Most of the pathologies for which people are forced to consult a doctor require additional analyzes. One of the most common is taking blood from a vein for examination. This analysis allows you to identify many indicators that help in establishing a diagnosis or correcting treatment.
But it is important to correctly donate blood from a vein for analysis. This is not as simple a procedure as examining capillary blood from a finger. A laboratory assistant can cope with it, or even a person himself can learn how to do it on his own when it comes to patients with diabetes mellitus.
The study of venous blood requires qualifications:
Preparing for the procedure
Responsible attitude to the moment of donating venous blood means properly preparing for the analysis. If some of the rules are not followed, then the research results will be incorrect. This will affect the correct diagnosis and treatment.
Conditions for preparing for a blood test:
- It is undesirable to engage in excessive physical activity the day before,
- On the day before the study, you should not eat too spicy, fatty foods, drink alcohol,
- On the day of the test, do not eat, smoke or drink anything other than water,
- Some of the medications taken may affect the test results, they must be temporarily canceled.
The location of the veins on the arm
Blood counts depend not only on the presence or absence of the disease. The human body is sensitive to any changes.
Often, the results of the study can be influenced by several factors that are independent of the person:
- Hormonal cyclical changes in a woman’s body – menstruation, ovulation, menopause,
- Stress, psycho-emotional stress, including those associated with the blood sampling procedure,
- Other studies conducted the day before.
If a clinical or biochemical blood test reveals a change that does not correspond to the person’s clinical symptoms, then it makes sense to repeat the analysis. It is likely that it was the failure to follow the rules of preparation for the analysis that led to such a result. Also, laboratory error or poor quality reagents cannot be ruled out.
Blood collection technique
At the moment when blood is taken, a person can sit or lie down, depending on his condition. If he is too nervous about an upcoming study, then a 15-minute rest should be given to calm down. The presence of signs of alcohol intoxication is a recommendation for transferring the analysis to the next day.
It is most convenient and preferable to take blood from the veins of the forearm. Here they are located superficially, are visible under the skin and move slightly.
The most commonly used:
- Median superficial
- Median vein of the elbow,
- External superficial vein.
Blood sampling from a vein
Of these veins, the median elbow vein and the external superficial vein are best suited. They are fixed by tendons in the elbow bend area, therefore they are inactive. A vein that is too mobile during the injection can slip away from the needle to the side.
In obese people, the veins may be almost invisible. In this case, it is convenient to use the vessels in the back of the hand. They are always more noticeable, but there are more pain receptors, blood sampling will be more painful. Also, these veins are more mobile, which will require better fixation of the vessel during blood collection. It doesn’t matter which arm veins are used.
When taking peripheral blood from a vein, a strict algorithm and rules for delivery are observed. Disposable gloves should be worn by the healthcare professional collecting blood. First, a preliminary injection site is determined, a vein is selected.
A tourniquet is applied to the shoulder. The person is asked to make several movements with the hand – this will allow the veins to fill more with blood. The nurse carefully probes the vein from which the blood will be drawn.
- The place of the bend of the elbow is alternately processed with two balls of alcohol. This is necessary to comply with the rules of asepsis. After treatment, the vein is no longer palpable.
- The needle is inserted at an angle of 45-50 degrees to the skin. Be sure to insert it with an oblique cut upward – this will allow you to pierce the vein wall quickly and accurately.
- After the injection, the direction of the needle changes, it becomes parallel to the vein. The needle is inserted into the lumen of the vessel by about a third.
- The tourniquet is removed after insertion, the patient’s hand should lie relaxed and motionless.
- After taking the required amount of biomaterial with a syringe – blood, the injection site is pressed with a cotton ball with an antiseptic, the needle is removed.
- The arm should be bent at the elbow and firmly applied to the blood sampling site to avoid bruising.
In many medical centers and laboratories today, vacuum tubes are used. This is more convenient than drawing blood with a syringe. Vacuum tubes are available in the form of ready-made kits, depending on what the blood is taken for.
The kit includes a test tube and a fine needle. After puncture of the vein, it is not required to substitute the tube and control the amount of blood. The tube itself sucks in as much biomaterial as required.
Normal analysis values and reasons for change (table)
The direction with which the person came is attached to the test tube with blood. This can be a referral for a general blood test or biochemical research, with certain indicators. There are normal values for each indicator.
They can increase or decrease, depending on the pathology:
|Hemoglobin||120-170 g/l||Too thick blood – erythrocytosis, smoking, dehydration due to diarrhea, vomiting, overheating, blood transfusion||Anemia – iron deficiency, due to bleeding – post-hemorrhagic, due to lack of iron from food, excessive need for iron in pregnant women, in children|
|Erythrocytes||3,7-5,5 * 1012/l||Smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, primary and secondary erythrocytosis, climbing mountains, blood clots due to dehydration, compensatory in athletes||Iron deficiency anemia: post-hemorrhagic, due to a lack of iron in food, vegetarianism, a great need for iron in pregnant women and children|
|leukocytes||4,5-9,5 * 109/l||Infectious pathologies: bacterial, viral, fungal,||Acute and chronic leukemia, severe infections, secondary and primary immunodeficiencies – HIV, Di Giorgi syndrome, radiation sickness, heavy metal intoxication, taking cytostatics|
|overheating, stress, acute and chronic leukemia,|
|taking certain medications,|
|Platelets||150-400 * 109/l||Congenital thrombophilia||Thrombocytopenia associated with tumors of the blood system, radiation sickness, exposure to toxins, cytostatics,|
|removed spleen||hypersplenism – increased spleen function|
|Erythrocyte sedimentation rate||0-20 mm/h||Infections: viral, bacterial, mixed,||rate|
|systemic diseases – rheumatoid arthritis, lupus,|
|thickening of the blood due to dehydration|
|Total protein||67-88 g/l||multiple myeloma,||Exhaustion – cachexia, nephrotic syndrome – loss of protein in the urine, chronic diarrheal syndrome, malabsorption syndrome|
|thickening of blood|
|Total cholesterol||Up to 5 mmol/L||Atherosclerosis: ischemic heart disease, cerebral ischemia, familial hypercholesterolemia,||exhaustion|
|chronic kidney disease|
|ALT, AST||Up to 35 IU/L||Hepatitis: toxic, infectious, idiopathic,||rate|
|cirrhosis of the liver,|
|overdose of certain medications,|
|taking statins, oral contraceptives, antibiotics,|
|Alkaline phosphatase||30-120 U/l||Acute and chronic pancreatitis||rate|
|Urea||2,8-7,6 mmol/l||Renal failure, fever, sepsis, dehydration, intestinal obstruction||Liver pathology|
|Creatinine||Up to 100 μmol/L||Chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, etc.||Liver pathology|
|excessive physical activity,|
|Bilirubin||5,2-17 μmol/l||Liver damage: infectious, toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis, gallstone disease, Gilbert’s syndrome||rate|
|Glucose||2,5-6,0 mmol/l||Diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, blood donation after meals||Insulinoma, pheochromocytoma, fasting, overdose of hypoglycemic drugs or insulin|
Complications after donating blood from a vein
During the analysis, it is important to follow the rules of antiseptics. But often the infection still enters the body.
Contribute to this:
- Weakened immunity
- Vascular wall defects
- Failure to comply with antiseptic rules.
Then, a few hours after the injection, the injection site becomes infected. Phlebitis – inflammation of a section of a vein or thrombophlebitis – may develop when the inflamed vein becomes thrombosed.
Without treatment, thrombophlebitis will spread up the vein, causing more and more extensive damage. Phlegmon, an inflammation of the soft tissues, may develop. Cellulitis appears when an infection from a vein spreads to the surrounding muscles and fatty tissue. This is a dangerous infectious complication that requires immediate attention.
Phlegmon and thrombophlebitis are fraught with the development of sepsis – blood poisoning. This is a common infection where bacteria proliferate in the bloodstream. Sepsis quickly leads to liver, kidney, and lung failure. Without timely treatment, sepsis leads to death.
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