This value in medicine is important, demonstrates the functioning of the human circulatory system. It is formed with the participation of blood vessels and the heart. Blood pressure depends on the resistance of the vascular bed and the volume of blood that is released during one contraction of the ventricles of the heart muscle (systole). The highest rate is observed when the heart ejects blood from the left ventricle. The lowest is recorded when it enters the right atrium, when the main muscle (diastole) is relaxed.
Each person has a norm. Blood pressure is formed individually. The value is influenced by lifestyle, the presence of bad habits, diet, emotional and physical stress. Eating certain foods helps raise or lower blood pressure. The safest way to deal with hypertension and hypotension is to change your diet and lifestyle.
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- How to measure
- What does it depend on
- Norm SD
- The big difference between upper and lower pressure: reasons, what does it mean for health?
- The dangers of hypotension
- Treatment for low diastolic pressure
- What affects the upper and lower digits of pressure readings?
- Causes and consequences of high blood pressure
How to measure
The question of what the upper and lower pressure means should be considered after studying the methods of measuring quantities. For this, a device is used that includes the following elements:
- pneumatic cuff for a hand;
- pear with valve for pumping air.
A cuff is placed on the patient’s shoulder. To obtain the correct results, the following rules must be observed when measuring blood pressure:
- Arm volumes and cuffs should match each other. Overweight patients and young children measure blood pressure using special devices.
- Before receiving data, a person should rest for 5 minutes.
- When measuring, it is important to sit comfortably, not to strain.
- The air temperature in the room where the measurement of blood pressure should be room temperature. Vascular spasms develop from the cold, indicators bend.
- The procedure is carried out 30 minutes after a meal.
- Before measuring blood pressure, the patient needs to sit on a chair, relax, do not keep his hand on weight, do not cross legs.
- The cuff should be located at the level of the fourth intercostal space. Each displacement of it by 5 cm will increase or decrease the indicators by 4 mm Hg.
- The pressure gauge scale should be at measurement of blood pressure at eye level, so that when reading the result does not go astray.
To measure the value, air is pumped into the cuff using a pear. In this case, the upper arterial pressure should exceed the generally accepted norm by at least 30 mmHg. Air is discharged at a speed of about 4 mmHg in 1 second. Using a tonometer or a stethoscope, tones are heard.
Getting the most accurate numbers requires several measurements. The procedure is repeated 5 minutes after the first session 3-4 times in a row. The obtained figures need to be averaged in order to have accurate results of lower and upper blood pressure. The first time the measurement is carried out on both hands of the patient, and the subsequent on one (select the hand on which the numbers are higher).
The tonometer gives a measurement result in the form of two digits. The first reflects the upper pressure, and the second lower. The meanings are second names: systolic and diastolic Blood pressure and are written in fractions. Each indicator helps to identify pathological changes in the patient’s body, prevent the development of serious cardiovascular diseases. Fluctuations in values affect the performance, mood and well-being of a person.
The indicator is recorded in the upper part of the fraction, therefore it is called the upper blood pressure. It represents the force with which blood presses on the walls of blood vessels while contracting the heart muscle (systole). The peripheral large arteries (aorta and others) participate in the creation of this indicator, while performing the role of a buffer. Also, upper pressure is called cardiac, because with its help it is possible to identify pathologies of the main human organ.
The value of systolic blood pressure (DM) reflects the strength with which blood is expelled by the heart muscle. The value depends on the frequency of contractions of the heart and their intensity. Shows the upper pressure state of large arteries. The value has certain norms (averaged and individual). The value is formed under the influence of physiological factors.
What does it depend on
DM is often called “cardiac”, because based on it, we can draw conclusions about the presence of serious pathologies (stroke, myocardial infarction, and others). The value depends on the following factors:
- volume of the left ventricle;
- muscle contractions;
- blood ejection rate;
- the elasticity of the walls of the arteries.
The ideal value is considered to be the value of SD – 120 mmHg. If the value is in the range 110-120, then the upper pressure is considered normal. With an increase in indicators from 120 to 140, the patient is diagnosed with prehypotension. The deviation is a mark above 140 mmHg. If the patient has high blood pressure for several days, then he is diagnosed with systolic hypertension. During the day, the value can change singly, which is not considered a pathology.
People are accustomed to operating with two numbers on a tonometer, having no idea what systolic and diastolic pressure is. The first indicator indicates the strength with which the left heart ventricle ejects blood into the arterial bed. Diastolic pressure is the second digit that characterizes the pressure of the blood when the heart muscle is relaxed.
This terminology is used mainly in medicine, as this is one of the characteristics of the general condition of the patient’s body. Due to the fact that blood pressure clearly characterizes the efficiency of the central organ, it is considered cardiac.
The tonometer reading has several meanings:
- Systolic – the first recorded upper value.
- Diastolic – the second lower bound.
The first value is fixed with the largest volume of blood passing through the left heart ventricle, and the second digit is measured, the lower value is when the diastole is relaxed. At this stage, blood is supplied to the right side of the heart.
Each person’s blood pressure is not expressed in the same way, because it depends on:
- Age category.
- Gender affiliation.
- Health level.
- Environmental conditions.
- Harmful inclinations.
- Food ration.
- Blood pressure is a natural process of blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels, capillaries, veins and arteries. If a person is completely healthy, then, in general, he does not notice how the blood circulates inside his body. But if something is wrong with the body, then depending on whether it is increased or decreased, a person may feel a headache, a pulsation in the neck, nausea and dizziness.
- Now let’s see why this happens. If at school you were a diligent student, then you must remember that the blood in the human body is constantly in motion. Even when a person is resting, it continues to circulate through its arteries and veins. As soon as it reaches the ventricles of the heart, a spasm of the heart muscle occurs and blood under pressure is ejected into the vessels, and begins to fill them quickly enough, putting pressure on their walls. If at this stage more or less pressure is applied to the vessels than necessary, then the person begins to feel all those unpleasant symptoms with which we introduced you above.
- From all this, only one conclusion can be drawn, our blood pressure directly depends on how often and with what strength the heart muscle contracts. Therefore, if you notice a deviation in one direction or another, then be sure to check whether you have heart problems. If the examination shows that it works correctly, start looking for other causes of malfunctioning of the vascular system.
The big difference between upper and lower pressure: reasons, what does it mean for health?
Normal blood pressure is 120/80 (systolic/diastolic). However, this norm is relative. Pressure may change over time or for other reasons. There are people who live their whole lives with constantly reduced pressure, but feel great at the same time. Hypotension is indicated if the pressure drops below 100/60. At the same time, there are such cases that only diastolic or systolic pressure is lowered.
With hypotension, the patient feels weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, often there are headaches in the neck, shortness of breath and a feeling of lack of air even in the absence of physical exertion, general weakness leads to increased sweating, dizziness. A sharp drop in blood pressure can lead to nausea and vomiting.
The causes of low blood pressure may vary depending on whether acute or chronic form of hypotension:
- Severe poisoning. With severe poisoning by alcohol or toxic substances, blood circulation is disturbed, which leads to a sharp decrease in blood pressure.
- Heredity. If one of the parents has chronic hypotension, it is likely that the child will also manifest it at a certain age.
- Vegetative-vascular dystonia. This disease of the autonomic system manifests itself in different ways. But since it is the autonomic system that regulates the functioning of blood vessels, low blood pressure during VSD is often observed.
- Heart failure. With heart failure, the heart can not cope with the load and can not adequately perform its functions. Blood ejection decreases, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure, systolic and diastolic.
The dangers of hypotension
The danger of hypertension is often talked about, but arterial hypotension can also be life threatening.
In addition to the above-mentioned syncope and dizziness, a person’s performance is significantly reduced, it is more difficult for him to remember, concentrate:
- During a sharp decrease in blood pressure, blood flow worsens, tissues begin to suffer from oxygen starvation, this can lead to a variety of complications. It is believed that the cell remains viable without oxygen for only 2 minutes. After that, she dies.
- Fainting when changing body position. With hypotension, a person can lose consciousness with a sharp change of position, for example, if he tries to get up or sit down. Such fainting conditions significantly impair the quality of life and can be quite dangerous due to the possibility of injuries in the fall. Since a person does not control these attacks, he can hit his head hard, which will lead to other complications.
- Ischemic stroke. Due to circulatory disorders and a decrease in blood flow in the brain tissue, ischemic stroke occurs. At the moment, this disease is the main cause of death in our country. As a result of a stroke, blood circulation in the brain tissues is disturbed, and they begin to die.
- Dementia It is proved that jumps in blood pressure can lead to senile dementia even in people with a high level of intelligence. This is also associated with a violation of the blood circulation of the brain and the loss of its functions.
- Arterial hypertension. Oddly enough, over time, hypotension can lead to hypertension. This is due to the fact that due to the constantly low pressure, the vessels begin to rebuild and narrow, which leads to hypertension, which is quite difficult.
Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system found in the population. The most dangerous hypertension for blood vessels. The walls of the vessels experience strong pressure, as a result of which they are damaged.
Most often, high blood pressure can be found in people over 40 years old, but recently, young people are increasingly suffering from hypertension.
Symptoms of hypertension include severe headache due to spasm of the vessels of the brain, palpitations, weakness. The head at the same time as if “is filled” with blood. Due to high blood pressure, the patient may experience frequent nosebleeds, sleep disturbances, hemorrhages and redness of the face, nausea and vomiting, eye pain, and swelling.
Since diastolic blood pressure is considered a marker of the circulatory system, showing how successfully the blood enters the vessels when they expand, the causes of high lower pressure are associated with a variety of disorders of the body. However, more often than others, high indicators of diastolic pressure cause the following characteristic pathological processes:
- Renal failure, in which the main arterial vessel in the kidney narrows and becomes incapable of normal functioning.
- Damage to the thyroid gland with diseases that cause an increased release of hormones into the blood.
- Failures in contractions of the heart muscle. In this case, high rates of both numbers of blood pressure are recorded.
- Constant stress and taking medications that stimulate attention and the ability to concentrate.
A change in the hormonal background against the background of menopause, disruptions in the menstrual cycle can be the causes of high lower blood pressure in women. It is known that arterial hypertension, a syndrome in which an increased level of diastolic blood pressure is constantly observed, threatens death from a stroke or myocardial infarction. At the same time, if diastolic indicators go beyond 129 millimeters of mercury, then doctors are talking about malignant hypertension.
Men are much more likely than women to suffer from diseases associated with elevated levels of diastolic blood pressure. In this case, the causes of high lower pressure in men can be:
- Addiction to bad habits.
- Kidney dysfunctions that occur from the retention of large amounts of fluid by the body. This happens in case of abuse of salty, fatty, spicy foods.
- Unhealthy lifestyle, improper and unsystematic nutrition, overeating.
Only a comprehensive examination and consultation of a cardiologist, oncologist, nephrologist will help to find out the causes of low diastolic pressure, since diseases of the internal organs that cause a decrease in the diastolic numbers of blood pressure can differ. Among them:
- kidney disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis);
- interruptions in the activity of the heart muscle;
- peptic ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract;
- severe allergy attack;
- the presence in the body of infectious foci of inflammation, high fever;
- oncological diseases;
- autoimmune diseases in the acute stage;
- dehydration with vomiting and diarrhea caused by poisoning;
- a feeling of sharp weakness, which is accompanied by loss of consciousness, from stuffiness with a large crowd of people.
- A fairly frequent reason for the large difference between the blood pressure values is too low diastolic blood pressure values. As a rule, these figures are greatly influenced by the elasticity of the vessels. If it falls, the lower pressure indicators also decrease. And since the substance renin is produced by the kidneys is responsible for the elasticity of the vessels, in this case it is best to look for pathology in this organ.
- In women, such complications can occur amid problems with the thyroid gland. If it ceases to produce the right amount of hormones necessary for the body to function properly, then absolutely all organs and systems begin to suffer. Against this background, problems with the cardiovascular system may appear, which will lead to the fact that the heart and blood vessels stop pumping blood properly and enrich internal organs with oxygen.
- Also, pressure changes are affected by age-related changes in the body. The older a person becomes, the less flexible his vessels become. Because of this, he develops arterial stiffness and the vessels cease to cope with the pressure that the blood flow exerts on them.
- Pressure is a pretty good indicator of the state of our health, and if pathological processes begin to occur inside the body, then this immediately affects the blood pressure. If we talk about a small difference between the upper and lower pressure, then here the most important cause is problems with the cardiovascular system. Just in this case there are problems that do not allow blood flow to move through the vessels and arteries with sufficient force.
- In addition, such indicators can provoke such a pathology as vegetovascular dystonia. This disease provokes spasm of blood vessels, and as a result, blood cannot circulate correctly in the body.
- Another reason that can trigger this behavior is Blood pressure is a very strong internal blood loss. In this case, instead of circulating through the veins and arteries, blood will flow into the abdominal cavity at the site of the wound formation. And since the heart will not push blood into the vessels, they will completely relax and this will immediately affect the pressure indicators.
- I immediately want to show that a small difference, just like a big one, is quite detrimental to the body. Indeed, if at first it can only be affected by dizziness and headache, then in the future such a state of the cardiovascular system can lead to the development of tachycardia, cardiosclerosis and renal failure.
The magnitude of the upper blood pressure is determined by the following main factors:
- stroke volume of the left ventricle;
- maximum rate of ejection of blood into the aorta;
- heart rate;
- the elasticity of the walls of the aorta (their ability to stretch).
Thus, the value of systolic pressure directly depends on the contractility of the heart and the condition of large arterial vessels.
Lower blood pressure is affected by:
- degree of patency of peripheral arteries;
- heart rate;
- the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels.
Treatment for low diastolic pressure
Since diastolic hypotension can be caused by a variety of reasons, methods of treating low diastolic pressure consist of: examining the patient, examining his anamnesis for chronic diseases and drug allergies, as well as the currently observed form of hypotension (it can be acute or chronic in remission ) If the patient has an acute form of hypotension, then the following medications are used:
- Drugs that improve blood supply to the brain and increase pulse blood pressure;
- Medicines that increase vascular tone and help improve the blood supply to the body, such as angiotensinamide. With a hypotensive crisis, it is injected into a vein with a dropper.
- If the patient has shown positive dynamics, and in his condition there have been stable improvements, then doctors prescribe tonic, immuno-and neuro-stimulating drugs to receive.
What affects the upper and lower digits of pressure readings?
Earlier we already touched on this topic a little. The same pressure is rarely seen in two different people. The reason for this is the fact that all people are in different conditions and have different physical forms.
|Favorable factors for stable pressure||Negative conditions for normalizing pressure|
|Regular and healthy sleep||The presence of harmful attachments: frequent drinking, smoking and taking harmful drugs|
|Proper diet||Downset daily routine – insomnia, hyperactivity|
|High quality food without satiation with harmful products||Eating unbalanced foods with harmful impurities|
|Lack of psychological pressure and emotional outbursts||Stress, emotional overload, overwork|
|Regular exercise in sports||Taking strong medications|
|Comfortable environmental conditions||The negative impact of weather conditions, such as magnetic storms|
Causes and consequences of high blood pressure
High blood pressure recorded in at least three measurements is called arterial hypertension. This condition, in turn, can be both an independent disease (hypertension) and a symptom inherent in a number of other pathologies, for example, chronic glomerulonephritis.
High blood pressure may indicate diseases of the heart, kidneys, endocrine system. Clarification of the cause that led to the development of hypertension is the prerogative of the doctor. The patient undergoes a thorough laboratory and instrumental examination, which allows to identify factors that led to a change in parameters in this particular clinical case.
Arterial hypertension requires treatment, which is often very long, sometimes it is carried out throughout the patient’s life. The main principles of therapy are:
- Maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
- Taking antihypertensive drugs.
Drug treatment of high upper and/or lower pressure should be carried out only by a doctor. In this case, it is necessary to strive to lower blood pressure in young people to a level of 130/85 mm RT. Art., and in the elderly up to 140/90 mm RT. Art. You should not seek to achieve a lower level, as this may lead to a deterioration in the blood supply to vital organs and, above all, the brain.
The main rule of antihypertensive drug therapy is the systematic administration of drugs. Even a short termination of the course of treatment, which is not coordinated with the attending physician, threatens the development of a hypertensive crisis and related complications (cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, retinal detachment).
In the absence of treatment, arterial hypertension leads to damage to many organs and systems, on average, reduces life expectancy by 10-15 years. Most often its consequences are:
- visual impairment;
- acute and chronic disorders of cerebral circulation;
- chronic renal failure;
- the onset and progression of atherosclerosis;
- remodeling of the heart (changing its size and shape, the structure of the cavities of the ventricles and atria, functional and biochemical properties).