at the time of injury characteristic
around an injured joint
swelling and swelling (most
common symptom of dislocation);
sharp and severe soreness;
with damage to nerve endings,
tingling and numbness;
pale and cold skin;
visual deformation, etc.
dislocation symptoms vary from place
in which the joint is injured.
dislocation requires fixation
(providing immobility) limbs in
the position that she took
after injury, be sure to apply
cold compress in place
independent and unskilled
reposition of the dislocated joint in
inadmissible, since only
experienced doctor in a medical setting
institutions will be able to accurately establish
whether dislocation is combined with fractures
or cracked bones.
Fractures. Types of fractures. Causes,
signs, complications, first medical
Fractures – violation
bone integrity under traumatic
strength superior to bone resilience
tissue. Distinguish traumatic
fractures that usually occur suddenly
under the influence of significant mechanical
forces on an unchanged, normal bone,
and pathological occurring in
altered by any pathological
bone process with relatively
minor injury or spontaneous. Term
“Fracture” is used to mean
similar damage to some
other tissues, such as a cartilage fracture.
bone first aid
there are closed, in which the integrity
the skin is not broken, there are no wounds, and open,
when the fracture is accompanied by injury
degree of fracture damage
full, in which the bone is broken
completely, incomplete, when available
only bone fracture or crack.
Complete fractures are divided into fractures
with displacement and without displacement of fragments
the direction of the fracture line relative to
long axis of the bone distinguish transverse
(a) oblique (b) and helical (c) fractures.
If the force that caused the fracture was
directed along the bone, then its fragments
can be pressed one into the other. Such
fractures are called hammered.
damage by bullets and splinters,
flying at high speed and possessing
high energy at the fracture site
many bone fragments are formed
– a comminuted fracture is obtained (d).
bone fractures. At
most common fractures
limb bones in the area of injury
severe swelling appears
bruising, sometimes limb flexion
outside the joint, its shortening. When
open fracture from a wound may
protruding bone ends. Place of damage
detect abnormal mobility
limbs outside the joint that sometimes
accompanied by a crunch from friction
bone fragments. Specially bend
limb to ensure availability
fracture, unacceptable – it can
lead to dangerous complications. IN
some cases of bone fractures
not all of these signs are detected,
but the most characteristic sharp
soreness and severe difficulty
rib fracture can be assumed
when due to bruising or squeezing
chest injured notes
severe pain with deep breathing, and
also when feeling the place of possible
fracture. In case of damage to the pleura
or lung bleeding occurs, or
air enters the chest cavity. it
accompanied by respiratory distress
and blood circulation.
case of spinal fracture appear
severe back pain, paresis and paralysis
muscles below the fracture site. May happen
involuntary discharge of urine and feces
due to dysfunction of the spinal cord.
no pelvic fracture affected
can stand up and raise legs as well
to turn around. These fractures are often
combined with bowel damage
and the bladder.
bones are dangerous damage to the located
around them blood vessels and nerves,
which is accompanied by bleeding
sensitivity disorder and
movements of the damaged area.
pain and bleeding can cause
shock development, especially with untimely
immobilization of the fracture. Bone fragments
can also damage the skin due to
bringing a closed fracture into
open that is dangerous microbial
pollution. Movement at the fracture site
can lead to serious complications
therefore it is necessary as quickly as possible
first aid rules for
inspect the fracture site and apply
dressing for a wound (in case of open
fracture), clothes and shoes are not removed, but
cut. First stop
bleeding and impose aseptic
bandage. Then the affected area
give a comfortable position and impose
skin or intramuscularly from a syringe tube
anesthetic is administered.
fracture immobilization used
standard tires or
Symptoms of bleeding depend on its type and type of damaged vessels.
Arterial bleeding occurs when the arteries are damaged (carotid, femoral, axillary, etc.). It is the most dangerous, since the blood is ejected very quickly by a pulsating stream. Acute anemia sets in swiftly; the color of blood is bright scarlet. The victim becomes pale, his pulse is quickened, blood pressure decreases rapidly, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, fainting appear. Death can occur due to oxygen starvation or cardiac arrest.
Venous bleeding occurs in violation of the integrity of the veins. Blood flows in a uniform continuous stream and has a dark cherry color. If the intravenous pressure is not too high, the blood may spontaneously stop: a fixed blood clot forms. But bleeding leads to the occurrence of shock phenomena in the body, which often leads to death.
Capillary bleeding is the least dangerous and stops on its own. Blood oozes from the wound, damaged vessels are not visible. Capillary bleeding is dangerous only for diseases that affect blood coagulation (hemophilia, sepsis, hepatitis).
Parenchymal bleeding occurs when all blood vessels in the wound area are damaged. It is dangerous, usually very strong and lasting.
When bleeding occurs inside the joint, its volume increases. When palpation of the joint or movements, a person feels severe pain. The interstitial hematoma is characterized by swelling, tenderness to palpation, and sharp pallor of the skin. If treatment is not completed on time, the hematoma will compress the veins, which can lead to the development of gangrene of the limb.
- 2. On a damaged vessel
- Arterial bleeding and first aid
- Venous bleeding and first aid
- Capillary bleeding and first aid
- 4. Acute renal failure
- Parenchymal bleeding and first aid
- Fire >Industrial (fires in factories, factories and storage facilities).
- Gastrointestinal bleeding and first aid
- First aid for bleeding
- Active protection methods
2. On a damaged vessel
This type of bleeding occurs
when injuring the smallest vessels,
located in the mucous membranes,
muscle tissue, skin.
bleeding from capillaries is:
dark red bleeding
blood in a small stream (with superficial
cuts) or even selection
blood over the entire surface of the wound (with
The basic one
bleeding from the veins is slow,
but continuous bleeding from the wound.
Blood has a deep red color. At
venous bleeding significant
strength to prevent the loss of large
amount of blood urgently needed
squeeze a damaged vessel with
any improvised means (you can even
with your finger).
Refers to internal bleeding.
and injuries of the lungs, liver, spleen and
other internal organs. With this
possible bleeding of various
colors (depending on which
it is the internal organ that is damaged) –
dark red and bright scarlet color.
blood out, she stands
evenly throughout the wound surface.
The greatest danger is
option when parenchymal
bleeding is hidden. A patient
runs the risk of losing a lot of blood, not
waiting for first aid,
because diagnosis of internal bleeding
arterial bleeding is
pulsating jet bleeding
from the wound, the color of blood is bright scarlet
shade. This species represents a particular
danger to the life of the victim,
because rapidly leading to the offensive
complete bleeding of the body.
(combined) bleeding –
occurs with extensive injuries and
combines various types of bleeding,
described in the previous paragraphs.
Arterial bleeding and first aid
Arterial bleeding is one of the most dangerous bleeding that poses a direct threat to human life. This is primarily due to the fact that blood loss is high and intense. Therefore, it is important to know its main features and rules of first aid.
Arteries are blood vessels, blood circulates through them and is delivered to all vital organs. If the artery is damaged as a result of any traumatic factor, then blood from it begins to flow out. To understand that arterial bleeding is not difficult, it is characterized by such signs as: a bright scarlet blood color, it is liquid in consistency, does not flow out of the wound, but beats with a powerful stream, similar to a stream in a fountain.
The rules for first aid will vary, depending on where the wound is located and which artery was damaged:
First of all, you need to apply a tourniquet that will prevent the loss of blood. Before its fixation, it is important to press the injured artery to the bone, above the place where the blood is pouring out. If the shoulder is injured – the fist is inserted into the armpit, and the hand is pressed to the body, if the forearm is injured – put any suitable size object in the elbow bend and bend the arm as much as possible in this joint. If a hip is injured, the artery is clamped with a fist in the inguinal region, if the lower leg is injured, the corresponding object is placed in the popliteal zone and the leg is bent in the joint.
The limb should be raised, under the tourniquet you need to put the fabric. When there is no rubber band at hand, it can be replaced with an ordinary bandage or a strip of cloth. For a tighter fixation, you can use a regular stick.
It is important not to overstrain the tourniquet on the limbs, it must be removed after 1 – 1,5 hours, depending on the time of year. It is best to record the time of its imposition on paper and put it under a bandage. This must be done so that tissue death does not occur, and amputation of the limb is not required.
When the wearing time of the tourniquet has expired, and the victim is not hospitalized, it is necessary to loosen it for a few minutes. In this case, the wound should be clamped with your hands, using a clean cloth.
As soon as possible, deliver the victim to a medical facility, where he will be provided with qualified assistance.
The rules for helping with arterial bleeding from the feet and hands are different. In this case, there is no need to impose a tourniquet. It is enough to bandage the injured place and raise it higher.
When arteries such as subclavian, iliac, carotid or temporal are injured, the blood is stopped using a tight wound tamponade. To do this, either sterile cotton wool or sterile wipes are placed in the damaged area, then a layer of bandage is applied from above and wrapped tightly around it.
Venous bleeding and first aid
Venous bleeding is characterized by an outpouring of blood from the veins, resulting in damage. Through the veins, blood flows to the heart from the capillaries that lower organs and tissues.
To understand that a person has experienced venous bleeding, it is necessary to focus on the following signs: the blood is painted in dark red or cherry color. It does not pour out in a fountain, but flows out of the wound slowly and fairly evenly. Even if large veins were injured and the bleeding was profuse, still no pulsation was observed. If it does, then it is slightly perceptible, which is explained by the irradiation of impulses from a nearby artery.
Venous bleeding is dangerous no less than arterial. In this case, a person can die not only due to abundant loss of blood, but also due to the absorption of air through the veins and its delivery to the heart muscle. The capture of air occurs during inhalation during a major vein injury, especially on the neck and is called air embolism.
In this case, there is no need to apply a tourniquet and the rules of first aid are reduced to the following:
If a limb vein is injured, then it must be raised up. This is done in order to reduce the flow of blood to the damaged area.
Then you should begin to apply a pressure bandage. For this purpose there is an individual dressing bag. If this is not at hand, then a clean napkin or tissue folded several times is applied to the wound, after which it is wrapped with a bandage on top. Put a scarf on top of the bandage.
The place of application of such a dressing is below the place of damage. It is important to apply the bandage tightly and in a circle, otherwise it will only provoke an increase in blood output.
The criterion for assessing the correctness of the actions performed is the absence of bleeding and the presence of pulsation below the site of injury.
When clean tissue is not at hand, you should squeeze the damaged limb in the joint as much as possible, or squeeze a place just below the blood outlet with your fingers.
In any case, the victim should be hospitalized.
Sometimes, with severe bleeding, it cannot be stopped with the help of a bandage alone. In this case, it is advisable to use a tourniquet. It is superimposed below the wound, which is due to the method of delivering blood to the heart muscle through the veins.
Capillary bleeding and first aid
Capillary bleeding is the most common bleeding. It does not pose a threat to human life, since capillaries are the smallest vessels that penetrate all tissues and organs. It has its own distinguishing features. The blood flowing from the capillaries has a bright scarlet color, the discharge is not intense, since the pressure in this case will be minimal, the pulsation is completely absent.
The rule of first aid for capillary bleeding is simple.
In this case, the application of a tourniquet is not required, it is enough to limit ourselves to the following actions:
Rinse and disinfect the wound.
The injured place should be tightly pulled, but in such a way as not to disrupt the flow of arterial and venous blood, that is, not too much.
Apply cold to the site of the wound, which will contribute to the narrowing of blood vessels.
If a person has a superficial wound and there are no other injuries, then hospitalization is not required for him.
4. Acute renal failure
the next day after salvation
victims most often die from
acute renal failure
which develops due to massive
erythrocyte hemolysis (destruction).
Due to excessive blood thinning and
gross imbalance between
pressure inside the “plate”
red blood cell and surrounding plasma he
literally explodes from the inside out.
Into the blood
free hemoglobin is released,
which should only be inside
red blood cells. Availability free
hemoglobin in the blood leads to gross
impaired renal function: their most tender
tubule filtration membranes
easily damaged by gigantic
hemoglobin molecules. Is developing
help with drowning is to
quick removal of the victim from
water. Then the rescuer needs to determine
type of pathological condition, measure
pulse and check breathing. First aid
when drowning begins in different ways,
depending on the type of drowning. At
pale drowning – of course, no need
spend time removing water from the lungs
(which is not there), but you need to start immediately
to artificial respiration and massage
blue drowning, the first thing you need
do – throw the victim
through the knee face down (large
a person can be sharply raised by
waist together), shove him two fingers
in the mouth and press sharply on the root of the tongue
to provoke a gag reflex
and respiratory stimulation.
after pressing on the root of the tongue you
heard the characteristic sound of “E” and
followed by vomiting
movement if pouring out of the mouth
the water you saw the remnants of the food eaten,
then in front of you is a living person with
gag reflex. Undeniable
evidence of this will be the appearance
case of a gag reflex and
cough main task – as soon as possible
and thoroughly remove WATER from the lungs and
the stomach. To do this follows
5-10 minutes periodically with pressure
to the root of the tongue while out of the mouth and upper
the airways will not stop
water is released.
with pressure on the root of the tongue vomit
the reflex never appeared if there is neither
cough, no respiratory movements, then neither
in no case should you waste time on
further extraction of water from the drowned.
Most likely, she’s not there or not –
she soaked in blood. Flip right away
man on your back and proceed immediately
to artificial respiration.
Parenchymal bleeding and first aid
Parenchymal bleeding is bleeding that occurs in the internal organs, which is characterized by profuse blood loss. It can only be stopped by surgical intervention. Parenchyma organs include the lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen. Since their tissue is extremely delicate, even a slight trauma to it leads to excessive bleeding.
To determine parenchymal bleeding, you need to focus on the following signs: general weakness, dizziness, fainting, blanching of the skin, low pulsation with a rapid heartbeat, drop in blood pressure. Depending on which organ was injured or sick, it will be possible to suspect parenchymal bleeding of the lungs, liver, kidneys, etc.
Since this type of blood loss is dangerous for human life, it is necessary to act quickly:
The victim should be sent to a medical facility as soon as possible. If there is no way to call an ambulance, then you need to go under your own power.
Neither pressure dressings, nor the application of tourniquets in this case will affect the amount of blood lost.
Before the arrival of the medical team, a person needs peace. To do this, lay him in a horizontal position, and slightly raise his legs.
A cold should be applied to the area where bleeding is suspected. If the transportation of the patient to the medical institution is delayed, then you can use such means as: Vikasol, Ethamsylate, Aminocaproic acid.
Only a surgeon is able to stop parenchymal bleeding. Depending on the nature of the damage, complex sutures will be applied, vascular emobilization and electrocoagulation, gland sewing and other surgical methods of exposure will be performed. In some cases, requires a parallel blood transfusion and the use of saline solutions.
(fires in factories, factories and storage facilities).
fires (fires in residential buildings and on
steppe, peat and
and field fires;
fires in mines and mines;
and forest fires;
fires (in tanks and reservoirs
parks, nuclear power plants, power plants, etc.)
in buildings and structures:
(open), they are good
flames and smoke are visible;
(closed) characterized by hidden
flame propagation paths.
production operating rules
equipment and electrical devices;
handling of fire;
substances and materials;
use of a gas stove;
beam acting through various
Gastrointestinal bleeding and first aid
Gastrointestinal bleeding deserves special attention, as they are life-threatening conditions. It is important not to miss the first signs of such blood loss and in time to seek help from a specialist. Among them, the following can be distinguished: bloody vomiting with brown impurities, the presence of liquid bloody stools, pallor of the skin, increased heart rate with reduced blood pressure, general weakness, accompanied by dizziness, sometimes loss of consciousness.
In order to stop the gastrointestinal bleeding, a person must be taken to a hospital.
However, first aid will be as follows:
A man needs complete peace. For this, it is best to put him to bed.
A cold heating pad or ice pack should be placed on the abdomen.
You can chop some ice and give the person in small portions so that he swallows it.
Take the victim to the hospital.
First aid for bleeding
The provision of first aid for any type of bleeding is either a complete stop or a slowdown in blood loss until the victim is in the hands of a specialist. It is important to be able to distinguish between types of bleeding and to be able to properly use improvised means to stop them. Although it is better that in a home medicine cabinet and in personal vehicles there always be bandages, cotton wool, a tourniquet, an individual dressing bag and disinfectants. Two important rules for the provision of first aid is not to harm a person and act promptly, because in some cases every minute is important.
In order to properly provide first aid for bleeding, you need:
Apply a tourniquet above the wound if arterial bleeding.
Apply swabs and dressings below the wound if venous bleeding.
Disinfect and bandage the wound if capillary bleeding.
Lay the person in a horizontal position, apply cold to the injured place and deliver him to the hospital as soon as possible if the bleeding is parenchymal or gastrointestinal.
It is important to properly squeeze a vein or vessel in order to gain time and have time to deliver a person to the hospital, or transfer it to the ambulance team. The doctors who came to the call, if everything is done correctly, will not bandage the tourniquet or bandage. They can give a person an intravenous injection of solutions of Vikasol, or Calcium Chloride, or another hemostatic agent, measure blood pressure, and if necessary, inject drugs to normalize cardiac activity. Then the person will be handed over to the surgeon.
Knowing the basic rules, one day you can save the life not only of another person, but also of yourself.
Article author: Alekseeva Maria Yurievna | General practitioner
About the doctor: From 2010 to 2016 Practitioner of the therapeutic hospital of the central health unit No. 21, the city of elektrostal. Since 2016, he has been working in the diagnostic center No. 3.
The easiest diets – who are they?
“Sugar Destroyer” treats type 2 and even type 1 diabetes!
Active protection methods
rapid response are being created
mobile fire brigades
personal protection firefighters
directly from the fire is divided into
human protection from high
temperature, and often more
dangerous – dangerous fire factors,
one of which is monoxide
carbon. Use thermo-insulating
(firefighter’s combat clothing), insulating
gas masks and compressed air
air filtering hoods
by type of gas masks.
The most important
a means of protecting people from dangerous
fire factors are planning
Escape routes should be lit.
through openings in the outer enclosures
designs. Glazing in these openings
must be made of easily removable
materials. On stairs that do not have
natural light should be
air supply to the staircase
fire fighting (extinguishing
produced by various fire extinguishers
filling, sand and
other non-combustible materials
preventing the fire from spreading and
to burn. In case the building is equipped
automatic fire extinguishing installation,
must be used to extinguish
sometimes fire is brought down by a shock wave.
This method is used to extinguish
forest fires. Satellite shock flow
waves changes the direction of propagation
self-evacuation of people from burning buildings
a winch secured with
the outside of the window on which
people living on high floors
may go down to earth. For guard
valuables and documents from the fire
fireproof safes are used.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.