Endometriosis of the urinary bladder is a rather rare disease typical of the fair sex in reproductive age. In women during menopause and postmenopause, the disease is very rare.
This pathological condition consists in the transfer of endometrial cells from the uterus to the bladder and their subsequent proliferation. At the same time, both the walls of the bladder and its internal cavity are subject to damage.
The mechanism of development of the state
Due to the pathological changes occurring in the female body, the inner layer lining the uterus grows and goes beyond the boundaries of the organ. An overgrown endometrium can infect neighboring organs, such as the ovaries, intestines, bladder, peritoneum, and even the navel.
Since the endometrial tissue is sensitive to hormonal fluctuations in a woman’s body, foci of epithelial cells can bleed. This leads to the fact that the organ affected by the overgrown endometrium becomes inflamed and the mechanisms of its functioning are disrupted. Externally, the affected area looks like a bright dark red spot.
In size, the foci of the overgrown endometrium are both single, small, and large enough, affecting large areas of tissue. Single formations are small and mainly affect the walls of the bladder.
In more severe conditions, an accumulation of foci is found in the organ, which grow deeper. Sometimes such an accumulation spreads along the walls of the organ, forming adhesions.
Reasons for education
There are a large number of reasons affecting the onset of the disease, the main of which are:
- Hormonal disorders in a woman’s body.
- Pathological conditions of the organs of the genitourinary system.
- Surgical interventions, abortions.
- Immunity disorders.
- Incorrect food.
In addition, a number of scientists adhere to the embryonic theory of the onset of the disease. This theory is based on the similarity of the types of cells located in the abdominal cavity and the uterus, while at the stage of embryonic development, due to various reasons, tissue formation is impaired.
Thus, some cells are replaced by others, which can lead to tissue proliferation and the emergence of foci of endometriosis in adjacent organs.
Symptoms of pathology
The symptomatology of the condition is similar to the symptoms of many diseases of the genitourinary system in women, which complicates its early diagnosis.
Among the main symptoms are:
- Pain sensations localized in the abdominal region, which are monotonous, aching in nature. The pain may worsen several days before your period starts.
- Changes in the color and transparency of urine due to the presence of an admixture of blood and flakes.
- Pain when urinating.
- Urinary incontinence.
- An increase in the size of the bladder.
If you find the above symptoms, you should consult a specialist.
Basic diagnostic methods
As the main methods for diagnosing a pathological condition, an obstetrician-gynecologist can use:
Survey and inspection. During the survey, the specialist will find out the main complaints of the patient, collect anamnesis, find out whether inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs have taken place, whether surgical interventions have been carried out, and determine the number of births and abortions.
In addition, a specialist will conduct an examination on a gynecological chair, take material for analysis.
- General urine analysis. Using this method, a specialist will determine the state of the patient’s genitourinary system and the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
- Blood test for hormones. It is prescribed to identify violations of the hormonal background of women.
- Cystoscopy. This instrumental method for diagnosing the disease consists in inserting a camera of the apparatus – a cystoscope – through the urethra into the bladder. The study allows you to assess the size of the foci of endometriosis, the degree of damage to the bladder.
- Ultrasound examination of the organs of the genitourinary system will reveal the foci of the disease and the degree of lesion in cases where cystoscopy is impossible due to contraindications, for example, concomitant urethritis.
- Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography. These methods are used when it is impossible to use cystoscopy due to the identified contraindications, they are used to establish the degree of damage to the bladder and the size of the altered tissue.
Modern diagnostic methods make it possible to quickly assess the condition of the bladder and identify a pathological condition.
Bladder endometriosis treatment
The choice of a method for treating pathology depends on:
- The age of the woman.
- The degree of development of the disease and its severity, the size of the affected area, the presence of adhesions.
- Planned pregnancy in the future.
Treatment can be carried out conservatively and operatively. Surgical intervention is performed using laparoscopy, when the endometriotic tissue is embedded in the walls and thickness of the bladder. In such cases, the affected tissue is resected, and the organ itself is sutured.
You should know that after the performed surgical intervention there is a 20% chance of a relapse of the disease.
Drug therapy consists in the appointment of steroid hormonal agents, such as Danazol, Danoval, Nemestran. The use of these drugs prevents the growth of the endometrium, in turn, pain and bleeding decreases.
In the presence of inflammation in the organ, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, pain relievers are prescribed.
It should be understood that drug therapy is used for a long time from six to nine months, and requires regular monitoring by a specialist.
This method of treatment allows you to improve the condition and achieve long-term remission, however, it contributes to the disruption of the hormonal background of the woman and, as a result, increases the problems with conception.
Possible consequences and complications
The disease can lead to the development of the following pathological conditions:
- The formation of adhesions in the organ.
- Internal bleeding.
- Degeneration of endometrioid cells into a malignant tumor.
- Urinary incontinence.
The main methods of prevention are to comply with the following rules:
- Avoid surgical interventions on the organs of the genitourinary system. If you have any health problems, you should contact specialists in a timely manner and not delay the treatment of pathologies.
- Planning pregnancy and avoiding abortion.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right.
- Check hormonal levels once a year.
- Attend routine checkups with an obstetrician-gynecologist and urologist at least once a year.
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