Tuberculosis is a disease characteristic of central Russia. According to statistics, it is in this region that the majority of people with such a diagnosis live. That is why it is important to undergo the necessary diagnostic examinations every year. These include not only fluorography, but also blood and urine tests.
What is a urine test for tuberculosis
This method allows detecting the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the human body. Usually it is carried out in cases where the doctor suspects that the patient has this disease (that is, there are some additional symptoms, for example, persistent cough, persistent low-grade fever, etc.).
Also, the study can be carried out in patients with diseases of the reproductive system that have not responded to therapy for a long time.
Prevention of tuberculosis is closely related to urine research, since it is patients suffering from pyelonephritis, renal failure, urolithiasis, etc., who are at risk of contracting this serious illness. In this case, harmful microorganisms are usually located in the cortex of the kidneys, creating whole infected foci.
Thus, contrary to popular belief, this disease can pose a threat not only to the lungs or human skeletal system, but also to internal organs. At the same time, it can be fatal if not detected in time and subjected to drug treatment.
It is important to remember that urinalysis for tuberculosis itself is rarely used.
He always appears in combination with other methods:
- X-ray of the lungs.
- Blood test.
- PCR diagnostics.
Thus, even if a patient receives a negative result (i.e., no mycobacteria were found in his urine), this does not mean that he has absolutely no tuberculosis. In order for the diagnosis not to be confirmed, all other tests must also be clean.
Preparation for analysis
No special preparation for this laboratory study is required. Before collecting urine itself, you can perform a few simple steps that will allow you to get an accurate result the first time:
- Perform the necessary hygiene procedures with the external genitals.
- Use only morning urine as material.
- Collect the so-called medium portion of urine.
The average portion of urine is formed as follows. Begin urinating, then hold the stream for a while, take a collection container and fill it with urine released after this stop. Such material is considered to be more informative and cleaner.
Women should not forget that they cannot be tested during menstruation. Also, some doctors believe that a large amount of vegetables and fruits should not be eaten in front of him.
It is also important to remember that the container must be kept in a cool place away from sunlight before being handed over to a health facility. This is done in order to avoid acidification of the material.
How is the
A urine test for tuberculosis can be done in several ways. The first one is bacterioscopic. It involves acidizing urine. This is done because mycobacterium tuberculosis is adapted to survive in an acidic environment. In this regard, they turn crimson during the test, while all other tissues and parts of cells turn blue.
The second variant of the study is called bacteriological. In this case, urine is placed in a special environment where there is a sharp growth of tuberculosis microorganisms. It lasts longer in time, but the result is also accurate. It usually takes two to six weeks for mycobacteria to grow.
The most reliable, but at the same time the longest, is the method of biological sampling. In this case, the patient’s urine sediment is injected into the laboratory animal. If it becomes infected within a month, the test result is considered positive.
Features of decoding the results
The test result for tuberculosis can be either positive or negative. In the first case, the presence of the disease in the human body is confirmed. Most often, in this case, the disease is localized in one or both kidneys at once.
If a negative answer was received, this means that the genitourinary system of the patient with tuberculosis is not affected, but it can be found in other systems of the body. In this regard, additional examinations are assigned.
In addition, patients who are suspected of having urogenital or other forms of tuberculosis are advised to check the level of leukocytes and red blood cells in the urine. For this, a Nechiporenko analysis is usually carried out.
If the indicators of the level of these bodies in the blood exceed the norm, this is considered another reason to assume that the patient has tuberculosis. At the same time, a negative urinalysis result for mycobacteria is not considered a sufficient reason to remove suspicions.
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