycosides and other drugs;
  • Ingestion of certain harmful substances: alcoholic beverages, nicotine, nitrates (poison that can be found in food);
  • The use of coffee and caffeinated drinks, strong tea;
  • Dehydration;
  • Congenital pathology;
  • Severe pain attacks (colic and others);
  • Bites of some representatives of the animal world – snakes, spiders, wasps or bees;
  • There is also tachycardia of unknown etiology, which is attributed to the group of ideopathic tachycardia. This may include heart palpitations following exposure to a person’s spiritual strength, but of course, official medicine usually does not recognize spiritual factors.
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The causes of sinus tachycardia can be divided into two large groups:

  1. Intracardial – the causes of increased heart rate lie in the heart. They are both congenital and arise due to various heart diseases.
  2. Extracardiac – heart rate increases due to various extracardiac factors: diseases of other organs and systems or under the influence of external factors.

Heart rate can increase with almost any cardiovascular disease, including:

  • cardiac ischemia;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • heart failure, both acute and chronic;
  • heart defects, both congenital and acquired;
  • cardiosclerosis;
  • cardiomyopathy – while reducing the contractility of the heart, which reduces the amount of blood that it throws into the vessels in one reduction; to compensate for this, he has to work faster;
    infectious endocarditis and others.

Extracardial causes of tachycardia:

  • physiological reasons – heart rate rises with active physical work, due to excitement, strong emotional overstrain;
  • neurogenic – they occur when the work of the cerebral cortex and subcortical nodes is disrupted, and also with various dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system: neurosis, affective psychosis, neurocirculatory dystonia; most often they are young people with an unstable nervous system;
  • endocrine diseases;
  • shock;
  • collapse;
  • acute blood loss;
  • severe pain attack;
  • taking medications that affect the functioning of the sinus node (adrenaline, atropine, aminophylline and others); tachycardia, the reasons for which lie in taking medications, is called medication;
  • not only drugs can increase the heartbeat, but also nicotine, alcohol, coffee and caffeinated drinks;
  • fever in certain infectious diseases (pneumonia, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, etc.) – it was found that a rise in body temperature by one degree increases heart rate by about 8-9 beats per minute.

In addition, tachycardia is adequate and inadequate. The latter does not go away even after the person has eliminated any stress, physical or emotional. Finding the cause of tachycardia at first glance is also not possible. In all respects, the heart should beat evenly and calmly, because there are no provoking factors. Why it occurs is not fully understood, however, there is an assumption that it is associated with a primary lesion of the sinus node.

Determining the type of tachycardia is important for the appointment of the right treatment, since most often it is necessary to treat it, but the pathology that caused it. If you simply reduce the heart rate without eliminating the cause, you can trigger a drop in blood pressure.

Each sex-age category of the population has its most common causes of tachycardia. In addition, they differ in its most common forms and possible consequences.

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Women

In women, tachycardia often develops due to an unstable psycho-emotional background. The female psyche is more labile, they are more emotional and prone to hysteria. Therefore, especially at a young age, heart palpitations in most cases are physiological in them.

Also, signs of tachycardia in women often appear due to hormonal imbalance. Very often, their heart palpitations develop in the premenopausal and menopausal period. Therefore, if as a result of the examination of the heart no pathologies are detected, they are usually referred to an endocrinologist and gynecologist.

Usually, tachycardia in women is sinus or supraventricular in nature, so the risk of developing sudden cardiac death is lower compared to men.

In men

Unfortunately, in men, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia is common, often ending with ventricular fibrillation and death. It can be provoked by insignificant at first glance damage to the heart muscle.

Children

In most cases, tachycardia in children is normal, physiological. As a rule, it is caused by psycho-emotional moments or the restructuring of the body during the period of growth and, especially, puberty.

However, in some, its development is associated with congenital heart defects, abnormalities of the coronary arteries, as well as metabolic disorders. Therefore, if a child has frequent unmotivated attacks of tachycardia, it is best to undergo a comprehensive examination by a pediatrician and cardiologist.

Timely detected defect is the key to timely treatment and ensuring normal heart function in the future.

In the elderly

Heart palpitations in the elderly are often associated with worsening exercise tolerance. It is also very often caused by the development of heart diseases, which are widespread at this age. In addition, tachycardia in the elderly can cause the development (or one of the symptoms) of chronic heart failure.

With a regular increase in heart rate in old age, it is recommended to visit a therapist or cardiologist who knows how a particular disease appears, how to diagnose and treat it.

Increased heart rate in pregnant women is a frequent and, in most cases, absolutely normal condition.

The fact is that in the mother’s body an additional section of the circulatory system appears, providing nutrition to the fetus. In this regard, the volume of circulating blood increases slightly. To cope with this increased volume, the heart must work harder.

Therefore, in pregnant women, the frequency and strength of heart contractions increases. There is a so-called physiological tachycardia.

As the fetus grows, its need for blood supply also increases, therefore, with each month of pregnancy, the pulse increases steadily and reaches its maximum by the third trimester, when it becomes 15-20 beats per minute more often than the initial indicators.

However, in some cases, tachycardia during pregnancy can be due to pathological causes. This can be any obstetric disease (very often a rapid heartbeat is observed with toxicosis in the early stages), as well as hidden heart pathologies, aggravated against the background of an increased load.

In such situations, the heart rate may not increase by 15-20 per minute, but much more. In this case, the expectant mother has many symptoms of pathological tachycardia, and the fetus develops intrauterine hypoxia.

This condition requires mandatory thorough diagnosis and timely treatment.

Normal tachycardia is also called physiological. In contrast, there is a pathological form that can be evidence of serious illness or life-threatening conditions that are not directly related to the heart.

If a healthy person has tachycardia, while the condition and health obviously worsen, we can talk about such reasons:

  1. Dehydration – both against the background of overheating of the body, and simply because of a lack of fluid. It must be remembered that coffee and strong tea do not replenish water in the body, on the contrary, removing it additionally. Tachycardia from dehydration is often found among lovers of strong coffee, energy drinks, and alcohol. This condition is not normal, it can lead to fainting and even serious complications, up to cardiac arrest.
  2. Sun and heat stroke are a specific reason. Children are in a special risk group, since their fluid loss is faster, and thermoregulation still does not work well.
  3. Anemia, due to which the number of red blood cells in the blood decreases, and the remaining ones have to do double work, and the heart – faster pump fluid.
  4. Tumors of the adrenal glands, provoking abnormal production of adrenaline. This condition is exacerbated by constant anxiety and nervousness.
  5. Hyperthyroidism – an excess of thyroid hormones also makes the heart work faster.
  6. Neuroses and psychoses as critical mental states that have a direct impact on somatics.
  7. Fever of any genesis – from banal ARVI to tuberculosis and oncological formations that provoke an increase in body temperature.
  8. The heart is more often contracted if a person experiences pain or discomfort, because any pain syndrome is stressful. These conditions are not directly related to heart disease; eliminating the underlying cause will return the normal heart rate.

Symptoms of Tachycardia

Symptoms of tachycardia depend on how strongly it is expressed, how long it lasts, and also what caused it. Sometimes a person may not feel anything at all. Among the frequently noted are:

  • palpitations, sometimes patients note booming blows in the chest;
  • discomfort in the heart, sometimes even pressing pain;
  • dizziness;
  • hand shake.

Sinus tachycardia is characterized in that it begins gradually and also smoothly ends. If severe tachycardia is observed for a long time, that is, organs and tissues, including the brain, receive poor nutrition for a long time, signs of oxygen starvation may join the symptoms: head is dizzy, sometimes the patient may lose consciousness, focal neurological disorders may occur, and may sharply decrease blood pressure, as well as decreased amount of urine.

With inadequate tachycardia, shortness of breath joins these symptoms, as if the patient does not have enough air. The patient quickly gets tired, notes a decrease in working capacity, is often in a bad mood.

The presence of other symptoms of tachycardia will depend on what disease caused it.

Symptoms of tachycardia largely depend on the etiology of heart palpitations, its severity and duration, as well as the general state of human health.

  • Feeling of a strong heartbeat;
  • Heaviness in the region of the heart, pain in the heart;
  • Ripple of the vessels of the neck;
  • Dizziness, up to loss of consciousness;
  • Feeling of lack of air;
  • Dyspnea;
  • Arterial hypotension (low blood pressure).
  • Insomnia;
  • General weakness, increased fatigue;
  • Loss of appetite;
  • Bad mood, increased irritability;
  • Decreased urine output;
  • Body cramps.

Consider how tachycardia manifests itself, and its signs in people with different forms. To begin with, one should separate the constant rapid heartbeat, which is often asymptomatic, and the attack of tachycardia, the symptoms of which are much more pronounced.

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With constant tachycardia, a person usually does not experience any discomfort in the heart, does not feel interruptions in his work.

In most cases, the clinical picture with this form is very scarce, and it is limited to nonspecific complaints of increased fatigue, weakness, decreased performance, poor tolerance of physical activity.

If the patient develops paroxysmal tachycardia, the symptoms are usually quite pronounced. The main one is the feeling of a heartbeat. Normally, we don’t notice how our heart works, this happens unnoticed.

Here it suddenly “accelerates,” and its intense activity, which occurs literally “out of the blue,” becomes very tangible and often frightening. It seems to patients that the heart “is about to jump out of the chest”, against this background, they often have a fear of death. In this case, the resulting panic causes an additional influx of adrenaline, which only exacerbates the situation.

Also during seizures in people, the development of:

  1. Shortness of breath
  2. Sharp weakness;
  3. Dizziness;
  4. Loss of consciousness, etc.

The appearance of frequent shallow breathing, on the one hand, is due to compensatory mechanisms that turn on when the cardiac activity is insufficient, and, on the other hand, it can also be associated with the activation of the sympathoadrenal part of the autonomic nervous system.

Weakness, dizziness and loss of consciousness occur against the background of a disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This situation is observed in those cases when the heart contracts frequently, but the cardiac output is catastrophically small.

However, even the presence of all these signs does not mean that a person definitely has cardiac tachycardia. Symptoms that occur with tachycardia are very non-specific and can appear even with a number of conditions.

Therefore, for the diagnosis of tachycardia, an objective assessment of cardiac activity is very important, which can be done:

  • Measuring the pulse;
  • Having appreciated the apical impulse;
  • After listening to heart sounds;
  • Having written an ECG.

In order to establish the presence of tachycardia as such, any of these methods is suitable. However, the ECG has the greatest diagnostic value of them.

Tachycardia in children

In children, heart rate is higher than in adults. However, this same condition may indicate heart defects or other diseases.

Child with tachycardia:

  • restless;
  • sleeps poorly;
  • the face may be pale or red;
  • subjectively feels weak.

Treatment depends on the cause. With fever, it is necessary to take an antipyretic to reduce the load on the heart. Congenital malformations can be corrected medically or operatively, depending on the level of danger to life.

Complications

Without adequate treatment, pathological tachycardia can lead to the development of various complications that threaten the health and sometimes life of the patient. It can be:

  • wear of the heart muscle, because it has to constantly work with increased load;
  • oxygen starvation of the brain, because it lacks blood and nutrients;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • sudden cardiac arrest;
  • ventricular fibrillation;
  • arrhythmic shock.

Pregnant tachycardia

Pregnant women often suffer from tachycardia, but this is not a pathological condition. In the third semester, the increase in heart rate is normal due to the additional load on the body. A healthy woman has nothing to fear, however, if previously there were problems with the heart or blood vessels, it is recommended to consult a doctor.

Normal helps pregnant women:

  • the exception of coffee, tea, energy;
  • low cholesterol diet;
  • vitamins with magnesium;
  • taking mild sedatives – for example, Persena.

Diagnosis of tachycardia

Diagnosis of any tachycardia begins with an examination by a doctor. He uses the simplest methods, such as measuring heart rate and listening to heart sounds. To do this, he needs only eyes, hands, ears and a phonendoscope. Such a simple set is quite enough to establish the very fact of the development of tachycardia.

However, this is not enough. It is also necessary to determine its type. In this doctor, as a rule, an ECG helps. With the help of a cardiogram, it is possible to evaluate the teeth and complexes and according to their shape determine where the electrical impulses come from, causing the heart to contract faster:

  1. With sinus tachycardia, all the teeth and complexes are correct, as on a normal ECG, only the distance between them becomes smaller;
  2. With supraventricular tachycardia, in addition, P waves change: they become biphasic or negative;
  3. With the ventricular form of rhythm disturbance, the P waves disappear, and the complexes themselves expand and deform.

Sometimes an attack of paroxysmal tachycardia is so short that it cannot be “caught” on the ECG. Then her daily monitoring by Holter comes to the rescue: a special apparatus is hung up for the patient, which registers electrical impulses coming from the heart in a continuous mode.

This method allows not only to determine the presence and type of arrhythmia, but also to assess the frequency of seizures per day, to identify the factor provoking them.

In addition, when detecting a rapid heartbeat in order to establish its causes and consequences, an ultrasound scan of the heart is performed, and if necessary, an MRI or coronary angiography. These studies are supplemented by laboratory diagnostic methods, such as clinical and biochemical blood tests, coagulogram, etc.

In order to determine the causes of tachycardia, as well as prescribe the correct treatment, it is necessary to conduct a diagnosis. Begin by collecting a medical history of the patient and his complaints. At this stage, it is important to find out how tachycardia manifests itself in each specific case, what provokes it and what helps to relieve an attack of increased heartbeat. Sometimes the patient themselves suggest a possible cause of its appearance.

Next, an external examination of the patient is carried out, the color of his skin (with prolonged oxygen starvation, the skin looks pale), the heart rate and respiration are calculated. At this stage, heart murmurs may be heard if a cause of tachycardia is any heart disease.

After collecting the anamnesis and conducting an external examination, laboratory and instrumental examination methods are connected.

Here you can see signs of anemia or an increase in white blood cell count, which is typical for the inflammatory process. In addition, the general picture of the state of the blood is important for the further diagnosis and treatment of tachycardia.

  • Biochemical analysis of blood

This analysis is more indicative than general. The amount of cholesterol, glucose, creatinine, urea and many other indicators are determined. On it you can suspect in which particular organ the pathological process is going on, causing a rapid heartbeat.

It is carried out to exclude diseases of the kidneys and urinary system.

Hormones play an important role in regulating blood pressure and heart rate, so their performance is of great importance in determining the cause of the disease.

To diagnose a disease such as tachycardia, an electrocardiogram of the heart plays one of the leading roles. During its conduct, not only the heart rate is determined, but also their rhythm, strength and many other important indicators. Deciphering the ECG can give the doctor clues to determine not only heart diseases, but also other organs.

This is the same cardiogram, only it is recorded for one or several days. A Holter examination is able to record tachycardia syndrome, as well as bradycardia and any other heart rhythm disturbance, to calculate its duration and frequency of repetition during the day.

It allows you to detect structural changes in the heart: with its help, heart chambers, valves, and myocardial thickness are examined.

It is rarely used when there is a corresponding indication.

Usually it is used only for certain indications before surgical treatment. It allows you to study the nature of the conductivity of an electrical impulse along the myocardium.

  • Anamnesis;
  • Electrocardiography (ECG), as well as daily monitoring of ECG according to Holter;
  • Echocardiography (echocardiography);
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart;
  • Electrophysiological study (EFI) of the heart.
  • General blood analysis;
  • Electroencephalography (EEG) of the brain.

What is dangerous tachycardia

Not all types of this type of arrhythmia are a threat. The symptom can be either completely “innocent” or indicate severe pathology.

The following are dangerous for life:

  • ventricular – indicates a risk of heart attack or its development;
  • sinusoidal – can also lead to heart attacks, strokes;
  • Without treatment, some species may worsen, causing swelling of the brain and lung;
  • with overheating, fever, dehydration, there is a risk of heart failure.

Tachycardia is a good reason to visit a cardiologist. Even if a serious illness is not found, it is always better to be alert to your health.

Tachycardia treatment

If tachycardia has developed against the background of an extracardiac disease, then in most cases it is sufficient to eliminate the cause to eliminate it. In this case, the appointment of any antiarrhythmic drugs is not required.

If tachycardia is associated with cardiovascular disease, then one of the following groups of drugs is used for its treatment:

  • Sodium channel blockers (lidocaine, procainamide);
  • Beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol);
  • Potassium channel blockers (sotalol, amiodarone);
  • Calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, verapamil).

To prescribe each of the drugs, there are indications and contraindications, which can only be determined by a doctor. It should be remembered that antiarrhythmics can be very dangerous, and self-medication with them is unacceptable. Uncontrolled intake of these drugs can significantly aggravate the disease.

How to treat tachycardia in each case is determined by a cardiologist. Sometimes he may need to consult other specialists: a neurologist, endocrinologist, therapist, urologist, depending on the cause of the increase in the number of heart contractions.

Of great importance is the elimination of factors that cause heart attacks: smoking, drinking alcohol, drinking coffee and caffeinated drinks, great physical exertion, emotional excitement and stress. To eliminate physiological tachycardia, this is usually enough.

Treatment of pathological tachycardia requires additional measures: in addition to eliminating provoking factors, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease.

If the tachycardial syndrome is neurogenic, a neurologist consultation is required. Important in this case is the appointment of sedatives and sedatives, sometimes tranquilizers or antipsychotics.

If the heart begins to beat more often than necessary, due to the fact that the amount of blood in the circulatory system has decreased (for example, with severe blood loss), it is necessary to replenish its volume to the proper extent. A decrease in heart rate without this can provoke a drop in blood pressure and only exacerbate the symptoms of hemodynamic impairment. In anemia, iron supplementation is important.

What to do with tachycardia, which developed against the background of thyroid disease (thyrotoxicosis), is decided by a cardiologist together with an endocrinologist. It is important to treat the underlying disease. However, beta-blockers or calcium antagonists are added to this.

Beta-blockers are also used if tachycardia occurs against a background of chronic heart failure. In addition to them, cardiac glycosides are prescribed.

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If tachycardia is caused by any infectious disease, antibacterial or antiviral drugs are prescribed.

If ventricular tachycardia occurs, treatment must be started on an emergency basis, for which the patient is hospitalized in a medical institution.

According to some indications, increased heart rate is treated surgically. For this, the method of radio frequency ablation is used. Through large vessels, a special catheter electrode is inserted into the heart cavity, with the help of which a pathological focus is cauterized, which generates extra impulses.

How to treat tachycardia? Treatment of tachycardia begins primarily with a thorough diagnosis of the patient and identifying the causes of heart palpitations.

1. Elimination of external factors of increased heart rate (see “Causes of tachycardia”); 2. Drug treatment (drugs for tachycardia); 3. Surgery.

In many cases, especially with sinus tachycardia, removal of the root cause normalizes heart rate and the use of conservative therapy remains unclaimed. The root cause of heart palpitations may be the use of coffee, strong tea, alcohol, chocolate, certain medications, or frequent stresses, fears, great physical exertion, and other reasons that we wrote about at the beginning of the article, in the corresponding paragraph.

Important! Before using drugs, be sure to consult your doctor!

In case of neurological disorders, sedatives (soothing the nervous system) are prescribed – Valerian, Diazepam, Luminal, Persen, Seduxen, Tenoten, and tranquilizers – Tranquilan, Relanium.

For disorders of the mental system (psychosis, etc.), antipsychotics are prescribed: Promazin, Levomepromazin.

In many cases of treatment of tachycardia, an antiarrhythmic agent is used – Lidocaine, which is administered as an injection (1 mg per 1 kg of the patient’s body weight) and droppers. If lidocaine did not lower heart rate, with ventricular tachycardia, Novocainamide or Aimalin are used.

In case of sinus tachycardia against the background of thyrotoxicosis, β-adrenoblockers are prescribed: Trazicor, Praktolol, and Prindolol.

When contraindications to taking β-blockers, calcium antagonists of the nonhydropyridine series are used: Diltiazem, Verapamil.

In case of sinus tachycardia against a background of heart failure, an additional intake of cardiac glycosides is prescribed together with β-adrenoblockers: Digoxin.

In case of paraxismal tachycardia against the background of an increased tone of the vagus nerve, a special massage is applied, based on pressure on the eyeballs. If this method of therapy has not been successful, then an intravenous administration of an antiarrhythmic agent is prescribed: Verapamil, Cordaron.

With paraxismic ventricular tachycardia, the patient must be urgently taken to a medical institution, as well as anti-relapse antiarrhythmic therapy.

When blood pressure drops to low levels, it must be raised to 100-110 mm RT. Art., for which intravenously administered norepinephrine or other pressor amines. If the result is not achieved, and blood pressure is still very low, electro-pulse therapy is used.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive x-ray surgical method for treating arrhythmias using an endovascular catheter that conducts high-frequency currents. With the help of current, the heart rhythm of the heart is normalized.

Installation of a pacemaker (pacemaker), which artificially supports the rhythm of the heart rate.

Forecast

The most favorable prognosis for a full recovery is sinus tachycardia, but subject to timely contact by a cardiologist and compliance with all doctor’s prescriptions.

Tachycardia amid heart disease is less favorable, but nevertheless, there is always a chance of recovery.

The prognosis for recovery of patients with ventricular tachycardia against a background of myocardial infarction is considered unfavorable, which is associated with severe damage to the heart muscle. The situation is aggravated if heart failure and arterial hypotension develop in parallel.

The prognosis for recovery with idiopathic tachycardia (of unknown etiology) can also be very positive, because turning a person in prayer to God often leads to healing in more serious situations, such as cancer. Evidence of this can be found on the forum.

Important! Before using folk remedies against tachycardia, be sure to consult a doctor!

Herbs, fruits, lemon and honey. Remove the peel from 4 lemons and squeeze the juice out of them, which must be mixed with 250 g of honey. Next, grind through a meat grinder 16 leaves of room geranium (small) and 18 almond fruits, then mix this mixture with 10 g of tincture of valerian and 10 g of tincture of hawthorn. Mix all the prepared ingredients thoroughly and add 6 whole camphor grains to the mixture.

Garlic and lemon. Add 3 medium chopped cloves of garlic, juice of 10 lemons and 10 liter of honey in a 1 liter jar. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly, cover the jar tightly with polyethylene and set aside for infusion for 7 days. You need to take the received product for 2 tbsp. tablespoons, 1 time per day, until complete recovery.

Adonis. Boil 250 ml of water in a small saucepan, then make the fire slow and add 1 teaspoon of Adonis herb to the water. Boil the product for no more than 3 minutes, then remove from heat, cover and set aside for 30 minutes. Next, the broth needs to be filtered and taken for 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day.

To achieve the maximum effect of adonis, take the following remedy during the day: peel and chop 500 g of lemons, to which add a couple of tablespoons of honey and 20 kernels of chopped apricot kernels. Mix the weight thoroughly and take this mixture for 1 tbsp. spoon in the morning and evening. By the way, apricot kernel kernels contain vitamin B17, which also has an antitumor effect.

Adonis. 1 teaspoon of adonis grass, pour a glass of boiling water and put the product on low heat for 5 minutes, then remove from heat, cover and let it brew for 2 hours. Next, the tool must be filtered and taken 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day, 30 minutes before eating.

Hawthorn. Pour 1 tbsp. spoon of hawthorn flowers with a glass of boiling water, cover the product with a lid, let it brew for about 30 minutes, then strain and take the prepared tachycardia product 100 ml 3 times a day, 30 minutes before eating. The course of treatment is until complete recovery.

How to treat tachycardia? Treatment of tachycardia begins primarily with a thorough diagnosis of the patient and identifying the causes of heart palpitations.

Important! Before using folk remedies against tachycardia, be sure to consult a doctor!

Herbs, fruits, lemon and honey. Remove the peel from 4 lemons and squeeze the juice out of them, which must be mixed with 250 g of honey. Next, grind through a meat grinder 16 leaves of room geranium (small) and 18 almond fruits, then mix this mixture with 10 g of tincture of valerian and 10 g of tincture of hawthorn. Mix all the prepared ingredients thoroughly and add 6 whole camphor grains to the mixture.

Tachycardia Prevention

Prevention of tachycardia includes compliance with the following recommendations:

  • Minimize the use of coffee, strong tea, alcohol, chocolate;
  • Avoid overeating, in foods try to give preference to vegetables and fruits that contain a large amount of vitamins and minerals, especially pay attention to replenishment of the body with magnesium and potassium;
  • Observe the work / rest / sleep mode;
  • Avoid working with a lot of stress;
  • Avoid taking medications without consulting your doctor;
  • Try to move more, but at the same time do not overstrain the body in excess of physical activity;
  • Spend more time outdoors.

As with any disease, an important place should be given to prevention, because any disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Tachycardia has no gender and can occur in both men and women, so preventive measures will be useful to everyone.

  • First of all, it is necessary to normalize the regime of the day, go to bed on time and give sleep a sufficient amount of time.
  • Refusal of bad habits is also an important component in the prevention of an increase in the number of heart contractions.
  • Adhere to proper nutrition: reduce the amount of coffee, chocolate, and be sure to include fruits and vegetables in the diet.
  • Whenever possible, avoid stress and prolonged nervous strain.
  • Despite the fact that physical activity by itself can increase the number of heart contractions, they should still be given to the body, but at the same time monitor their condition and control the pulse.
  • Be sure to timely and correctly treat infectious diseases, undergo a medical examination and monitor your health.

Regardless of the cause, it is important to be aware of the symptoms of tachycardia, to know what it is, how to treat it and what danger it can pose.

  • Minimize the use of coffee, strong tea, alcohol, chocolate;
  • Avoid overeating, in foods try to give preference to vegetables and fruits that contain a large amount of vitamins and minerals, especially pay attention to replenishment of the body with magnesium and potassium;
  • Observe the work / rest / sleep mode;
  • Avoid working with a lot of stress;
  • Avoid taking medications without consulting your doctor;
  • Try to move more, but at the same time do not overstrain the body in excess of physical activity;
  • Spend more time outdoors.

Prevention and treatment of tachycardia are often reduced to the same measures. From the first months of a child’s life, you need to check for heart defects. People at a more mature age are recommended to adhere to an optimal lifestyle, a healthy diet, and avoid stress and toxic substances – cigarettes, alcohol. Even a single attack is an occasion to visit a doctor.

Watch a video that talks about 3 ways to help tachycardia

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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