Causes of myocardial infarction in men:
- Atherosclerosis Burdened heredity matters. Cholesterol plaques are deposited on the vascular walls, narrowing their lumen. The heart muscle feels a deficiency of oxygen, which manifests itself in the form of acute heart pain – angina pectoris. These pains cannot be tolerated: if they last for a very long time, the part of the myocardium, which is deficient in oxygen, begins to die. Nitroglycerin is used to relieve pain.
- What else causes a heart attack in men? Against the background of stable high blood pressure – blood pressure, increased blood viscosity and the formation of a blood clot, clogging the lumen of the vessel supplying the myocardium.
- Long spasm of the coronary arteries against prolonged stress or heavy loads.
- Squeezing the supply vessel during surgery or manipulation.
The mechanism of development of the pathological process is associated with the stratification of cholesterol plaque, accompanied by bleeding. If bleeding is localized inside the plaque and organizes into a blood clot, then this does not always cause necrosis, but worsens the course of IHD.
A much more serious disease occurs if a blood clot forms in the lumen of the vessel and completely blocks it. This usually happens under the influence of some external or internal factors: stress, a sharp increase in blood pressure, etc. With such a thrombus, MI is guaranteed to develop.
The most common cause of this condition is impaired circulation in the coronary vessels, which can be caused by atherosclerosis. Plaques lead to deformation of the walls of blood vessels or their destruction, there is thrombosis, vasospasm. With a lack of oxygen and nutrients, certain sections of the heart muscle die.
Factors that contribute to the occurrence of a heart attack are heredity, elevated cholesterol, tobacco smoking, overweight, hypertension, diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle, an abundance of fatty foods in the diet, stress, old age. The risk of heart attack increases if there are several factors at once.
The consequences of a heart attack can be different. Complications are not always severe – often the patient does not immediately find out about existing violations of the heart. A man can suffer a first heart attack on his legs without going to a doctor, because the pain occurs suddenly and also goes away. Therefore, a person can learn that he suffered a heart attack only during a diagnostic examination, and also after a relapse of the attack occurs.
However, the disease should not be taken lightly. A person can die within a day, or even several hours after the development of an attack. Some people die in a few months. If timely medical care has been provided, a person can return to normal life.
Perhaps a recurrence of a heart attack occurred, after which there is the formation of new scars, which impedes the normal functioning of the heart.
Acute necrosis of the heart muscle develops in the presence of an atherosclerotic plaque. Its growth in diameter or detachment of fragments contribute to blockage of the lumen of the coronary arteries. The blood supply to a certain area of the myocardium is disrupted, and the affected area dies. The most common localization is the anterior wall and the interventricular septum. Less commonly, pathology occurs due to spasm or clogging of the coronary arteries with a blood clot (blood clot).
My medical practice has confirmed that the causes of heart attack in men are most often:
- psycho-emotional overload, chronic stress;
- excessive physical exertion;
- smoking and alcohol abuse;
- excess fatty, salty, smoked food in the diet.
In my opinion, an important factor is also the unwillingness to treat such serious diseases as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Their main danger is the absence of pain. The presence of these pathologies significantly increases the likelihood of a cardiovascular accident.
In addition, estrogen – a hormone that protects the heart – is produced in men in much smaller quantities than in women. That is why myocardial infarction up to 50–55 years (before the onset of menopause) often affects the stronger sex.
Most often, people aged 40 to 60 years have to deal with a heart attack. However, the presence of various diseases, as well as the constant impact of stresses, can contribute to the development of heart attack at a younger age.
Every third patient who encounters this disease dies, and this is subject to timely and qualified assistance, otherwise this indicator increases.
In 9 out of 10 cases, a heart attack develops due to thrombosis of the coronary (coronary) artery, which provides blood supply to the heart. The French call it the “artery of death.”
Atherosclerosis is one of the aggravating factors of myocardial infarction.
However, signs of a heart attack in women, as well as in men, can occur for another reason:
In addition to direct causes, there are so-called risk groups – factors that do not directly cause a heart attack, but significantly increase the risk of its occurrence:
Even individually, such factors can trigger the development of a heart attack, but the situation is significantly worsened by the simultaneous presence of several of them.
There are more predisposing factors for the occurrence of MI in men than in women. Most often, the attack occurs in young and middle age. This is primarily due to the sedentary lifestyle of modern men. Many of them are engaged in office work, smoke and often drink alcohol, suffer from obesity or diabetes, so they sooner or later face a heart attack.
Other common causes of MI in men, not women, are as follows:
- The tendency to rivalry, confrontation, scandals.
- More frequent occupations by harmful types of work.
- Lack of proper diet.
- The presence of bad habits.
The more risk factors are determined in a patient, the higher the risk of developing primary or recurrent myocardial infarction.
The causes of heart attack in the stronger sex do not differ from those in women. The main pathogenetic factor is atherosclerosis of blood vessels. Excessive cholesterol in the bloodstream leads to the formation of plaques that block the lumen of the blood vessel. At one point, their separation occurs, which leads to a violation of the integrity of the blood vessel.
At this point, a blood clot forms, which completely blocks the vessel, preventing the blood from circulating normally. This leads to the death of myocardial cells, which do not receive oxygen and nutrients with blood.
According to the observations of cardiologists, a heart attack in men develops 5 times more often than in women. This is due to the fact that female sex hormones have the best protective effect on blood vessels. This is confirmed by statistics: in women, a heart attack develops 10 years later than in men. Before the onset of menopause, it practically does not occur.
Signs of a heart attack in most cases are obvious, therefore, pathology can be identified by the characteristic clinical picture. In most cases, the risk factor for developing the disease is increased in patients with coronary heart disease. It is expressed in the formation of a large number of atherosclerotic plaques.
Before symptoms of a heart attack in men appear, shortly before the development of necrosis, characteristic changes in well-being are observed. In cardiology, they are usually called the precursors of a heart attack. Their presence in a patient with a high degree of probability indicates that, in the absence of appropriate monitoring and therapy, there is a high risk of cardiac necrosis.
Talking about how to recognize the symptoms of a heart attack in a man, doctors advise you to pay attention to:
- snoring accompanied by apnea (respiratory arrest);
- swelling on the legs (feet) and hands (hands);
- pain in the left shoulder;
- shortness of breath, especially after physical exertion;
- frequent headaches;
- increased nightly urination.
Among other characteristic manifestations, cardiologists name the following signs of myocardial infarction:
- blue skin;
- pain in the interscapular region.
Acute myocardial infarction in men 25-50 years old is accompanied by severe, dagger pain. Patients describe it as burning, stitching. Men who suffered a heart attack claim that these painful sensations in intensity were the strongest that they had to endure. Pain with myocardial infarction is not stopped by taking Nitroglycerin, analgesics. The pain syndrome lasts several tens of minutes and in some cases can give to the shoulder, stomach.
In addition, the signs of a heart attack in men often resemble the following pathologies:
- gastric colic;
- an attack of peptic ulcer.
The signs of a heart attack in men over 60 are slightly different from the symptoms of pathology in young men. This is due to age-related changes in the body. In older people, a heart attack is often masked by other diseases.
The disease is insidious in that it may not manifest itself for a long time. Obvious signs of a heart attack in men may be absent, and a visit to a doctor is often untimely. Therefore, you need to know the symptoms that indicate impending danger. This will save health and even life.
The appearance of shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, a feeling of lack of air, a sudden increase in pressure should alert. A person is thrown into a cold sweat, his skin turns blue, his pulse quickens, and acute pain occurs in his chest, which lasts more than 10 minutes. At the same time, taking medication does not bring relief. These are the first symptoms of a heart attack in a man.
If a person has acute pain in the heart, you need to give him a nitroglycerin tablet and call an ambulance. After six minutes, the medicine is given again if the pain has not subsided. Taking drugs that lower blood pressure in the presence of symptoms of a heart attack is unacceptable.
Acute heart attack occurs when the lumen of one of the arteries that supply the heart with blood is completely blocked. Complications, severe and sudden, are often fatal. The faster a person is taken to the hospital, the more effective the treatment will be.
An acute heart attack is characterized by intense burning or pressing pains in the chest, which can radiate to the left shoulder, arm, lower jaw. A person is thrown into a cold sweat, dizziness, nausea, a feeling of fear arise. The pain lasts longer than 40 minutes, may stop and occur again after a quarter of an hour. Seek medical attention if you have such symptoms immediately.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a pathological process associated with a violation of the blood supply to the area of the heart muscle, which leads to its death (necrosis). Signs of a heart attack in men depend on the size of the focus of necrosis and its location. Typical classic symptoms suggest the presence of focal necrosis. The course of such a process consists of several typical periods. Microinfarction has similar but mild symptoms.
The nature of the pain depends on the period of the disease. The most severe pains occur in the acute phase – this is the time between the onset of a violation of the blood supply to some part of the heart muscle and the onset of symptoms of necrosis. The period lasts from half an hour to two hours.
How a heart attack manifests itself in men in the first hours has long been known, but in practice, making a diagnosis can cause difficulties, since these manifestations can be very different. The disease begins suddenly, accompanied by a pronounced manifestation.
Intensive therapy in the first 12 hours after the onset of an acute period is very effective. A man has the following symptoms of a heart attack:
- pain status – sudden onset of prolonged acute pain in the heart, extending to the back, arm and lower jaw; the patient is pale, covered with cold sweat, experiencing a great fear of death; this condition lasts several hours;
- atypical pain – can occur in the upper body, radiating to the eye, the right side of the chest, neck;
- abdominal syndrome – pain appears in the abdomen, accompanied by nausea, increased gas formation; sometimes signs of an acute abdomen are clearly pronounced and the patient is prepared for surgery; the correct diagnosis will help to put an ECG;
- cerebral – severe headache, dizziness; impaired vision, hearing, speech and movement.
In the acute period of myocardial infarction in men, the symptoms smooth out, the pain partially or completely disappears; there is a final formation of the focus of necrosis and the affected cells around it, which, with proper treatment, can be restored. The duration of the acute period is 2 to 10 days. The pains go away.
Subacute period – darning of the heart muscle occurs: at the site of necrosis, connective tissue cells grow and a scar forms that reliably covers the wall defect. The patient’s condition is normalized, the fever goes away.
Post-infarction period – the heart muscle gradually gets used to new conditions. Duration – 3-6 months from the onset of necrosis. The patient’s condition is gradually stabilizing.
Localization of pain in myocardial infarction
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In addition to pain in different periods of a heart attack, the patient may have other symptoms.
In the acute period, instead of characteristic pains, the following may appear:
- asthmatic syndrome – the appearance of shortness of breath caused by acute cardiopulmonary failure and pulmonary edema; dangerous condition requiring emergency care;
- arrhythmic syndrome – the heart rhythm is disturbed: it accelerates or significantly decreases (the risk of developing heart block).
In the acute phase, the products of cell breakdown enter the bloodstream, a fever appears, in laboratory tests you can see signs of inflammation (the number of leukocytes increases, ESR increases). Due to cell decay, the activity of a number of enzymes (CPK, AST, troponin, etc.) increases. In the future, biochemical parameters are normalized, the fever goes away.
Small focal or microinfarction in men also begins with precursors, which many patients take for frequent attacks of angina pectoris. Microinfarction proceeds according to the same principle as the classic one, but its symptoms, including the first signs, are less pronounced.
Heart pains that cannot be relieved by nitroglycerin may appear. Symptoms of a microinfarction in a man include:
- shortness of breath;
- mild fever.
Such a course is often mistaken for a cold.
How to recognize a heart attack in men? Only an ECG can confirm the diagnosis, therefore, for people suffering from atherosclerosis, when unusual symptoms appear, it is better to conduct this study. Microinfarctions often turn into extensive deep necrosis, if they are not detected in time and treated.
There are a number of symptoms of myocardial infarction that are not always so pronounced as to attract the attention of the patient or those around him. But to know them is extremely important, since the rapid provision of first-aid and medical care saves valuable time.
- Irradiation of pain (usually in the arm). Typical sternal pain does not always occur. Unpleasant sensations in the chest can be mild, while the main pain spreads to the arm, lower jaw, thoracic spine, etc.
- Dizziness . Patients with MI can feel a loss of balance or instant weakness. This condition is often combined with discomfort in the chest or behind the sternum.
- Pain in the lower jaw or throat. Such a sign most likely does not have a direct connection with damage to the heart muscle, but when determining it, you should definitely consult a doctor.
- Snoring. Slight snoring is not particularly dangerous. If snoring becomes protracted, like breathing, then this may indicate sleep apnea.
- Cough that does not bring relief. This symptom is not characteristic of a heart attack, but with a frequent occurrence of dry cough and a history of heart disease, you need to pay attention to it.
- Swelling of the legs in the ankles and feet. The sign indicates heart failure, which in some cases develops immediately after MI. It occurs against the background of a weak pressure function of the heart, due to which blood begins to accumulate in the veins of the legs and its liquid part penetrates into nearby tissues, leading to their edema
- Disturbed heart rhythm (arrhythmia). With a pronounced course of the disease, this symptom should alert, which will allow them to seek medical help at an early stage of MI. Sometimes arrhythmia occurs due to lack of sleep or the use of caffeine in large quantities. But at the same time, a similar symptom may indicate the presence of atrial fibrillation, in which an ambulance is required.
Any disease can be treated, and if it is detected at an early stage, this increases the chances of a full recovery. If you know what are the first signs of a heart attack in men, you can take action in time, thereby preventing a catastrophe.
The earliest threat indicators are:
- the appearance of shortness of breath even with minor physical exertion;
- constant feeling of discomfort;
- constriction in the chest;
- incomprehensible pains radiating to the upper body, neck and even in the jaw.
Important! The symptoms listed above appear at the very first stages of the disease. They are characterized by both a sudden appearance and disappearance.
As the pathological condition of the heart muscle develops, other signs of a heart attack in men appear, namely:
- feeling of weakness;
- sweating, and sweat is allocated cold;
- the acquisition of skin with a bluish tint;
- severe pain, which is localized between the shoulder blades and can last about 10 minutes;
In no case can you ignore the discomfort in the form of symptoms of myocardial infarction on the legs, because if you do not take it, the disease will go to a serious stage, in which irreversible changes in the structure of the heart muscle occur.
Symptoms and Early Harbingers
Often the development of the disease occurs slowly, while the manifestations are not characteristic of a heart attack. A person begins to treat completely different diseases, losing valuable time. Atypical signs of a heart attack in men can be manifested by toothache on the left side of the jaw, pain in the neck, left arm or leg, asthma attacks, a slight increase in temperature without other signs of a cold, pallor of the skin, clammy cold sweat, vomiting, heartburn.
The development of the disease can last from several days to several weeks. Symptoms of a heart attack in a man may not be present constantly, periodically appearing and disappearing. If a heart attack proceeds against a background of diabetes, then signs may be absent altogether. In this case, the patient feels only weakness, anxiety, depression.
Therefore, if any warning signs appear, you must consult a doctor for examination.
The pre-infarction period is characterized by an increase in the frequency and severity of attacks of heart pain – unstable angina develops. Harbingers of a heart attack in men appear throughout the month. But sometimes this period is reduced to several hours. Adequate drug therapy will prevent the development of necrosis.
I want to note that the first signs of a heart attack in men are usually sudden and they do not feel the approach of the disease. The main symptom is an attack of burning, baking, pressing pain behind the sternum that occurs in the early morning hours (4-6 in the morning). Pain radiates to the left half of the body, throat, lower jaw, stomach and interscapular region. Other manifestations:
- a feeling of interruption in the work of the heart;
- lowering blood pressure;
- cyanosis or pallor of the skin;
- fear of death.
Autonomic disorders – excessive sweating, impaired consciousness – are less common. Also, the likelihood of developing serious acute complications, such as heart and kidney failure, bleeding, is also low. Dressler’s syndrome, rhythm and conduction disturbances, post-infarction angina pectoris occur with the same frequency.
The probability of relapse or recurrent myocardial infarction in the male is 74% of cases, female – 41%. Harbingers – malaise and a feeling of lack of air.
The disease is associated with a very sharp disturbance in the normal functioning of the heart, which causes dysfunction in many organs and systems of the body. Depending on the type of nervous irritation, one or another symptomatology is determined, among which pain is of primary importance. Most often, it is with her that myocardial infarction begins and a person understands that something is wrong with him.
Pain with MI can be of several types:
- By type of discomfort or pressure in the heart
- Pain in other parts of the body.
This is the most common symptom of a heart attack in men and women. Most often, it develops slowly, starting with mild pain or discomfort. The sudden onset of serious symptoms is sometimes referred to as a “Hollywood heart attack,” since typical cases of MI are very often portrayed in movies and on television. In the traditional version of development, a heart attack is not so common.
Chest discomfort or pressure
Pain can be difficult to tolerate, but it is not necessary. Often there is a feeling of “fullness”, squeezing or squeezing. With insufficient awareness, this condition can be mistaken for heartburn. An uncomfortable sensation often occurs in the left or central part of the chest. The feeling can last several minutes or drag on for half an hour or more.
Pain or discomfort sometimes has a different location, because with myocardial infarction there is an incorrect distribution of blood in different organs, most often in the brain. The parts of the body that are above the waist are usually affected, including the upper abdomen, shoulders, one arm (possibly the left), or both, the back, neck, or jaw, sometimes even the teeth.
Shortness of breath caused by difficulty breathing can be combined with chest pain or manifest without it. This symptom is often the first to indicate a developing violation of cardiac activity. Usually shortness of breath occurs when the patient performs increased physical activity or even at rest after a hearty dinner. Shortness of breath develops due to accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Also nearby people who are sick can hear wheezing at a distance.
Feeling severe fatigue for no reason is another common symptom in which appropriate precautions should be taken.
Another possible symptom is increased cold sweat. Additionally, nausea and vomiting may be felt, but these symptoms are more common in women than in men.
The more symptoms are determined, the higher the risk that there is a heart attack. But you should know that the disease can occur without any symptoms. Such heart attacks are called silent and are more common in elderly patients.
The main method of researching the disease is electrocardiography. Using an ECG, you can determine where necrotic lesions are located, evaluate their volumes, and determine how long the process takes. To get a more complete picture, an ECG is performed every 30 minutes. After checking the indicators, an accurate diagnosis is established and treatment is prescribed.
Be sure to conduct a biochemical blood test. The appearance of special markers in it is a sign of a deadly organ damage.
An auxiliary research method is echocardiography, which helps to clarify some details. With the help of this study, cardiac ischemia, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction are detected.
A complicated form of the disease leads to the appearance of stagnation in the lungs, which is diagnosed by x-ray.
According to the leadership of the American College of Cardiology, the treatment of patients with unstable angina (pre-infarction) and myocardial infarction without raising the ST segment is carried out in full without gender differences. But in practice, men are more often subjected to invasive medical procedures:
- coronary angiography;
- percutaneous coronary interventions.
Beta-blockers can adversely affect potency.
What portends a heart attack
Approaching myocardial infarction can be recognized by some signs that occur shortly before the onset of an attack. The appearance of pain in various parts of the body, especially on the left side, as well as toothache and pain in the jaw should alert. Unpleasant sensations can last 15-30 minutes, after which they pass.
Breathing may be impaired. The patient feels a bubbling in the chest, there is a lack of air, inability to breathe fully. This is how an asthmatic heart attack manifests itself.
Another symptom is a jump in body temperature to 39–40 ° C. A person is thrown into sweat, the skin becomes pale, the condition is accompanied by weakness and dizziness.
From the digestive system, various disorders are also possible: nausea, vomiting, heartburn, pain in the abdominal cavity. Similar signs of a heart attack in men require immediate medical attention.
Lifestyle after a cardiovascular disaster
Being close to those who know what to do with a heart attack, the right actions can prevent the development of complications. Otherwise, myocardial infarction can lead to cardiac arrest and clinical death. If this happens outside the hospital, the chances of a successful outcome are small. The time is important when signs of a heart attack in men are detected.
There are other complications that can develop after myocardial infarction:
- pulmonary edema;
- heart rhythm failure;
- stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
- heart aneurysm;
- psychical deviations.
The physiological and psychological consequences of a heart attack are possible. A person may experience angina attacks during exercise and at rest. This can lead to a second attack, so you need to visit a cardiologist who will prescribe the necessary treatment.
The consequences of a heart attack can affect the state of the nervous system. The patient is dominated by negative emotions, depression and other mental disorders may develop. A man begins to fear for his health, men can become aggressive. In this case, a qualified psychologist will help.
Disturbances in the work of the heart lead to a decrease in disability. Many become unable to do hard physical labor, it provokes pain in the chest, shortness of breath and weakness. A person who has had a heart attack needs to limit physical activity, sometimes it is beneficial to change his occupation. The recovery period can last several weeks and several years.
More serious consequences are the development of heart failure, pericarditis, pulmonary edema, vascular thrombosis, ischemic stroke, and heart rupture.
Therefore, the faster a person was provided with qualified medical care, the higher the chances of preserving his health and life.
Of course, all men who have suffered myocardial necrosis are immediately worried by several questions: how to recover faster after a heart attack, is it necessary to adhere to a diet, is it possible to drink alcohol and have sex. I will answer them in order.
The recovery period, in my opinion, is the most important and crucial stage, because now a lot depends not only on the doctor, but also on the patient himself. Its duration depends on the severity of the heart attack and the presence of concomitant complications (post-infarction angina pectoris, aneurysms, chronic heart failure) and includes:
- Diet therapy. I recommend significantly limiting the consumption of table salt, spices and fatty meats (pork, lamb, etc.). The multiplicity of food intake should be increased to 5-6 times a day, but the volume of servings should be reduced.
- Lifestyle change. A healthy night’s sleep, moderate exercise, and smoking cessation are important. If possible, it is necessary to change work to a calmer one. It is important to remember that night shift work is associated with constant stressful situations (security guards, teachers, doctors and others).
- Psychological rehabilitation. In my opinion, it is harder for a man to realize his illness and some kind of weakness associated with it. He becomes aggressive and irritable, so it is important to work with a competent psychologist.
Alcohol after a heart attack and surgical interventions on the heart (stenting or bypass surgery), I recommend excluding it for at least a year. In a recent study, American scientists observed 2000 heart attacks and got interesting results. Patients who had a heart attack and subsequently drank alcohol moderately (up to 30 g of ethanol per day) were at risk of dying by 14% less than those who completely abandoned it. In addition, the risk of recurring heart attack was lower by 42%.
Having sex is also not contraindicated. On the contrary, light physical exertion favorably affects health. I just want to note that positions in which the man is below or from the side are desirable.
The consequences of a heart attack in men are different. It all depends on the volume of the focus of necrosis and the timeliness of the treatment started.
Intensive therapy, begun in the first 6 hours after the onset of the most acute period, will save lives, give a chance for a full restoration of health.
Effectively treatment in the first 12 hours. Rehabilitation will take from 4 months to six months, depending on the severity of the transferred process.
The prognosis of the disease is not always favorable. Extensive necrosis is often complicated by chronic cardiovascular failure. Severe arrhythmias often develop. If it is not possible to fully restore health, the patient is diagnosed with disability.
They provide pre-medical care (it is provided by relatives or the patient himself), primary medical care (provided by an emergency doctor) and specialized (provided by a cardiologist and resuscitator in the hospital) help.
According to statistics, most people die in the first hour of the most acute period. Therefore, when the initial signs of a heart attack in men appear, first aid is needed immediately. This is first aid, its algorithm includes timely emergency call and limiting the impact of traumatic factors. Relatives of patients with coronary heart disease should clearly understand how to help a loved one.
Primary medical care should be provided in the first 6 to 12 hours after the onset of the acute process:
- the introduction of painkillers – this will prevent the development of a serious complication – pain shock;
- the introduction of drugs that support the work of the heart: cardiac glycosides (under their influence the myocardium contract less often and with greater force) diuretics (remove excess fluid) potassium (helps myocardium contract);
- if there is arrhythmia, antiarrhythmic drugs are introduced;
- the patient is hospitalized as quickly as possible.
Specialized care is provided by a cardiologist or resuscitator in a hospital – this is a continuation of treatment initiated by an ambulance aimed at eliminating the main syndromes of MI and preventing complications.
Sometimes the patient receives surgical help: the lumen of the vessel is expanded using various mechanical devices or anastomosis is established – a new vessel is brought to the affected area of the myocardium, carrying blood from the aorta.
Life after a heart attack in men must obey certain rules. After suffering an MI, the patient should be engaged in the restoration of motor activity for a long time:
- the first day he should lie motionless on his back;
- if there are no complications, on the 2nd day it is allowed to turn over on its side;
- if there are no pains and shortness of breath, begin physical therapy (exercise therapy);
- the sitting position is taken on 5-18 days;
- Exercise therapy daily;
- the patient takes an upright position on 11–25 days;
- gradual increase in exercise therapy loads under the supervision of an instructor;
- begins to walk independently after 14-30 days;
- Exercise therapy is carried out in different positions;
- walk on stairs is allowed from 4-6 weeks;
- Exercise therapy with increasing loads throughout the rehabilitation.
Movement helps restore cardiac function and prevent the development of complications.
Proper nutrition is also important. 1-2 days of the acute period, you should use semi-liquid mashed food prepared from high-calorie foods.
Then the diet is expanded: boiled and stewed dishes are not rubbed, gradually boiled vegetables and fruits (especially bananas, dried apricots, raisins – a source of potassium), cottage cheese, dairy products (a source of calcium needed to reduce myocardium) are gradually introduced. Fried, smoked dishes are not recommended. Do not eat fatty, salty and spicy foods.
The very first step is to call an ambulance. Next, the patient should be reassured, since a state of panic can worsen well-being. To do this, he can be given a tincture of motherwort, valerian.
A person with a suspected heart attack should be placed in a horizontal position, forbidding him to move. Under the tongue you need to put a tablet of nitroglycerin (the procedure can be repeated every 15 minutes). Before the doctor arrives, you can not give more than three tablets. Close clothing must be unfastened or removed, and it is important to ensure that fresh air is available.
Properly rendered first aid for a heart attack is the basis of effective therapy. In the case of myocardial infarction, the first 2 hours fully determine the outcome. Elimination of blockage of a blood vessel, restoration of normal blood circulation in this period allow to avoid catastrophic consequences. After 2 hours, the massive death of myocardial cells begins, so the doctors throw all their efforts to reduce the affected area.
If there are symptoms of a heart attack in a man, you need to respond immediately. To begin with, you should take one or two tablets of nitroglycerin and call an ambulance.
Validol should not be taken, it will not help in this case. During the attack, there is a sharp increase in blood pressure, it is impossible to reduce it yourself. Only aspirin (half a tablet) is allowed.
If acute chest pain occurs, you can judge the appearance of the first signs of a heart attack in men and you need to think about providing first aid. To do this, you must call an ambulance. Prior to the arrival of doctors, such actions should be taken.
- Put the patient on a hard horizontal surface, it is better if the upper part of his body is slightly raised.
- Give the victim one tablet of nitroglycerin and an antipyretic/analgesic. If the attack fails to stop in half an hour, and the doctors still have not arrived, you can give another pill.
- In order to calm the patient, you can give him medications such as corvalol, valocordin or tincture of valerian.
- The pain attack is removed with the help of a tablet of analgin.
It is very important that someone else is next to the sick man, because you need to monitor the patient’s breathing, the level of his blood pressure and the work of the heart muscle. In case of cardiac arrest, you should proceed to radical methods of exposure. It could be:
- a short but rather strong fist in the direction of the sternum. Its effectiveness is noted only in the first seconds of a stop;
- indirect heart massage;
- mechanical ventilation through the mouth or nasal openings.
In the course of treatment (mask oxygen, Morphine, Aspirin, Nitrospray, Enoxaparin) and the subsequent rehabilitation period, the general condition improved noticeably. I observed a patient for 1,5 years, repeated myocardial infarction and other complications were not observed.
The following sources of information were used to prepare the material.
The fastest detected heart attack is a guarantee that medical care will be provided in a timely manner. Both the causes and the signs of heart attack in women and men are different. In addition, women who have had this disease are much more difficult to recover from it. Knowing how to protect yourself from a dangerous disease, you can take measures to prevent it.
Complications of myocardial infarction
1. Depending on the location of the focus of necrosis:
- left ventricular myocardial infarction (anterior, posterior, lateral, lower);
- isolated apex myocardial infarction;
- heart attack of the ventricular septum;
- legal ventricular infarction.
2. The depth of the lesion, depending on the type of the affected layer:
3. By the nature of the course:
- recurrent (a new lesion is formed after 3–7 days);
- repeated (develops after 1 month).
Having talked about how to recognize a heart attack, it is necessary to highlight its possible consequences. Depending on the time of occurrence, complications of a heart attack are usually divided into early and late.
The early ones (develop within a few hours or 3-4 days from the time of the pathology) include:
- rupture of the myocardium, more often the free wall of the left ventricle;
- cardiogenic shock – it is difficult for the heart to contract, pressure decreases, which causes a disruption in the functioning of other organs and systems;
- acute heart failure;
- ventricular fibrillation;
Among late complications, cardiologists distinguish:
- A cholesterol plaque with a tight lid forms on the artery wall.
- The lid is torn due to chronic sluggish inflammation.
- A blood clot forms, blocking the flow of blood.
- Without access to blood, a part of the heart muscle dies.
How to recognize the disease
Timely recognition that a person had to face a heart attack significantly increases the likelihood of effectively provided medical care. About 30% of all patients die due to lack of treatment within the first hour.
Symptoms of myocardial infarction in men can appear gradually, which prevents such patients from suspecting a dangerous condition and seek medical help. It is worth worrying to find these signs:
- feeling of lack of air;
- discoloration of the skin (cyanosis);
- frequent pulse;
- pain in the chest area, which medications do not help;
- strong separation of cold sweat;
- increase in blood pressure to critical numbers.
These are the most common symptoms. Taking any medications can change the clinical picture and complicate the diagnosis, so if you find symptoms of a heart attack in men, you must immediately call an ambulance, and not try to cope with the problem yourself.
It has already been said above that the signs of myocardial infarction in women are slightly different. These are:
- pain in the lower jaw with a complete absence of dental problems;
- strong urge to vomit;
- pain not only in the chest, but also in the back of the head, neck;
- severe pallor of the skin;
- sudden fatigue in the absence of adequate loads.
The fact that the symptoms of myocardial infarction in women are different is caused by the structural features of their heart. However, the recommendations are similar: when the first dangerous symptoms appear, seek medical help as soon as possible.
Myocardial infarction symptoms are nevertheless quite frightening for the patient to seek medical help. However, there is still the concept of pre-infarction: symptoms, the first signs in women and men in this case may not scare the patient, as a result of which time will be lost. It is necessary to seek medical support if:
- There is pain in the upper abdomen. As a rule, it is accompanied by nausea, vomiting. The patient thinks that he has been poisoned, and begins to treat not at all the disease he has encountered.
- Increased breathing in the absence of pain. Obvious signs of a heart attack in women, as well as in men, most often mention pain as an indispensable factor. However, if the number of breaths exceeds 20 per minute, and the breath itself feels like “bubbling” – immediately call an ambulance, even despite the absence of pain and other signs.
- Fatigue and shortness of breath. As a rule, such signs of a heart attack in women older than 50 years occur against the background of diabetes mellitus.
- Insomnia, not corrected by sleeping pills.
- Edema of any part of the body.
If your well-being or that of a person near you suddenly worsens – do not understand, which was the reason: immediately call an ambulance. If a patient develops a pre-infarction, symptoms, the first signs in men and women, detected on time, can help save a life.
“For many nights I could not sleep, the usual sleeping pills did not help. About a week later, severe pain in the chest area appeared, turned to the hospital for this reason, it turned out to be a heart attack. “The rehabilitation was long, the doctors said that the situation was aggravated by the late treatment.”
“An elderly mother complained of a sharp chest pain, she turned very pale. Measurement of blood pressure showed critical numbers, which caused an ambulance to be called rather than taking pills, as usual. ”The arrived team noted a heart attack and took her mother to the hospital, where she was provided with qualified help.”
“Faced with severe weakness, tired, barely getting out of bed, not even having time to do anything. Then, swelling on the legs began to appear, but she still turned to the doctor only after she began to suffocate after walking a hundred meters. I would never have thought that heart problems could manifest in this way, and now I am undergoing post-infarction rehabilitation. ”
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious disease that requires maximum attention from both the patient himself and the medical staff. The disease is characterized by the death of cardiomyocytes in a larger or smaller area, as a result of which the heart begins to contract less efficiently and pump blood throughout the body.
A heart attack is most often determined at the age of 41-50 years, while in men it happens five times more often than in women. After 51 years, this ratio is 2: 1, and in old age it becomes the same, since the number of women at this age prevails.
To determine myocardial infarction in medicine, standard methods for all cardiovascular diseases are used. First of all – electrocardiography, and then, depending on the course of the disease – laboratory tests, ultrasound of the heart, MRI, CT.
How to prevent?
At risk are men whose close relatives suffer from angina pectoris. To avoid a cardiovascular accident, it is recommended:
- move more; engage in feasible sports;
- follow a diet: eat more fish (including marine, oily), seafood, cottage cheese, kefir, cereals, vegetable dishes, fruits;
- exclude fatty meat, fried foods, as well as all spicy, smoked and salty from the diet;
- monitor weight: overweight increases the risk of developing MI;
- get rid of smoking (contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis);
- regularly determine the amount of cholesterol in the blood: with an increase in indicators, carry out the therapy prescribed by the doctor with statins and other drugs;
- avoid prolonged stress, heavy loads;
- monitor your blood pressure and take antihypertensive drugs prescribed by your doctor.
In women of childbearing age, myocardial infarction develops very rarely, since estrogens, sex hormones that support the vital activity of the whole body, prevent this. They prevent the development of disorders of cholesterol metabolism and spasms of blood vessels. After the onset of menopause, estrogen secretion decreases, and the incidence of MI gradually increases. Older women and men are equally affected.
Symptoms of MI in women also have their own characteristics. They are less pronounced, which is why the diagnosis sometimes causes difficulties. So, pain often has uncharacteristic localization in the back of the head. Sometimes cerebral symptoms predominate, since cerebrovascular accident occurs simultaneously.
Microinfarction is characterized by weakness, irritability, decreased performance and increased anxiety.