The kidneys play an important role in the body, cleaning the blood of toxins and waste. The slightest damage to them can lead to serious consequences, and the inflammation that has developed in them can harm the entire body and even lead to death. A whole group of inflammations under the general name “nephritis” will be discussed in this article.
Jade and its varieties
Nephritis refers to renal inflammation caused by various causes. All elements of the kidney can be included in the process of inflammation: renal tissue, tubules, renal glomeruli.
There are several types of jade:
- pyelonephritis is a purulent inflammation of the kidneys caused by bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, etc.) that have entered the kidneys from the genitourinary system or from other foci of infection. At the same time, the parenchyma of the kidneys is damaged, and the renal pelvis is also affected by the inflammatory process. A type of pyelonephritis is apostematous purulent nephritis, with the formation of multiple small foci of inflammation.
- glomerulonephritis is a disease that affects the glomeruli (renal glomeruli) and has an autoimmune nature. Observed as a result of previous diseases. For example, lupus nephritis is caused by systemic lupus erythematosus. Glomerulonephritis often occurs as a result of a sore throat.
- Separately, the so-called nephritic syndrome is distinguished – an inflamed state of the glomeruli with inhibition of their filtration function.
- Interstitial nephritis – renal connective tissue becomes inflamed, and their tubules are inflamed. In case of a violation of the normal operation of the channels, they speak of tubulointerstitial nephritis. Often this disease occurs as a complication after taking certain medications, including antibiotics. In case of allergy to drugs, allergic interstitial nephritis may develop, and if intoxication – toxic nephritis.
In addition, shunt nephritis (weakening of immunity in the renal glomeruli), radiation nephritis (kidney damage caused by gamma radiation), focal embolic nephritis (characterized by inflammation of individual renal glomeruli, in what way does it differ from the group of glomerulonephritis), hereditary nephritis are distinguished.
To accurately classify nephritis, it is required to determine the nature of the renal inflammation and its prevalence. Therefore, from the point of view of localization, focal nephritis (when the inflammatory process affects the interstitial tissue) and diffuse nephritis (when inflammation occurs in the renal glomeruli) are also distinguished.
And finally, like other diseases, nephritis can be acute and chronic. In acute nephritis, pathogenic microflora is manifested, in some cases, the causes may be toxic and immune in nature. Chronic nephritis is associated with both toxic and immune, as well as infectious and metabolic factors. As a rule, in chronic nephritis, both kidneys are affected.
In the ICD-10 classifier, all nephritis are assigned to the group of kidney disease codes N00-N16.
Causes of kidney inflammation
Nephritis appears against the background of kidney disease itself (primary nephritis) or can develop against the background of other pathological processes in the body (secondary nephritis). Primary glomerulonephritis is the leader in terms of distribution, which accounts for up to 80% of all cases of nephritis.
In general, the causes of all types of disease are:
- infections of a different nature (diphtheria, tuberculosis, flu, etc.),
- oncology diseases,
- autoimmune diseases
- various thrombosis,
- gynecological problems in women, as well as pregnancy,
- intoxication of the body with poisons, heavy metals, alcohol, etc.
Among bacterial infections, nephritis is most often caused by streptococcus, staphylococcus, gonococcus and meningococcus. Some medications are a potential cause of kidney inflammation, but it is difficult to determine which one of the drugs used has a negative effect on the kidneys. In old age, the risk of developing nephritis against the background of taking medication increases, especially against the background of concomitant congestion in the body. Do not forget that radiation exposure also negatively affects the kidneys.
Chronic forms of nephritis have other causes of development. The main reason is the advanced acute stage of nephritis in the absence of adequate and sufficient treatment, especially in cases of abuse of anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs from the group of analgesics, often sold in pharmacies without a prescription. Oncological diseases can serve as a background for the development of chronic nephritis.
Acute nephritis against the background of the transferred infection occurs approximately in the third week. The disease manifests itself most often in the form of puffiness on the face, lower back pain, and some malaise. The amount of urine excreted decreases, chills and fever appear, and headaches begin to bother. Blood pressure sometimes rises.
In chronic nephritis, the symptoms are similar, but in a milder form. Frequent urination, increased night sweats are added. The urine becomes cloudy, the skin becomes yellowish.
Glomerulonephritis is generally characterized by swelling, blood in the urine, back pain, high blood pressure, and oliguria. It can occur in acute, subacute and chronic forms. It is characteristic of glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome.
Pyelonephritis develops in acute or chronic form and brings with it severe headache, frequent urination, general fatigue, back pain and fever.
Interstitial nephritis is most often chronic in nature and can proceed for a very long time. The usual clinical manifestations of the disease: swelling, increased blood pressure, the presence of blood in the urine. Less often, an acute form of this disease occurs, and it occurs suddenly. At the same time, patients complain of general weakness, an increase in the amount of urine, back pain, thirst, and dry mouth. In especially severe cases, frequent urination is replaced by its complete cessation (anuria).
Acute nephritis entails the development of cardiovascular diseases, including renal vessels. The chronic form of nephritis is characterized by an alternation of exacerbations and remissions, so it can proceed for a long time. All the time the patient is accompanied by: general weakness, fatigue, high blood pressure, decreased appetite. Analysis of the patient’s urine will show the presence of erythrocytes and proteins in it. Chronic nephritis is insidious in that with the next exacerbation, a certain number of renal glomeruli die, and the kidneys themselves gradually decrease in size. If the chronic stage is not treated, the disease can lead to kidney failure and subsequent disability.
Treatment and diagnosis of kidney inflammation
Nephritis, especially in its acute form, should be treated permanently. Bed rest, which is gradually weakened as the pathological process stops, is mandatory, as well as a specially selected diet. The diet is based on limited salt and protein intake, spicy foods are excluded.
At the initial stage of treatment, the causes of the inflammatory process are clarified. If the reason lies in the use of a drug, its use is stopped, and the residues from the body are removed by another drug. If the cause is a previous infection, antibiotics and antiviral drugs are prescribed.
Further, substances and hormones are used that can reanimate renal activity. Symptoms of nephritis are controlled by intravenous administration of special drugs that control urine output and normalize blood pressure. If it is not possible to completely restore kidney function, blood purification can be performed using hemodialysis, peritoneal or intestinal dialysis.
Timely inpatient treatment ensures complete recovery. With inadequate treatment, the acute stage becomes chronic. However, even in this case, there is a possibility of a cure with the help of medicinal herbs.
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Jade treatment with folk remedies
The use of medicinal herbs has proven to be effective in the treatment of nephritis. For example, with chronic inflammation of the kidneys, it is recommended to take bearberry infusion. The infusion is done in two ways. In the first case, a tablespoon of the dried plant is infused in a glass of boiling water. The resulting drug is taken orally 5 times a day for a tablespoon. The second method is as follows: a tablespoon of grass is kneaded into 0,5 liters of boiled cold water, the resulting solution is boiled until about a third of the volume of liquid has evaporated. Take such a decoction three times a day. However, it is strongly discouraged to take bearberry for patients with glomerulonephritis.
For the prevention of nephritis, it is useful to use a mixture of potato and mountain ash juices. Nettle infusion can be used as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory medicine, and hop infusion is remarkable for its effectiveness in the treatment of chronic pyelonephritis.
Flaxseed is a good kidney cleanser. To prepare the medicine, a glass of flax seeds is required, which are poured with boiling water and then infused. You need to take the resulting solution for two days every 2 hours, about half a glass. Black elderberry can be considered an effective folk pain reliever. This herb also relieves soreness and swelling in the kidneys. Swelling is removed and inflorescences of blue cornflower brewed in boiling water.
All the mentioned medicinal plants in one way or another help or even completely cure the disease. However, in any case, the priority remains with a professional doctor, with whom it is always necessary to consult and who will give the necessary recommendations, including on the part of folk remedies that have contraindications.
Features of the disease in children
A big problem in the treatment of infant nephritis is poorly expressed symptoms. The child’s illness is often sluggish. Both parents and the child himself may not even pay attention to the symptoms that have arisen, and at the same time, pathological processes will already begin to occur in the kidneys.
What can cause kidney inflammation in a child? These can be viral and bacterial diseases, medications taken, autoimmune negative processes (lupus). But the most common factor is hereditary. For example, while still in the womb during the formation of the genitourinary system, some unfavorable factor may affect the fetus. In the future, this will affect the function of the kidneys, and the child will develop acute nephritis already in infancy. Children with such a congenital predisposition most often develop glamated nephritis (glomerulonephritis).
The most pronounced symptoms are swelling, high blood pressure (primarily diastolic), an increase in red blood cells, leukocytes and protein in the urine. The last symptom, of course, is determined in a laboratory setting where a micropreparation is used. For the rest, you need to pay attention to the child’s behavior – he may complain of loss of appetite, fatigue, thirst, chills, weak back pain.
The most effective types of nephritis diagnostics in children are carried out in specialized clinics – they perform the so-called morphological examination, a rather complex event that requires dedication from both parents and doctors. It is important to start all studies on time at the slightest suspicion of inflammation in order to prevent the development of renal failure. Proper nutrition and a specially selected diet play an important role. Strict bed rest is required only during an exacerbation.
Features of the disease in pets
Glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis are common in pets. Most often, cats and dogs suffer from nephritis after previous infections, sometimes the reason may be burns, insect bites and even a common cold. Acute nephritis occurs as a result of hypothermia, poisoning and injuries. Plague, parvovirus enteritis and leptospirosis are called among the main infectious culprits for the development of kidney inflammation in animals. Sometimes dogs develop nephritis as a result of serious heart problems.
An indicative symptom of nephritis in cats and dogs is a change in the amount of urine excreted. With acute nephritis, the amount of urine decreases, with chronic development of the disease, on the contrary, it increases. A pet may suffer from seizures, drowsiness, pupils constrict, and a characteristic odor of urine from the mouth and from the skin appears. In the behavior of a dog or cat, a general depression is highlighted, unnatural postures, indicating pain in the kidney area.
Treatment of the animal begins with testing for infection. If one is found, it is treated first of all, since the detected infection is most likely the cause of the inflammation. At the same time, therapy is carried out to restore renal functions. Treatment will depend on the severity of the kidney damage and will most often result in complete recovery.
During an exacerbation, the first day begins with a hungry child. Further, starting with small doses, gradually add food with a low protein content to the diet. Treatment is given over a period of one to two weeks, prioritizing the cause of the inflammation, then proceeding to suppress symptoms.
For the prevention of nephritis, it is imperative to monitor the health of the pet, from the first to treat emerging infectious diseases. If the dog has a cold, it is imperative to have his urine tested. In case of violation of the urinary functions of the kidneys, it is not forbidden to use folk remedies with a diuretic effect, not forgetting to visit the veterinarian.
In conclusion, we note that people and animals are equally susceptible to kidney inflammation. The reasons for its development can be very different. It is much more important to prevent these causes than to deal with the consequences later.