SD-2 is a common disease in the Russian Federation. By January 2014, the total number of people who applied for help amounted to 3 million 625 thousand. Of these, only 753 cases were children and adolescents. The vast majority of patients are over 35 years old, has an increased body mass index.
In percentage, the ratio of carriers of T1DM and T2DM is 20 and 80% of the total number of cases, respectively. Diabetics need to make a proper nutrition plan and include the most priority foods in it, removing junk food.
Women who have had gestational diabetes are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the future, which necessitates compliance with recommendations for lifestyle modifications in the future.
Early detection of a carbohydrate metabolism disorder in a pregnant woman and monitoring of this condition makes it possible to minimize the risks associated with the influence of minor chronic hyperglycemia on the formation of the fetus, the health of the newborn and the woman herself.
In patients with diabetes who deliberately or unknowingly do not follow a diet before the diagnosis, due to the excessive amount of carbohydrates in the diet, the sensitivity of cells to insulin is lost. Because of this, glucose in the blood grows and keeps at high rates.
The meaning of diet for diabetics is to return to cells a lost sensitivity to insulin, i.e. ability to assimilate sugar. What should be the classic diet for type 2 diabetics?
The amount of carbohydrates is adjusted by the doctor depending on the degree of sugar increase, the weight of the patient and related diseases. To maintain the normative general condition of the body with type 2 diabetes, you must follow the rules:
- The 1st and most important rule is strict observance of the rules of the diet and your doctor;
- It is forbidden to starve;
- Frequent (3-5 times a day) fractional low-carb nutrition in small portions;
- It is undesirable to take long breaks between meals;
- Correction of body weight – it is necessary to try to reduce it, since there is a direct correlation between the weight and sensitivity of cells to insulin;
- You can not refuse breakfast;
- Exclude fatty foods as much as possible, since fats entering the blood from the intestines impair the utilization of carbohydrates by the cells of the body;
- The first to eat vegetables at the time of eating, and only after them – protein products (cottage cheese, meat);
- Great emphasis should be placed on vegetables (up to 1 kg per day), unsweetened fruits (300-400 g), low-fat meat and fish (up to 300 g per day) and mushrooms (up to 150 grams);
- All food must be thoroughly chewed, large pieces should not be rushed and swallowed;
- Individual selection of a diet, depending on age, gender and physical activity of a person;
- Served meals should not be hot or cold;
- For a day, it will be quite enough for the patient to eat 100 g of bread, cereals or potatoes (one is chosen);
- The last meal should take place no later than two hours before going to bed;
- If you want to diversify the carbohydrate menu somehow, then it is better to choose diabetic sweets (on sugar substitutes), but they should not be carried away. It should be compiled only by the attending physician, who knows what can be eaten and what cannot be given to the patient, as well as what dishes are allowed to be consumed in limited quantities .;
- With a negative reaction of the stomach to raw vegetables, it is recommended to bake them;
- It is not recommended to roast, deboning products, making them in batter, adding sauces. In addition, fried foods have a higher glycemic index. Boiled or steamed dishes will be more beneficial for the diabetic;
- In the manufacture of minced meat, the loaf is excluded, being replaced by oatmeal, vegetables;
- In the presence of carbohydrates in a portion (a significant amount), they are diluted with proteins or allowed fats – to reduce the rate of digestion and assimilation;
- Allowed drinks are used before meals, not after;
- The total amount of free fluid daily is 1,5 liters;
- All products-provocateurs (rolls, mayonnaise, cakes, etc.) away from the eyes, replacing them with plates of fruits and vegetables;
- Fast carbohydrates (sweets, sugar, pastries, soda, etc.) are prohibited, complex carbohydrates are consumed in moderation;
- Control the amount of carbohydrate intake. The easiest way is to count bread units (XE). Each food product contains a certain number of bread units, 1 XE increases blood glucose by 2 mmol / L.
It’s important to know! 1 Bread Unit (1 XE) is a measure of the amount of carbohydrates in foods. Conventionally, 1 XE contains 12-15 g of carbohydrates, and it is convenient to measure different products in it – from watermelons to sweet cheesecakes.
Calculation of bread units for a patient with diabetes is simple: on the factory packaging of the product, as a rule, indicate the amount of carbohydrates per 100 g, which is divided by 12 and adjusted by weight. For one meal you need to eat no more than 6 XE, and the daily norm for an adult with a normal body weight is 20-22 bread units.
Examples of 1 XE in products:
- Borodino bread – 28 g.;
- Buckwheat groats – 17 g .;
- Raw carrots – 150 g;
- Cucumber – 400 g;
- Apple – 100 g;
- Dates – 17 g.;
- Milk – 250 g;
- Cottage cheese – 700
For type 2 diabetes, a low-carb diet is recommended to maintain normal blood glucose levels. At the same time, proteins and fats are allowed in the diet in virtually unlimited quantities, taking into account the daily calorie content, if necessary, lose weight.
What can be eaten and what can not be with diabetes can be found in the table below. The patient needs to learn how to choose the right products and in the future he will know what you can eat with the disease, and why it is better to refuse.
Limited food – they are not banned for intake, but it is necessary to strictly control the amount of their intake in the body (fats). Prohibited foods – the inclusion of such foods in the diet is not recommended, as they significantly increase the level of glucose and insulin in the blood (easily digestible refined carbohydrates).
|Products||What you can eat||Limited||What not to eat|
|flour products||Bran Bread||Bread and flour products|
|Meat and offal||Lamb, beef, veal, pork, rabbit meat. Heart, liver, kidneys, etc.|
|Bird||Chicken, turkey, goose, duck meat|
|Fish||Extremely low-fat fish|
|Sausages||All types of high-quality sausages with a good composition (without flour, starch and cellulose)|
|Dairy produce||Cottage cheese, sour cream, cream, low-fat hard cheese|
|Eggs||All types of eggs without restrictions|
|Cereals||Several times a week up to 30 grams of dry cereals: black rice, buckwheat, quinoa, lentils, oatmeal, peas||White rice. Pasta|
|Fats||Olive, coconut oil||Hydrogeated vegetable oils. Sunflower, rapeseed, corn oil|
|Seasonings||Mustard, Black Pepper, Spicy Herbs, Cinnamon|
|Vegetables||Tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, garlic, zucchini, eggplant, sorrel, white cabbage, Beijing, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, lettuce, spinach, broccoli, green beans, asparagus, green peas, mushrooms. Canned vegetables, salads, etc.||Pumpkin, squash, carrots, turnips, Jerusalem artichoke, sweet potato, radish. Olives and olives|
|Fruits and berries||Lemon, Cranberry, Avocado, Quince||Apples, pears, cherries, plums, currants, raspberries, strawberries, gooseberries, aronia, strawberries (up to 100 g per day)||Bananas, grapes, cherries, pineapple, peaches, apricots, melon, dates, dried apricots, raisins, cherries, watermelon|
|Nuts||All nuts and seeds, low GI nut paste. Walnut flour (coconut, sesame, almond)|
|Chocolate and Desserts||Quality chocolate with 75% cocoa content of not more than 15 grams per day||Baking and desserts with sugar, sweets, honey, cane sugar|
|Beverages||Tea, herbal decoctions||Fruit and vegetable juices|
|Alcohol||Dry wine once a month||Beer, sweet alcoholic drinks.|
Knowing what foods you can eat with type 2 diabetes, the table of which is given, you can do without medications. At the same time, not only the composition of the daily menu is important, but also the number of meals. At the first signs of the disease, you need to adjust the diet, which will avoid the severe stages of diabetes with constant injections of insulin and serious complications.
Diet by blood, without carbohydrates, separate nutrition, mono-diet, protein, kefir, starvation, all kinds of teas for weight loss – all diabetics go through it. Many people cannot imagine their life without sweets – patients with diabetes can use sweeteners.
Sorbitol, xylitol and fructose are considered caloric, so this should be taken into account when calculating calories. Aspartame (NutraSvit, Slastelin), cyclamate and saccharin are non-caloric. They can not be boiled, otherwise bitterness arises. Acesulfame potassium belongs to the same species. When choosing the right drug, you should always consult your doctor so that there are no contraindications.
The sweetest drugs:
- SAKHARIN – the sweetest substitute – 375 times sweeter than sugar. The kidneys are actively involved in its processing and withdrawal. Therefore, with diseases of the kidneys and liver, it can not be used. A day you can eat no more than 1-1,5 pieces per day;
- Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar. Do not take patients with phenylketonuria (a serious hereditary disease leading to impaired mental development). Dose – 1-2 tablets per day;
- ATSESULPHAM POTASSIUM (ACE-K, SWEET-1) (200 times sweeter than sugar, use 1,15 tablets per day.) Limited intake for renal failure and diseases in which potassium is contraindicated.
Other drugs are also available:
- SORBIT – is consumed at 20-30 grams per day, it helps to enhance metabolism;
- FRUCTOSE – made from grapes, compared with sugar, fructose is 2 times sweeter (no more than 30 grams per day);
- XILIT – obtained from corn cobs (cobs). It is absorbed without the participation of insulin. When using it, the digestion of food slows down, so you can reduce the amount of food. Recommended volume is not more than 30 grams per day.
Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
This is not the same as the classic table 9 diet, where only “fast carbohydrates” are limited, but “slow” ones remain (for example, many types of bread, cereals, root crops).
Alas, at the current level of knowledge about diabetes, we have to admit that the classic Diet 9 table is inadequate in its loyalty to carbohydrates. This soft system of restrictions runs counter to the logic of the pathological process in type 2 diabetes.
Why carbohydrates pose a threat to diabetes
Proper nutrition for people with diabetes plays an important role in countering the disease and maintaining a high quality of life. A complete diet involves a varied diet, in which the necessary amount of fats, proteins, carbohydrates is present. The development of diabetes is associated with impaired pancreatic function.
With diabetes, the amount of carbohydrates in the diet of patients is up to 60% of the total diet.
Carbohydrates are divided into:
- Easily digestible: these include premium flour, sugar, foods containing starch and sugar. The negative effect of easily digestible carbohydrates on the body of a diabetic is due to the fact that the use of this type of carbohydrate leads to a rapid, significant increase in glucose levels. For a diabetic, this can become deadly, so limiting this type of carbohydrate is necessary;
- Slow digestible: these include fruits and vegetables that are rich in fiber. They differ in that after their use, the glucose level rises very slowly, providing the body with energy.
Sudden changes in the amount of glucose are very dangerous for diabetics, so slow carbohydrates are preferable for all whose sugar levels are higher than normal.
When preparing the menu, it is important to consider not only the ratio of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, but also the indicator of glycemic load of the product.
The glycemic index of a food product, which reflects the level of glucose, is better known. High is considered to be an index exceeding the figure of 70%. However, for the proper preparation of the menu, glycemic load is important, since any product contains a different ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, then the glycemic load is lower than the glycemic index. The glycemic load index is calculated by multiplying the amount of carbohydrates by the glycemic index.
Diet for type 2 diabetes: what you can eat, what you can’t (table)
With type 2 diabetes, a person can lead a normal lifestyle, making some changes to their diet. We suggest you familiarize yourself with a sample diet menu for type 2 diabetes.
- Breakfast. A portion of oatmeal, a glass of carrot juice;
- Snack. Two baked apples;
- Dinner. A portion of pea soup, vinaigrette, a few slices of dark bread, a cup of green tea;
- An afternoon snack. Carrot Salad with Prunes;
- Dinner. Buckwheat with mushrooms, cucumber, some bread, a glass of mineral water;
- Before going to bed – a cup of kefir.
- Breakfast. Serving of cottage cheese with apples, a cup of green tea;
- Snack. Cranberry juice, cracker;
- Dinner. Bean soup, fish casserole, coleslaw, bread, dried fruit compote;
- An afternoon snack. Sandwich with diet cheese, tea;
- Dinner. Vegetable stew, a slice of dark bread, a cup of green tea;
- Before going to bed – a cup of milk.
- Breakfast. Steamed pancakes with raisins, tea with milk;
- Snack. A few apricots;
- Dinner. A portion of vegetarian borsch, baked fish fillet with greens, a little bread, a glass of rosehip broth;
- An afternoon snack. A portion of fruit salad;
- Dinner. Braised cabbage with mushrooms, bread, a cup of tea;
- Before going to bed – yogurt without additives.
- Breakfast. Protein omelet, whole grain bread, coffee;
- Snack. A glass of apple juice, cracker;
- Dinner. Tomato soup, chicken with vegetables, bread, a cup of tea with lemon;
- An afternoon snack. Slice of bread with curd paste;
- Dinner. Carrot cutlets with Greek yogurt, bread, a cup of green tea;
- Before going to bed – a glass of milk.
- Breakfast. Two soft-boiled eggs, tea with milk;
- Snack. A handful of berries;
- Dinner. Fresh cabbage cabbage soup, potato patties, vegetable salad, bread, a glass of compote;
- An afternoon snack. Cottage cheese with cranberries;
- Dinner. Steamed fishcake, vegetable salad, some bread, tea;
- Before going to bed – a glass of yogurt.
- Breakfast. Portion of millet porridge with fruits, a cup of tea;
- Snack. Fruit salad;
- Dinner. Celery soup, barley porridge with onions and vegetables, some bread, tea;
- An afternoon snack. Curd with lemon;
- Dinner. Potato patties, tomato salad, a slice of boiled fish, bread, a cup of compote;
- Before going to bed – a glass of kefir.
- Breakfast. Serving of cottage cheese casseroles with berries, a cup of coffee;
- Snack. Fruit juice, cracker;
- Dinner. Onion soup, steam chicken patties, a portion of vegetable salad, some bread, a cup of dried fruit compote;
- An afternoon snack. Apple;
- Dinner. Dumplings with cabbage, a cup of tea;
- Before going to bed – yogurt.
Recipes for type 2 diabetes, dishes for diabetics
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Clinical nutrition, dietary recipes of which should be prepared as part of a sample diet menu for a week. The list of foods allowed for people with type 2 diabetes is not limited to what was mentioned in the table.
There is a lot of food that is not forbidden to eat. Recipes for type 2 diabetics are such that a discerning gourmet will be satisfied. The preparation of some is described below.
In this capacity are soups, broths that do not contain a large amount of fat. To lose weight and keep blood glucose within acceptable limits, it is recommended to cook:
- Green broth: 30 g of stewed spinach, 20 g of butter and 2 eggs fray, add 3 tablespoons of low-fat sour cream. After this, the mixture is immersed in meat broth and cook until tender;
- Vegetable soup: cabbage, celery, spinach, green beans are chopped, seasoned with oil, stewed, put in meat broth. Further, the soup is allowed to infuse for 30-60 minutes;
- Mushroom soup: cut mushrooms, season with salt and oil, stew in a pan and put in the broth. You can add the yolk of one egg.
Liquid hot dishes should be given to the patient at least 1 time per day.
You will need: one onion, one bell pepper, two potatoes, two tomatoes (fresh or canned), a tablespoon of tomato paste, 3 cloves of garlic, ½ teaspoon of caraway seeds, salt, paprika, about 0,8 liters of water.
Tomatoes, peppers and onions are cut into cubes, stewed in a pan with the addition of tomato paste, paprika and a few tablespoons of water. Grind caraway seeds in a flea mill or in a coffee grinder. Dice the potatoes, add to the vegetables, salt and pour hot water. Cook until the potatoes are ready.
A few minutes before cooking, add cumin and crushed garlic to the soup. Sprinkle with herbs.
We need: 200 g of red lentils, 1 liter of water, a little olive oil, one onion, one carrot, 200 g of mushrooms (champignons), salt, greens.
Cut the onion, mushrooms, grate the carrots. We heat the pan, pour a little vegetable oil, fry onions, mushrooms and carrots for 5 minutes. Add lentils, pour water and cook over low heat under a lid for about 15 minutes. A few minutes before cooking, add salt and spices. Grind in a blender, divide into portions. This soup is very tasty with rye croutons.
Solid food is used as additional food after soups for lunch, as well as an independent type of food in the morning and evening.
- Simple stuffing: chop onions, mix with parsley, chopped champignons. The mixture is fried, added to the scroll meat. If the product is planned to be used as a spread for a sandwich, it should be pre-fried. The raw mixture is used for filling tomatoes or bell peppers;
- Celery salad: cut the roots, cook until incomplete, stew in a small amount of water. Before use, the dish should be seasoned with sunflower oil or vinegar;
- Casserole: peeled cauliflower, boiled so that the vegetable does not dissolve. After that, it is put into an oil-treated mold, doused with a mixture of yolk, sour cream, grated cheese, and then baked.
In the second recipe, cooking celery is a must. In the process of heat treatment, the vegetable loses carbohydrates.
We will need: 6 medium tomatoes, two carrots, two onions, 4 bell peppers, 300-400 g of white cabbage, a little vegetable oil, a bay leaf, salt and pepper.
Chop the cabbage, cut the pepper into strips, the tomatoes into cubes, the onions into half rings. Stew on low heat with the addition of vegetable oil and spices. When serving, sprinkle with herbs. It can be used alone or as a side dish for meat or fish.
We will need: ½ kg of minced chicken, one egg, one small head of cabbage, two carrots, two onions, 3 cloves of garlic, a glass of kefir, a tablespoon of tomato paste, salt, pepper, vegetable oil.
Finely chop the cabbage, chop the onion, three carrots on a fine grater. Fry the onion, add vegetables and simmer for 10 minutes, cool. Meanwhile, add the egg, spices and salt to the minced meat, knead.
Add vegetables to the minced meat, mix again, form meatballs and put them into a mold. Preparing the sauce: mix yogurt with crushed garlic and salt, water the meatballs. Apply a little tomato paste or juice on top. Place the meatballs in the oven at 200 ° C for about 60 minutes.
A small amount of sugar is allowed in the composition of sweets for tea drinking, however, dietary saccharin is preferable.
- Vanilla cream: on a fire, beat a mixture of 2 yolks, 50 g of heavy cream, saccharin and vanilla. It is important not to let the composition boil. The resulting dish is eaten slightly chilled;
- Air biscuits: egg whites whipped to a thick foam are sweetened and laid in separate portions on an unlubricated sheet. It is necessary to bake in such a mode that the composition dries. To improve the taste, add cream to the cookies;
- Jelly: fruit syrup (cherry, raspberry, currant) is mixed with a small amount of gelatin, allowed to congeal. After this, the dish is considered ready. Before hardening, it is recommended to add a little saccharin to it.
Sugar-containing foods should be used with caution. Glucose, which is part of the dessert, is subtracted from the daily norm of simple u / in. Otherwise, the level of C6H12O6 may rise. Frequently recurring episodes of hyperglycemia lead to the development of complications.
You will need: ½ kg of white cabbage, a little parsley, a tablespoon of kefir, chicken egg, 50 g of solid diet cheese, salt, 1 tbsp. l bran, 2 tbsp. l flour, ½ tsp soda or baking powder, pepper.
Finely chop the cabbage, dip in boiling water for 2 minutes, let the water drain. Add chopped greens, grated cheese, kefir, egg, a spoonful of bran, flour and baking powder to the cabbage. Salt and pepper. We mix the mass and place in the refrigerator for half an hour.
We cover the baking sheet with parchment and grease it with vegetable oil. With a spoon, put the mass on the parchment in the form of a fritters, place in the oven for about half an hour at 180 ° C, until golden. Serve with Greek yogurt or on your own.
The role of dietary fiber in nutrition for type 2 diabetes
What is considered dietary fiber? These are particles of food of plant origin, which do not require processing by specific digestive enzymes and are not absorbed in the digestive system.
Proper nutrition for patients with type 2 diabetes is a vital necessity. Strict adherence to the diet makes it possible to reduce sugar levels and improve the quality of life of a diabetic without taking medications.
Doctors recommend that you enter dietary fiber into the diet of diabetics, because it is they that have sugar-lowering and lipid-lowering effects, are well perceived by the body and contribute to weight loss.
In addition, dietary fiber slows down the absorption of fats and glucose in the intestines, reduces the level of insulin taken by patients, creates the impression of full saturation, which automatically leads to a decrease in appetite and, consequently, the patient’s weight.
What contains dietary fiber:
- Rough bran;
- Oat and rye flour;
Doctors recommend adhering to a daily dose of dietary fiber in an amount of 30-50 g and it is highly desirable to distribute this amount as follows.
- 51% of the total should be vegetables;
- 40% – cereals;
- 9% – berries, fruits and mushrooms.
According to statistics, if a patient with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus adheres to the recommendations and prescriptions of a dietitian, which are given in this material, his condition normalizes, blood sugar levels decrease.
There have been cases when, in full compliance with the rules of dietary nutrition against the background of diagnosed diabetes mellitus, the blood sugar level of the patient was within normal limits.