In utero, the child is adapted to life without the functioning of the lungs – oxygen enters the baby with the blood of the mother. This was reflected in the blood counts of the child in the first month of life.
|Age||Hemoglobin level, g / l|
|1 месяц||175 – 115|
|1-3 months||110 – 140|
|3-6 months||110 – 140|
|6-12 months||110 – 135|
|1-3 years||110 – 140|
|3-5 years||110 – 140|
|5-10 years||115 – 140|
|10-12 years||115 – 140|
|12-14 years||120 – 140|
In the first day of life, the hemoglobin in a newborn is significantly different from the norms of other ages – in the range of 180-240 g / l.
This is due to the fact that another type of hemoglobin protein, fetal, functions in utero in a child, whose functions are strictly defined for intrauterine existence. Immediately after birth, it begins to decay rapidly, while a protein common to humans appears in the blood.
The massive breakdown of fetal hemoglobin causes mild yellowness of the skin in some children on the second or third day of life, but you should not worry in this situation.
During the first month of life, the hemoglobin rate is high – up to 175 g / l.
When the child is the second month, the level drops and becomes familiar – 110-140 g / l. At this time, there is practically no fetal hemoglobin in the blood.
In subsequent years of life, the lower limit of the norm rises slightly, and by the age of 12-15 years, its level in the blood should not be lower than 120 g / l (as in an adult).
In the first month of life, the hemoglobin norms of full-term and premature infants are different.
With prematurity, the lower limit of the norm will be less. At the birth of a full-term baby, the lower limit is 175-180g / l, premature – 160g / l.
By the month, the hemoglobin level in those born on time is not lower than 115 g / l, while in premature babies -100 g / l.
In the first year of life, all children born prematurely suffer anemia, and often hemoglobin values fall to 70-80 g / l, which requires a blood transfusion. All these differences are formed due to the immaturity of the body of premature babies.
Mandatory annual examination, which are children in medical facilities, begins with blood sampling for a general analysis. This applies to newborns, adolescents and youth. Such an analysis, by the way, must be carried out after a child’s illness, in order to find out if there are any complications.
Having received an answer on their hands, many mothers pay attention primarily to hemoglobin, since it is one of the most important indicators of a child’s health. He is involved in the formation of red blood cells. We will understand what it is and whether this indicator changes in children with age.
Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein. Its function is very important: it binds oxygen molecules and transfers them to cells. Thanks to him, they live, are saturated and updated. It is because of it that the blood has a bright red color. The norm of hemoglobin differs in newborns, adolescents, young and age-old women and men.
Information on the level of this protein in the blood of a child allows you to make a picture of its development, explains the disturbances in behavior and health.
Which hemoglobin in children can be considered normal, and which alarm parents?
Children who have just been born have an overestimated rate. It ranges from 145 to 225 g / l. This is considered normal. In the process of development, the hemoglobin in the newborn decreases. Until the first month it will fall to 100–205 g / l.
Low hemoglobin in a child leads to hypoxia of all organs. This will be reported by such changes in the behavior and well-being of children:
- drowsiness, weakness, and lethargy;
- memory impairment;
- lack of appetite;
- intense hair loss and stratification of nails;
- weight loss;
- soreness (the child is often sick for a long time);
Hemoglobin level is important for determining the health status of adults. Let’s see what is considered the norm for each gender category:
- Hemoglobin in women is normal if it ranges from 120–160 g / l. Its changes within these indicators are associated with critical days, age-related changes, hormonal stress. If the indicator dropped below 110 g / l, then anemia develops.
- In pregnant women, normal hemoglobin is 110–150 g / l. This is due to an increase in the volume of blood that circulates, so this indicator may decrease. Women in position regularly pass hemoglobin analysis, because the development of the fetus depends on its level. If this indicator drops sharply, then hypoxia develops, which can lead to irreversible violations of the baby’s health.
- For men, hemoglobin in the range of 130–170 g / l is considered normal.
Be careful about the level of hemoglobin in the blood of children and adults. This is one of those indicators that indicate violations in the body.
This is especially true for children. If the child looks tired, pale, eats poorly, then pay attention to hemoglobin. It is easy to raise at home, changing the diet and rest.
The hemoglobin level in children is constantly changing and depends on the age of the baby. The blood of newborns contains more hemoglobin and red blood cells than in older children and adults. In the first year of life, there is a physiological decrease in the concentration of iron-containing protein in the blood, which is quite normal for infants. A table with hemoglobin rates will help parents compare the results of a clinical blood test with the norms in accordance with WHO recommendations.
Note: To keep hemoglobin levels under control, the pediatrician prescribes a hematological examination 1-2 times a year for each child for preventive purposes. Children with chronic pathologies donate blood for analysis more often – more than 3 times a year.
|Age of child||Hemoglobin, g / l||Acceptable hemoglobin rate, g / l|
|1 day of life||220||180 – 240|
|5 day of life||190||160 – 200|
|10 day of life||180||160 – 190|
|1 месяц||175||160 – 190|
|2 month||150||120 – 160|
|3 month||140||120 – 160|
|4 month||135||120 – 140|
|5 месяцев||135||120 – 140|
|6 месяцев||130||120 – 140|
|7 месяцев||130||120 – 140|
|8 месяцев||130||120 – 140|
|9 месяцев||130||120 – 140|
|10 месяцев||125||110 – 140|
|11 месяцев||125||110 – 140|
|12 месяцев||120||110 – 140|
In children born prematurely, the hemoglobin level is lower than in full-term newborns. The lower limit of the norm for such a child is 160 g / l. Meanwhile, by 4 weeks of life in a premature baby, the hemoglobin level begins to decrease, while doctors call 1 g / l the lower limit of normal for 100 month. At a hemoglobin level below 85 g / l in children up to a year, the condition is considered critical and donated blood is transfused.
Babies born prematurely are more likely to suffer from anemia than their babies born on time. The reason for this is the insufficient maturity of the internal organs of the child. The hemoglobin level in children fed with artificial mixtures may be below normal.
In children living in high altitude conditions, hemoglobin is slightly increased – this is a reaction to rarefied air.
|Age of child||Hemoglobin, g / l||Acceptable hemoglobin rate, g / l|
|1 year||120||110 – 140|
|1,5 years||120||110 – 140|
|2 years||125||110 – 140|
|3 years||125||110 – 140|
|4 years||125||110 – 140|
|5 years||130||120 – 140|
|6 years||130||120 – 140|
|7 years||130||120 – 140|
Some conclusions that can be drawn from this table with the norms:
- At 1 year, the hemoglobin result should be in the range of 110-140 g / l in the clinical blood test.
- At 2 years, the hemoglobin norm in most healthy children is at the same level as at 1 year. It happens that a child is poorly gaining weight by a given age, is not active, often asks for pens, gets tired. These symptoms may be signs of anemia, so you should consult a doctor.
- Until the age of five, the level of hemoglobin increases slightly, or remains the same. It is permissible to increase the lower and upper boundaries by 5 units.
- After 5 years, there is an increase in hemoglobin level, therefore, the results of a blood test will already show the numbers 120-140 g / l.
Note: By the year the baby is replenishing the reserves of iron and other trace elements that are actively involved in the process of hematopoiesis, thanks to meat and vegetable products. With sufficient intake of iron in food, hemoglobin after 14-18 months begins to be independently synthesized in the body in the right amount.
The introduction of complementary foods to infants is the best way to normalize the level of hemoglobin in the blood without a doctor’s intervention. The diet of a child from 6 months to a year must include the following products without fail: low-fat boiled meat, fillet of sea fish, mashed vegetables and legumes. In addition, fresh red fruits, dried fruits (dried apricots, prunes), rosehip broth, compotes from dried apples and pears, as well as sour-milk products (baby curd, yogurt, bifidok, unsalted cheese) contribute to the absorption of iron.
In the case of iron deficiency anemia, a diet rich in iron often comes to the rescue.
- For infants under the age of 6 months, the daily iron intake is 0,27 mg / day.
- Infants from 7 months to a year (during a period of increased growth) need 11 mg of iron per day.
- Children 1-3 years old are recommended to use foods containing 7 mg of iron per day.
- For children from 4 to 7 years, the recommended iron intake is 10 mg / day.
The table below lists the products that help maintain normal hemoglobin levels.
|Name||Iron content in 100 g of product|
|Buckwheat grain||8,3 μg|
|Green pea||7-9 µg|
|Corn kernels||3,8 μg|
|Kedrovыe walnuts||3 μg|
|Oat groats||5,6 μg|
|cashew nuts||3,9 μg|
|Liver||pork – 20,2 mg|
|Wheat groats||5,4 μg|
|Barley grits||7,4 μg|
If the next routine examination of the child revealed that the hemoglobin in the blood dropped several indications below normal, then parents should not despair. Often, it is the lack of iron with food that is the main cause of anemia in children, which means that normalizing the diet will gradually solve the problem.
|Age||Level, g / l||The average value, g / l|
|Newborns||135 – 140||165|
|Up to 1 month||100 – 200||139|
|1-2 months||100 – 180||112|
|2-6 months||105 – 140||126|
|6 months – 2 of the year||105 – 135||120|
|2 – 6 years||115 – 135||125|
|6 – 12 years||115 – 155||135|
|12-18 years old||120 – 160||145|
|12-18 years (m)||130 – 160||140|
- The development of anemia associated with iron deficiency in a premature baby is the most common pathology. In such children, at birth, increased fetal hemoglobin is observed, which is slowly replaced by an adult
- If in a full-term baby this process takes an average of 3-4 months, then in a premature baby it stretches to a year
- The body of a newborn contains a large amount of iron, but in premature babies, the ability to reuse iron is reduced. The excretion of this element with feces is observed, which leads to its further deficiency.
- A premature baby may manifest early anemia, which develops from the 4th week of his life and in most cases proceeds favorably. But there is a variant of late anemia, manifested in 3-4 months
- Symptoms of early and late anemia are similar: pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, decreased appetite, lethargy, dry skin, systolic murmur, an increase in the size of the liver and spleen, tachycardia and hypochromia
The use of iron preparations
Hemoglobin and its functions in the body
Hemoglobin is a special protein found in red blood cells – red blood cells. In analyzes, it is designated Hb or HGB. This protein is in the blood of every person and has a complex structure. Hemoglobin contains the most important non-protein component called heme. The heme contains iron, and it is he who gives the blood a red color.
Important! The main task of hemoglobin is to transfer blood gases throughout the body – it combines with oxygen in the lungs, delivers oxygen to those tissues where it is scarce, and in return takes carbon dioxide, also carries it to the lungs; then reconnects with oxygen, etc.
A particularly large amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells is present in newborns. In the baby, in the first three days after birth, normal hemoglobin is maximum and amounts to 145-225 g / l. After this period, the decay of “unnecessary” red blood cells begins, which lasts about three weeks, and already by 5-6 months, high hemoglobin decreases to 95-135 g / l.
The word “hemoglobin” consists of two parts, the first of which in ancient Greek means blood, the second in Latin – a ball. Indeed, the hemoglobin molecule resembles a ball. This complex protein is found in red blood cells and performs a very important task – it carries oxygen from the human lungs to other organs. If hemoglobin is not enough, it means that the body’s tissues will experience oxygen deficiency, which can create certain problems.
Hemoglobin level in children by age, table
- From age. It was described in detail above.
- Hemoglobin is part of the red blood cells, so the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells depend on each other. There are two factors that determine the level of hemoglobin:
- The number of red blood cells formed in the bone marrow
- The number of destroyed red blood cells in the tissues of the body and in the spleen
- An imbalance between these processes leads to either an increase or a decrease in the level of red blood cells and, accordingly, hemoglobin.
– Diagnosis, treatment methods and all about how to avoid complications.
- Do not worry too much and without a reason to lead the child to take tests. Everything must be done according to the indications and on the recommendation of a doctor.
- If you notice that your child has become unusually pale, quickly tired, lethargic, inactive, perhaps the cause is anemia.
- All children suffering from chronic diseases should be registered with a doctor who, according to the instructions, sends them for examination with a certain regularity, including a general blood test.
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- Vascular thrombosis due to blood clotting.
- Pathology of the spleen, which can significantly increase in size.
- Hemosiderosis of internal organs – deposits of excess iron in the cells and tissues of organs, which leads to a violation of their function. Especially dangerous for the kidneys.
An increased risk of infectious diseases in a child, due to a decrease in immunity.
Chronic anemia leads to chronic hypoxia of the baby’s organs and tissues (insufficient oxygen supply), which can ultimately cause disturbances in their functioning.
Of course it’s worth it. But to raise hemoglobin with a diet or use medications, parents must decide together with the pediatrician.
A slight decrease in hemoglobin levels can be adjusted by proper nutrition, increasing the amount of foods with a high iron content in the diet – liver, red meat, buckwheat, all vegetables and fruits of red and burgundy color.
It is important to know that the hemoglobin level does not increase instantly, noticeable changes will occur no earlier than in a couple of weeks.
An elevated level is more difficult to normalize. As a rule, to a certain level, you just need to observe the baby, since in most cases, an increase in hemoglobin in the blood is a compensatory-adaptive reaction of the body.
Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that is located in red blood cells and plays an important role in human life. Its main function is to deliver oxygen to the tissues and organs from the lungs and to remove carbon dioxide from them. Any changes in its blood level can indicate the development of serious diseases that require immediate treatment. The hemoglobin content in the blood is unstable and depends, first of all, on age.
Deviations from the norm of hemoglobin in children of 4 years and other age categories are not always accompanied by severe symptoms. Therefore, it is important to monitor the condition of the child and plan to visit the pediatrician. Healthy children are recommended to take general and biochemical blood tests 2 times a year. But when changing the general condition of the baby, it is recommended to contact a medical institution as soon as possible to find out the reason.
You need to do a blood test to determine the level of hemoglobin – the result will show how many grams of this protein is determined in a liter of blood. Analysis is given in the morning, preferably on an empty stomach.
What are the norms of hemoglobin in children? Much depends on age (up to a year, after 2 years), the presence of diseases. Other factors are relevant. For example, during a viral disease, if the baby has a fever, the composition of the blood changes. In particular, the hemoglobin level (HGB) is reduced in order to reach an acceptable value after recovery.
The hemoglobin protein delivers the necessary oxygen to the entire body
|Age||Norm HGB, g / l|
|1 – 3 of the day||145/220|
|3 – 6 months||95/135|
|6 – 12 months||100/140|
As you can see, the indications of hemoglobin in the baby are unstable, from high numbers in the first three days of life, they drop to 90 g / l. By the end of 1 year, the protein in the blood stabilizes, and becomes approximately the same as in an adult.
|Age||Norm HGB, g / l|
|1 – 2||105/145|
|3 – 6||110/150|
|7 – 12||115/150|
|13 – 15||115/155|
|16 – 18||120/160|
|Age||Girls, HGB, g / l||Boys, HGB, g / l|
|12 – 15||112/152||120/160|
|15 – 18||115/155||117/160|
The level of hemoglobin depends on the age of the child, and even on his gender
What can hemoglobin in a child say below normal? It is worth noting here that this indicator depends on many factors and does not always indicate a deviation. Sometimes the hemoglobin level is lower if the following facts occur:
- It has been observed that HGB decreases about 17 hours and begins to rise at 7 in the morning.
- If the patient ate food before analysis. After eating, hemoglobin will decrease while the digestion process is taking place. Due to this property, it is not recommended to have breakfast before taking the test.
- If blood is taken in a hospital setting, or at the patient’s home, the hemoglobin level will be slightly underestimated.
- It happens that the laboratory assistant squeezes the finger pad too much, and intercellular fluid enters the capillary blood. This changes the ratio of components, and hemoglobin may be reduced.
Next, consider the more serious reasons for lowering the level of HGB. There are diseases, one of the symptoms of which may be low hemoglobin:
- oncological diseases;
- autoimmune diseases;
- atrophic gastritis;
- blood diseases;
- iron deficiency;
- disruption of the digestive tract;
- SARS, which lasts more than 3 to 4 days.
Anemia in a child can cause many diseases, even prolonged SARS
There are a number of reasons why hemoglobin in children falls. The following indicators can be distinguished:
- Food does not contain enough vitamins (especially B12) and minerals (iron, copper). These substances are important factors in blood formation, and their deficiency can lead to the development of various types of anemia. Therefore, the level of hemoglobin in children fed with artificial mixtures may be below normal. Breast milk is more balanced in composition and saturated with all the necessary elements.
- Disorders of intestinal absorption. Vitamins and minerals coming from food are simply not absorbed in sufficient quantities into the blood.
- Decreased hemoglobin in children may be in premature babies.
- A certain drop in hemoglobin level is observed in a child after a serious illness.
Anemia after a serious illness
- A child’s low hemoglobin level is observed with hemolytic disease of the newborn. This severe disease occurs in the first days of life. The reason for lowering hemoglobin is the immunological incompatibility of the blood of a woman and her child. The products of hemolysis (destruction) of red blood cells enter the blood plasma and have a toxic effect on the body.
In some cases, hemoglobin in children is overestimated and may exceed the normal range:
- In oncological diseases, accompanied by uncontrolled division of pathological cells of the erythrocyte sprout.
- With dehydration, blood thickening and an increase in hemoglobin occur.
- With congenital diseases of the blood, cardiovascular system, kidneys, lungs. Usually combined with a significant increase in red blood cell count.
Most often, hemoglobin deficiency and iron deficiency anemia develops in the first year of a child’s life. This is facilitated by the immaturity of the hematopoietic apparatus and increased sensitivity to environmental factors. In case of anemic conditions, doctors prescribe a long-term course of treatment with iron, folic acid preparations. Therapy is accompanied by mandatory laboratory monitoring of blood counts.
However, a change in the hemoglobin rate in children does not always indicate serious illness. Sometimes, to increase its level, it is enough to adjust the child’s diet and increase the number of walks in the fresh air.
The diet of a child with low hemoglobin should include iron-containing foods, and such trace elements as copper and manganese:
- egg yolks
- Beef and pork liver
- Legumes (peas, beans)
- Beets, pumpkins, carrots, tomatoes, potatoes and spinach
- Pomegranate, apricots, apples, bananas, peaches, grapes, plums
- Buckwheat, oatmeal
- Dried fruits
- Wholemeal flour
Heat treatment does not affect the iron content in the products, so you can drink the baby with compote and feed the baked fruit. With the exception of black tea and cereals, as they block the absorption of iron.
To find out what the hemoglobin content of the child is at a particular moment, the pediatrician gives an appointment for a clinical blood test. In a laboratory study, the number of blood cells is determined and how much hemoglobin in grams is contained in 1 liter of blood. For this reason, the unit of measurement of hemoglobin is grams per liter (g / l).
How is a hemoglobin blood test performed:
- Blood for clinical analysis is most often taken capillary, i.e. taken from the finger. In rare cases, venous blood is taken for analysis in children;
- Blood counts may vary depending on what hours the blood was taken. They also depend on the amount of food eaten before the procedure. For more accurate results, it is recommended to take blood from the baby in the morning and on an empty stomach;
- Sometimes a blood test is done in a short time several times to compare indicators (during illness). In this case, it is important for an adult to provide the most identical conditions for conducting a study in a child – to take an analysis at the same hours, venous or capillary blood, on an empty / full stomach, etc.
High hemoglobin in a child
A high hemoglobin may indicate any disease of the internal organ. This is associated with a large production of red blood cells, aimed at providing the damaged area with oxygen. A large number of red blood cells leads to thickening of the blood and a violation of its circulation.
Symptoms of high hemoglobin: fatigue, lethargy, lack of appetite, drowsiness or insomnia, high blood pressure, bruises on the body
Diseases such as: congenital heart diseases and heart failure, tumor processes in the circulatory system and oncological diseases in general, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary failure, allergies, intestinal obstruction, and high levels of erythropoietin in the kidneys can become the cause of high hemoglobin in the blood.
In addition to diseases, an increase in hemoglobin can cause blood clotting. In particular, this applies to newborns, so it is important to drink the baby, especially in hot weather or in a hot room.
Treatment for high hemoglobin in children includes:
- medical examination to diagnose cancer or blood disease and further appropriate treatment
- leech treatment
- the diet should consist of seafood, vegetables, fruits (except red), cereals, salads, cottage cheese and beans. Exclude meat, liver, and high cholesterol foods
If no disease or pathology was found during the examination, treatment with high hemoglobin is not allowed with drugs. In this case, to reduce the level of hemoglobin to normal will only help a heavy drink, a balanced diet and fresh air.
- Many blood diseases lead to an increase in hemoglobin levels, for example, polycythemia, when the content of all formed elements in the blood increases due to their increased formation in the bone marrow. With some types of leukemia, a significant increase in white blood cells (more than 50 * 10 12 / l), the number of red blood cells falsely increases.
- Often, chronic diseases of the respiratory system lead to a constant elevated level of hemoglobin in the blood. This is due to insufficiency of the respiratory surface in various lung diseases, and therefore the body stores more oxygen in the tissues, which requires an increased number of red blood cells.
- In diseases of the cardiovascular system, an increase in hemoglobin levels is often observed.
- With dehydration, there is an increase in the concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells, that is, a false increase in their levels. Often this happens with infectious bowel diseases, accompanied by nausea, vomiting and heavy loose stools.
An increase in hemoglobin is inextricably linked to an increase in red blood cell levels. When hemoglobin is slightly above normal, doctors usually do not attach importance to this fact. Elevated hemoglobin in children is often caused by non-hazardous reasons – too high iron content in the diet or insufficiently humid air in the room where the child spends most of his time.
You can determine the extent of the problem using the table by comparing the indications of a child’s clinical blood test with an acceptable level of the upper hemoglobin boundary.
|Age of child||The upper limit of the permissible level of hemoglobin, g / l|
|5 day of life||200|
|10 day of life||190|
|Older than 12 months||140|
High hemoglobin in most cases does not reveal itself as any symptoms in the state of health of the child. In rare cases, with a significant deviation in the amount of protein from the norm, appetite loss, fatigue, drowsiness, frequent headaches and an increase in blood pressure may occur.
Fluid deficiency in the body
With dehydration, the blood thickens, thereby causing an increase in hemoglobin. This is possible with acute respiratory viral infections, accompanied by fever, intestinal infections with vomiting / upset stools, excessive sweating, diabetes mellitus, etc.
Respiratory system diseases
In chronic diseases of the respiratory system, respiratory failure often develops. Body tissues need oxygen, so the number of red blood cells increases significantly to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the body.
Chronic heart failure in children is caused by congenital heart disease and is a frequent cause of elevated hemoglobin levels.
In kidney diseases that increase the excess secretion of the hormone erythropoietin, the level of hemoglobin and red blood cells is kept at a consistently high level.
Diseases of the blood
In some blood diseases, an increased growth of red blood cells begins, and hemoglobin also significantly exceeds the permissible norm. The same effect is observed in the presence of benign and malignant tumors in the body.
Severe blood thickening threatens to disrupt the functioning of internal organs and body systems, the formation of blood clots and the deterioration of brain activity. With a constant high level of hemoglobin, excess iron content can accumulate in the pancreas, kidneys, and liver, which disrupts their work and can subsequently cause pathological conditions of these organs.
Increased hemoglobin in children is not a disease, but one of the symptoms of a health disorder. The task of parents and the pediatrician in this case is to find out the cause of the high hemoglobin in the blood of the child and do everything possible to resolve this indicator in the shortest possible time.
- In the event that hemoglobin has increased due to a past illness, the doctor will prescribe treatment with the use of drugs that thin the blood, choosing the right dosage in accordance with the age of the child.
- If the problem is in the daily diet with a large presence of iron-containing products, then adults should reconsider the menu of their baby, including more fish, legumes, white meat of chicken and turkey.
Low hemoglobin in a child
The decrease in the level of hemoglobin and red blood cells is interpreted by most doctors as a clear sign of the presence of one of the most diverse anemia (iron deficiency, radiation, post-infection, etc.).
Anemia in a young child is diagnosed with a decrease in hemoglobin, depending on the specific age. Three degrees of anemia are diagnosed depending on the level of protein concentration in the blood – mild, moderate and acute.
|Age of child||Severity of anemia|
|from six months to 5 years||hemoglobin below 70 g / l||hemoglobin in the range of 70-100 g / l||hemoglobin in the range of 100-110 g / l||hemoglobin level 110 g / l and higher|
|from 5 years and older||hemoglobin below 80 g / l||hemoglobin in the range of 80-109 g / l||hemoglobin in the range of 110-114 g / l||hemoglobin level 115 g / l and higher|
Anemia in a child rarely goes unnoticed. Often there are one or more pronounced symptoms:
- complete lack of appetite;
- causeless muscle weakness;
- dizziness, fainting;
- pallor of the skin;
- sleep disturbances (drowsiness or, conversely, insomnia);
- dry skin, peeling;
- low-grade body temperature;
- the appearance of white spots on the nails, etc.
Low hemoglobin in children is most often the result of iron deficiency anemia.
- Iron deficiency in infants is often triggered by anemia of the mother during pregnancy, which did not allow the baby to accumulate the necessary supply of the element in the body.
- In children older than six months, the omission of the introduction of complementary foods leads to iron deficiency. All reserves of the element accumulated during the period of intrauterine development are depleted by 6 months; and in breast milk and the mixture does not contain enough iron for full development and growth. As a result, the baby develops a lack of iron, which already leads to anemia by the year.
- By five or six years, iron deficiency is usually due to an incomplete, unbalanced diet. This is possible if the child refuses to eat cereals, meat dishes, or the whole family follows a vegetarian diet.
Other causes of low hemoglobin in children include:
- acute or chronic blood loss;
- violation of the production of red blood cells;
- hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells);
- acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases;
- transferred infectious diseases;
- autoimmune diseases;
- taking certain medications, etc.
In a state of anemia (low hemoglobin content), the child’s well-being worsens. The organs are in a state of oxygen starvation, because lack oxygen in full. Lack of hemoglobin leads to a weakened state of health, susceptibility to frequent colds, and a decrease in immunity. If the problem remains unresolved for a long time, then there is a risk of a delay in the intellectual and / or physical development of the child.
Only a doctor can establish the presence of anemia in a child based on a clinical blood test. First, the pediatrician must identify the cause of this condition in order to choose the right treatment.
- With iron deficiency anemia, a child is prescribed medications with iron (Maltofer, Ferronat, Totem, etc.). Medication is usually stretched over a course of 6-8 weeks.
- If in a baby, hemoglobin in a short time has reached less than 85 g / l, this condition is evaluated by the medicine as critical and requires a blood transfusion. For babies older than 12 months, transfusion is performed in another case – if hemoglobin has dropped to 70 g / l or lower.
Dizziness in a child
A low level of hemoglobin leads to a decrease in the functionality of the body associated with a lack of oxygen. The disease does not occur for a long time, it is possible to notice it when the child deviates from the normal state. The main symptom of lowered hemoglobin is a violation in the immune system (the child is prone to seasonal diseases).
- Pale skin
- Dry mucous membranes
- Stool instability
- Drowsiness and fatigue
- Irritability and moodiness
- Thermoregulation Disorder
- Frequent dizziness is also a symptom of low hemoglobin.
In practice, however, cases of a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells (anemia) are observed much more often:
- Low hemoglobin is often found in a child during infectious diseases. The reason is an infection that causes the deposition of red blood cells in the internal organs, and on the periphery – just where the test is taken from – the blood becomes slightly diluted and contains fewer shaped elements than usual. A decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells during an infectious disease is called anemia of inflammation. You should not be afraid of this, you should not try to immediately treat anemia if the values are not critical. It is necessary to retake a general blood test after recovery, and depending on the indicators, prescribe the appropriate therapy.
- Often the cause of anemia is a lack of iron intake, as a result of which there is nothing to form hemoglobin from. In such situations, in a general blood test, you can often find microcytes – reduced red blood cells. Even ordinary gastritis can cause a violation of the absorption of iron from the food consumed, and anemia will occur in children even when eating foods rich in this trace element.
- Another reason for the decrease in red blood cells is frequent bleeding, for example, from the nose. And in adolescent girls with the formation of the menstrual cycle, uterine bleeding can occur.
- The level of red blood cells decreases with some hereditary diseases – sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and others. Red blood cells in this case take an unusual form, the detection of which indicates a disease.
- Hemoglobin levels may decrease after a heavy meal, but only slightly and not for long.
- Influence the indicators and technique of taking blood and the position of the child during the procedure: lying hemoglobin will always be slightly lower. And if, while taking blood from a finger, the nurse diligently presses on the tip of the finger, this will lead to dilution of the blood into the pipette with the intercellular fluid, and the result will be slightly lower than the actual values.
Prevention of Anemia
|Age,||0.5 – 5||5 – 11||12 – 14|
|Normal HGB g / l||More 109||More 114||More 119|
|Light anemia HGB, g / l||100 – 109||110 – 114||110 – 119|
|The average degree of HGB, g / l||70 – 100||80 – 109||80 – 110|
|Severe stage Hb, g / l||Less than 70||Less than 80||Less than 80|
The severity of anemia has its own characteristics, and treatment in each case is prescribed individually (for more details, see: what are the degrees of anemia in children?). If the hemoglobin level becomes critical – drops below 70 g / l, children are shown a blood transfusion. In other cases, the doctor decides on the transfusion, focusing on other indicators of the baby’s health – his behavior, the condition of the skin. If anemia is not treated, the child will begin to lag behind peers in physical development, his internal organs will not be able to cope well with their functions.
Tips to help you avoid the problems associated with childhood anemia:
- During pregnancy, the expectant mother must be tested on time. This will allow time to detect a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood cells and, if possible, eliminate it. Also, a woman in a position should not neglect the intake of multivitamins, and use them as prescribed by a doctor.
- Moms should also not refuse breastfeeding for no reason. Iron is absorbed much better from mother’s milk than from the most expensive adapted milk formulas.
- During lactation, a nursing mother needs to control her menu, make a diverse diet, enrich it with fresh and healthy products. It is from the fact that the mother on the table, the baby will receive such important proteins, iron and all the vitamins necessary for hematopoiesis.
- Feed the baby in a timely manner, because by the age of 6 months the baby already lacks the accumulated iron in his body, as well as the mineral that comes with breast milk.
- If a baby has started to be fed, it is not necessary to simultaneously try to wean him from the chest. Enzymes contained in mom’s milk will help the crumbs to properly and fully absorb iron from new foods introduced into complementary foods.
- Cow’s milk should not be introduced to foods for children under 12 months of age. Many well-known pediatricians recommend postponing such a product until the child reaches the age of 1,5. Infant cow milk is a risk factor for anemia.
- Children under 2 years old should not be given black tea as a drink. This is unacceptable, because tea contains tannins that bind iron and prevent this element from lingering in the body.
- Every day and as often as possible you need to spend time with the baby in the fresh air. Walking saturates the lungs with oxygen and also stimulates the formation of new blood cells.
- Regularly take your child to the pediatrician for examinations. Hand over with the baby, if necessary, all the tests prescribed by the local doctor. This will allow on time and in time to identify any errors in the state of health and the hematopoietic system of the baby.
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