Myocardial infarction is a focus of ischemic necrosis of the heart muscle, which develops as a result of acute disturbance of coronary circulation. It is clinically manifested by burning, pressing or compressing pains behind the sternum, giving to the left hand, collarbone, scapula, jaw, shortness of breath, fear, cold sweat. The developed myocardial infarction serves as an indication for emergency hospitalization in cardiological resuscitation. Failure to provide timely assistance may result in death.
At the age of 40-60 years, myocardial infarction is 3-5 times more often observed in men due to the earlier (10 years earlier than in women) development of atherosclerosis. After 55-60 years, the incidence among both sexes is approximately the same. The mortality rate for myocardial infarction is 30–35%. Statistically, 15-20% of sudden deaths are due to myocardial infarction.
Violation of the blood supply to the myocardium for 15-20 minutes or more leads to the development of irreversible changes in the heart muscle and cardiac upset. Acute ischemia causes the death of part of the functional muscle cells (necrosis) and their subsequent replacement with connective tissue fibers, i.e., the formation of a post-infarction scar.
In the clinical course of myocardial infarction, five periods are distinguished:
- 1 period – preinfarction (prodromal): increased and intensified angina attacks, may last several hours, days, weeks;
- 2 period – the most acute: from the development of ischemia to the appearance of myocardial necrosis, lasts from 20 minutes to 2 hours;
- 3 period – acute: from the formation of necrosis to myomalacia (enzymatic melting of necrotic muscle tissue), duration from 2 to 14 days;
- 4 period – subacute: the initial processes of scar organization, the development of granulation tissue in place of necrotic tissue, duration 4-8 weeks;
- 5 period – post-infarction: maturation of the scar, adaptation of the myocardium to new conditions of functioning.
- What is tachycardia of the heart?
- What it is?
- Causes of Tachycardia
- Symptoms of Tachycardia
- Folk remedies
- Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes, prevention
- Classification of myocardial infarction
- Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes, prevention
- Sinus tachycardia, what is it, and how to treat the disease?
- Symptoms of Tachycardia
- Complications of myocardial infarction
- Diet for tachycardia
- Prognosis for myocardial infarction
- Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes, prevention
What is tachycardia of the heart?
Pathological tachycardia of the heart is manifested:
- severe pulsation of the vessels of the neck;
- feeling anxious.
Explaining what tachycardia is and why it is dangerous, cardiologists focus on the fact that the basis of the disease is increased automatism of heart contractions, which normally sets the rhythm and pace of heart contractions. Pathology can lead to cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, coronary disease, and the development of acute heart failure.
By the name of the area of the heart in which the development of the impulse that causes tachycardia occurs, the following forms of the disease are distinguished:
- Sinus tachycardia. The source is in the sinus node.
- Supraventricular tachycardia (it is also atrial). The source is in the atria.
- Ventricular tachycardia. The source is in the ventricles.
By the criterion of time it happens:
- Paroxysmal tachycardia. An attack of a rapid heartbeat suddenly begins and ends abruptly (heart rate is from 120 to 250 beats per minute).
- Permanent (chronic) tachycardia.
Heart tachycardia is not a separate disease, but a symptom or condition in which the occurrence of additional unpleasant manifestations on the part of the body, except for a rapid heartbeat, is possible. In some cases, tachycardia can also occur “background”, without causing any discomfort.
Depending on the specifics of the state, the general rhythm of the heart may be “torn” and unstable, or it may be within the normal range for this reason.
At the physiological level, with this form of arrhythmia, the heart does not have time to completely fill up with blood before muscle contraction occurs.
The speed of the blood flow in the body increases, pressure drops occur, so there is a significant load on the entire cardiovascular system.
In a situation where tachycardia becomes a constant companion of a person, the risk of rapid depletion of the heart and the development of heart failure increases.
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What it is?
Tachycardia is an increase in heart rate (HR) from 90 beats per minute. It is necessary to distinguish tachycardia as a pathological phenomenon, that is, an increase in heart rate at rest, and tachycardia as a normal physiological phenomenon (increase in heart rate as a result of physical exertion, excitement or fear).
It should be understood that tachycardia is not a disease, but a symptom, since it can occur as a manifestation of many diseases. The most common causes of tachycardia are disorders of the autonomic nervous system, disorders of the endocrine system, hemodynamic disorders and various forms of arrhythmia.
Causes of Tachycardia
To understand what tachycardia is, it is important to consider that cardiac tachycardia is manifested due to many and different reasons. So, a similar condition can occur as a natural reaction of the human body to emotional stress and too much physical labor.
Also, tachycardia can accompany fever, smoking, the use of large doses of alcoholic beverages.
Heartbeat becomes more frequent in the event of a sharp decrease in blood pressure, with anemia and, accordingly, a decrease in hemoglobin level, as a result of the development of malignant tumors, purulent infections, and increased thyroid function. Also, tachycardia can occur as a result of treatment with certain medications.
There are also tachycardia arising due to the presence of pathology of the heart muscle or due to disturbances in the process of electrical conduction of the heart. Heart tachycardia is the first sign of cardiac decompensation. Also, this condition is a consequence of shock or collapse (it can be a fainting condition, bleeding, etc.), as a result of a reflex to lowering blood pressure.
The tendency to tachycardia is a characteristic symptom in people with vegetative-vascular dystonia. As a rule, in this case these are young patients. Heart palpitations are also observed in patients with neurosis.
Symptoms of Tachycardia
Depending on the type of tachycardia, the symptoms of the disease will vary. Let us consider in more detail each form.
Sinus tachycardia in adults can be asymptomatic or accompanied by minor symptoms:
- frequent dizziness
- feeling of lack of air,
- shortness of breath,
- decreased appetite
- persistent heart palpitations,
- decreased performance and decreased mood.
- sinus tachycardia is characterized by a gradual onset and end. A decrease in cardiac output is accompanied by a violation of the blood supply to tissues and various organs. Dizziness, fainting may occur, in case of damage to the vessels of the brain – convulsions, focal neurological disorders.
There are two types of ventricular tachycardia, distinguished by their symptoms:
- Hemodynamically stable – palpitations, heaviness, compression in the heart, chest, dizziness;
- Hemodynamically unstable – the patient loses consciousness a few seconds after the first manifestations of ventricular tachycardia. It occurs suddenly, in the second case, loss of consciousness is the only manifestation of an increase in heart rate.
Atrial tachycardia may be asymptomatic or patients experience only a strong heartbeat. In some cases, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain are observed. Older people may not pay attention to a slight increase in heart rate.
Atrioventricular tachycardia. Rarely, rare attacks are very clinically significant. They are accompanied by:
- lowering blood pressure
- religious pain
- throbbing in the neck,
- impaired consciousness.
It starts suddenly, the duration of the attack is from several minutes to several days. It is most common in women and is not usually associated with heart disease.
The main threat to well-being and life is represented by chronic disturbances in the rhythm, heart rate. As well as pathological variants of tachycardia, which can provoke a heart attack and ventricular fibrillation, leading to death.
In addition to rapid deterioration of the heart, a rapid heartbeat that often occurs leads to hypoxia, since the blood circulating quickly through the body does not have time to be saturated with oxygen. In case of unexpected severe attacks, causing dizziness and fainting, injury may occur if you fall.
The main areas of treatment for tachycardia are the prevention of its attacks in the future, minimizing the complications caused and bringing the heart rate to normal.
Treatment of tachycardia can be medication, with the appointment of special medicines, or it can consist in changing the patient’s lifestyle, avoiding stressful situations and proper rest.
Therefore, the treatment of tachycardia is based on lifestyle changes and the exclusion of factors that trigger increased heart rate or affect heart function. These factors include:
- Spicy food;
- Stress, emotionally stressed states;
- Physical exercise;
- Caffeinated drinks, other stimulants;
- Alcoholic drinks;
With paroxysms of atrial tachycardia, they resort to the use of so-called vagal techniques, designed to give an additional tone to the vagus nerve, which quenches excitation in the heart muscle:
- Pressure on the area located at an angle of the lower jaw;
- Inducing a gag reflex;
- Deep breath and straining;
- Intensive exhalation with a closed nose and mouth;
- Pressure on the inner upper corner of the eyeball;
- Immersion of the face in cold water (or rubbing the face).
Vagal receptions should not be carried out with cardiac ischemia, coronary arteriosclerosis. In most non-life-threatening cases, medications are the basis for the treatment of tachycardia.
With pathological tachycardia, medications are prescribed, but their independent use is not recommended, because they affect various parts of the body and only the doctor prescribe a medication suitable for the patient.
- Concor, antennolol and aegiloc are drugs that reduce stress. Used for sinus manifestation of tachycardia.
- Rhythmorm, allapinin – with tachycardia provoked by extrasystole.
- Digoxin – with tachycardia provoked by heart failure.
- Cordaron, sotagexal – with paroxysms of tachycardia.
- Patients suffering from tachycardia amid excessive emotionality are prescribed sedatives.
Tachycardia is also treated using minimally invasive surgery methods – without scars, under local anesthesia. This may be radiofrequency catheter ablation, the installation of an artificial pacemaker, etc.
If folk remedies can somehow cope with sinus tachycardia (and not even every one!), Then there simply is no question about the treatment of ventricular tachycardia, which often requires urgent resuscitation, so the patient should know which option he got and what do it. But still, you should first consult with your doctor. What if the patient does not yet have an accurate diagnosis?
- Vitamin Balm. The prescription of a medicine called vitamin balsam consists of hawthorn berries and viburnum, taken in a liter jar, cranberry berries (enough for half a liter) and rosehips also half a liter. All this is slowly laid in layers in a jar with a capacity of 5 liters, pouring each of the layers with a glass of sugar, and preferably pouring the same amount of honey. A liter of vodka is added to the medicine prepared in this way, which in three weeks will absorb all the healing properties of the ingredients and become a full-fledged folk remedy for the treatment of tachycardia. The mixture is taken until it is over (50 ml in the morning and evening). If alcohol is contraindicated for someone, then the infusion can be prepared without vodka. Smart people do not throw away the berries left from the infusion, but add it to tea, to which they add flavor and add nutrients, since they did not lose them during the infusion.
- Hawthorn. Many tachycardia tinctures include hawthorn, valerian and motherwort. They differ only in what tincture to add to them. Some add corvalol, others add peony, and some even buy ready-made collection at the pharmacy, they themselves insist on vodka or alcohol and take it. I would like to note that it is unlikely that infusions of vodka can be absolutely harmless with prolonged use, especially for children. Nevertheless, it is not for nothing that alcohol solutions and hawthorn tincture are popularly called the “pharmacy cognac”. Taking a tablespoon three times a day, a person is slightly accustomed to alcohol-infused drugs, and this must be remembered. This is especially true for individuals with a history of burden in this regard. In addition, there are recipes that do not require the mandatory addition of alcohol-containing liquids.
- Juices of vegetables and fruits. They say that vegetable juices are very useful, which if they do not cure tachycardia, they will not bring harm. For example, the juice of beets, carrots and radishes (mixed in the same proportions) should be drunk 3 times a day, 100 ml for 3 months. Or black radish juice flavored with honey (ratio – 1: 1) you need to take a month according to Art. spoon in the morning, at lunch and in the evening. And you can make pulp from the onion and apple and eat it daily in between meals.
Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes, prevention
Physiological tachycardia accompanies violent emotional states, fast running, climbing to a height, etc.
Sinus tachycardia appears as a reaction to various painful conditions of the body:
- neurosis and depression;
- thyrotoxicosis (the content of thyroid hormones in the body increases abnormally);
- pheochromocytoma (a tumor in the adrenal gland);
- oxygen starvation;
- heart diseases;
- high body temperature or the environment;
- dangerous blood loss.
Paroxysmal tachycardia appears when the heart and blood vessels are disturbed:
- vascular dystonia;
- myocardial infarction;
- heart disease;
- disorders in the sympathetic branches of the nervous system.
Tachycardia requires treatment if it appears without any obvious reason: a person feels well and is in a calm state or sleeps.
What symptoms warn of danger?
- Shortness of breath (hard to inhale);
- noises appear in the head, in the ears;
- darkens in the eyes;
- fainting weakness, loss of consciousness;
The patient needs to call an ambulance, and before her arrival should:
- to free the neck and chest;
- open a window;
- apply cold to forehead;
- wash yourself with ice water.
Tachycardia is a rapid contraction of the heart muscle. There are several types of tachycardia, each type provides its own approach to therapy.
Consider the symptoms and treatment of each type, as well as the prevention of tachycardia and why the disease is dangerous
Everyone experienced rapid heart muscle contraction at least several times in their life, it is far from always a pathology and certainly cannot be considered an independent disease.
Rapid heartbeat is a sign that can be associated with a huge number of reasons, which are not always directly dependent on the cardiovascular system. That is why the treatment of tachycardia involves determining the source of the problem and selecting a specific technique.
The heart does not beat constantly in the same rhythm. The frequency of contractions can vary several times during the day, varies significantly depending on age, gender and other factors. In infants, the pulse rate is much higher than in adults.
Tachycardia means exceeding the frequency of contractions of the “critical” threshold – 90 beats per second. The basis of this condition is an increase in the automatism of the sinus node, which normalizes the rate of contraction of the heart muscle. The condition does not always indicate the presence of pathologies in the body.
There are a number of reasons why a completely healthy person can develop a tachycardia attack:
- Physical activity – especially the so-called “cardio”, the name itself allows you to understand what is meant by the involvement of the heart muscle. First of all, it is running, jumping, stretching, squats – in a word, any complex of fitness exercises. During exercise, tachycardia becomes a normal compensatory mechanism for providing blood to muscles.
- Excitement, anxiety, stress. The reason is directly related to the previous paragraph, inherited from those times when the only real danger were predators or other enemies, who were required to run away or fight with them. Current stresses do not imply battles with tigers or mammoths, but the anatomical mechanisms change slowly.
- Age to seven years. Tachycardia in babies is a physiological norm associated with an accelerated metabolism and the constant use of growth hormones.
- Adolescence – many teenagers may develop tachycardia against the background of hormonal changes. In girls, this is the period of menarche – the first menstruation, in boys there is nocturnal tachycardia, directly associated with involuntary ejaculation.
- The use of caffeine, alcohol, a large amount of glucose also provokes an increase in heart rate for a short time.
- Changing the position of the body from horizontal to vertical also causes the heart to contract faster. A healthy person does not notice these short-term changes, unless he specifically measures the pulse at this moment.
Tachycardia when rising to the mountains
Physiologically, tachycardia can occur when going to the mountains – at a high altitude, especially in conditions of lack of oxygen, when the heart has to pump blood faster to saturate the tissues. Rapid heart rate is not a disease, situational tachycardia does not require any intervention, as well as associated with childhood and adolescence and other normal periods of life.
However, if an increase in the frequency of heart contractions occurs with additional negative symptoms or frequent episodes are noted that are not directly related to the norm, then it is worth paying attention. Pathological tachycardia often causes serious problems with the cardiovascular system, up to fatal outcomes.
Normal tachycardia is also called physiological. In contrast, there is a pathological form that can be evidence of serious illness or life-threatening conditions that are not directly related to the heart.
If a healthy person has tachycardia, while the condition and health obviously worsen, we can talk about such reasons:
- Dehydration – both against the background of overheating of the body, and simply because of a lack of fluid. It must be remembered that coffee and strong tea do not replenish water in the body, on the contrary, removing it additionally. Tachycardia from dehydration is often found among lovers of strong coffee, energy drinks, and alcohol. This condition is not normal, it can lead to fainting and even serious complications, up to cardiac arrest.
- Sun and heat stroke are a specific reason. Children are in a special risk group, since their fluid loss is faster, and thermoregulation still does not work well.
- Anemia, due to which the number of red blood cells in the blood decreases, and the remaining ones have to do double work, and the heart – faster pump fluid.
- Tumors of the adrenal glands, provoking abnormal production of adrenaline. This condition is exacerbated by constant anxiety and nervousness.
- Hyperthyroidism – an excess of thyroid hormones also makes the heart work faster.
- Neuroses and psychoses as critical mental states that have a direct impact on somatics.
- Fever of any genesis – from banal ARVI to tuberculosis and oncological formations that provoke an increase in body temperature.
- The heart is more often contracted if a person experiences pain or discomfort, because any pain syndrome is stressful. These conditions are not directly related to heart disease; eliminating the underlying cause will return the normal heart rate.
There is also idiopathic tachycardia – an increase in heart rate without visible prerequisites, or which cannot be detected. In such cases, doctors recommend a full examination to identify hidden foci of infection, neoplasms, endocrine pathologies. If nothing is found, psychotherapy is also recommended.
Many diseases of the heart and blood vessels provoke the frequent work of one of the main organs of the human body. In the normal state, the sinus node generates excitation that spreads to the myocardium. If pathological changes in the heart occur, then the nerve cells that initiate the heartbeat begin to respond incorrectly, causing the muscle to contract faster.
Among the diseases of the cardiovascular system that provoke tachycardia are:
- congenital heart defects in children – therefore, despite the fact that frequent reduction in babies is the norm, cardiological examinations should be performed;
- chronic heart failure;
- myocarditis, endocarditis and other inflammation of the heart muscle;
- myocardial infarction.
To determine what exactly caused tachycardia, the type of change in contractions of the heart muscle will help. This criterion is the main one for the diagnosis of diseases, separation of the norm from pathology and the search for the causes of the condition.
The following types are distinguished:
- sinus tachycardia;
- ventricular tachycardia;
- atrial tachycardia;
- atrioventricular tachycardia.
It is quite difficult to establish a specific type without a cardiogram, although there are peculiarities and nuances of the clinical picture. At the same time, the type of tachycardia is the main diagnostic criterion that is extremely important for the diagnosis and severity of the patient’s condition. Each type provides its own approach to therapy.
This type of arrhythmia – that is, a violation of the normal rhythm of the heart, is considered one of the most common. The main diagnostic criterion is to increase the frequency of strokes to 100 and above.
Symptoms are also characteristic:
- The heartbeat feels powerful and strong, a person can “hear” his pulse.
- Shortness of breath, and it occurs even in a state of rest, without physical exertion.
- A man gets tired quickly.
- Myocardial ischemia provokes a characteristic dull pain behind the sternum.
- Dizziness, blurred consciousness.
- A person becomes irritable, sleeps poorly, emotionally unstable.
Sinus tachycardia, as a rule, indicates the development of coronary heart disease. This condition can occur in adulthood, often in young people. Concomitant diseases are often obesity, hypertension.
In this regard, the treatment of sinus arrhythmia involves the following measures:
- weight loss to the optimum;
- exclusion from the diet of fatty foods containing harmful cholesterol, sweet, alcohol;
- taking beta-blocker drugs – Anaprilin, Nebilet;
- the use of diuretics to remove excess fluid along with potassium preparations to strengthen the heart muscle;
- sedatives can sometimes be used.
Sinus tachycardia, as a rule, occurs in people older than forty years, but doctors say that the disease is “getting younger.” Among patients come across people who are barely thirty.
This subspecies is also called paroxysmal, because it sharply arises against the background of previous well-being. Repeated episodes of “failure” of the heart rhythm are very dangerous, because they often lead to myocardial infarction, also being one of its symptoms.
- The stormy beginning is a sharp pain, darkness in the eyes.
- Heart rate rises to 120 and above.
- Often – loss of consciousness.
- Cardiac arrest may occur.
Myocardial infarction is an acute form of IHD. In 97–98% of cases, the basis for the development of myocardial infarction is atherosclerotic lesion of the coronary arteries, causing a narrowing of their lumen. Often, atherosclerosis of the arteries is joined by acute thrombosis of the affected area of the vessel, causing a complete or partial cessation of blood supply to the corresponding region of the heart muscle. The increased blood viscosity observed in patients with coronary heart disease contributes to thrombosis. In some cases, myocardial infarction occurs against a background of spasm of the branches of the coronary arteries.
The development of myocardial infarction is promoted by diabetes, hypertension, obesity, mental stress, alcohol addiction, smoking. A sharp physical or emotional stress on the background of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris can trigger the development of myocardial infarction. More often, left ventricular myocardial infarction develops.
Classification of myocardial infarction
In accordance with the size of the focal lesion of the heart muscle, myocardial infarction is distinguished:
Small focal myocardial infarction accounts for about 20% of clinical cases, but often small foci of necrosis in the heart muscle can transform into large focal myocardial infarction (in 30% of patients). Unlike large-focal, with small-focal heart attacks, aneurysm and cardiac rupture do not occur, the course of the latter is less often complicated by heart failure, ventricular fibrillation, thromboembolism.
Depending on the depth of necrotic damage to the heart muscle, myocardial infarction is distinguished:
- transmural – with necrosis of the entire thickness of the muscular wall of the heart (usually large-focal)
- intramural – with necrosis in the thickness of the myocardium
- subendocardial – with myocardial necrosis in the area adjacent to the endocardium
- subepicardial – with myocardial necrosis in the area adjacent to the epicardium
According to the changes recorded on the ECG, distinguish:
- “Q-infarction” – with the formation of a pathological Q wave, sometimes the ventricular complex QS (usually large-focal transmural myocardial infarction)
- “Not a Q-heart attack” – is not accompanied by the appearance of a Q wave, is manifested by negative T-waves (usually small focal myocardial infarction)
According to the topography and depending on the lesion of certain branches of the coronary arteries, myocardial infarction is divided into:
- right ventricular
- left ventricular: anterior, lateral and posterior walls, interventricular septum
According to the frequency of occurrence, myocardial infarction is distinguished:
- recurrent (develops within 8 weeks after the primary)
- repeated (develops 8 weeks after the previous one)
According to the development of complications, myocardial infarction is divided into:
By the presence and localization of pain, the forms of myocardial infarction are distinguished:
- typical – with localization of pain behind the sternum or in the precardial region
- atypical – with atypical pain manifestations:
- peripheral: left-scapular, left-handed, laryngeal-pharyngeal, mandibular, upper vertebral, gastralgic (abdominal)
- painless: collaptoid, asthmatic, edematous, arrhythmic, cerebral
- low symptom (obliterated)
In accordance with the period and dynamics of the development of myocardial infarction, there are:
- stage of ischemia (acute period)
- necrosis stage (acute period)
- stage of organization (subacute period)
- scarring stage (post-infarction period)
A rapid heartbeat does not always indicate that there are any problems in the body and it is urgent to run to the doctor. Sometimes it is caused by completely natural and harmless reasons. In this regard, the following types of tachycardia are distinguished:
- Physiological – it occurs in people who do not have health problems, under the influence of some environmental factors and is a manifestation of the compensatory forces of the body. It appears during active physical exercises, emotional disturbances, fear and quickly passes without any treatment, leaving no traces.
- Pathological – occurs against a background of various diseases of the heart or other internal organs. It can be dangerous, because when the heart beats more often than necessary, the ventricles do not have enough time to fill up with blood. As a result, cardiac output decreases, a small amount of blood enters the vessels, enters the organs and tissues. Their oxygen starvation develops. Long-term tachycardia is dangerous for the heart itself: its performance is impaired, the volume of the atria and ventricles increases, and cardiopathy can develop.
Depending on where exactly the impulse is formed, tachycardia is divided into two more types:
- Sinus – in this case, pulses, as expected, arise in the sinus node, their number simply increases. It usually begins gradually, an increase in heart rate is observed up to 120 beats per minute. In this case, the same amount of time passes between the heart contractions, that is, there is no arrhythmia.
- Ectopic (paroxysmal) – in this case, extra impulses arise not in the sinus node, but in another place. They can occur in the atria (supraventricular tachycardia) or in the ventricles (ventricular tachycardia). It begins abruptly, with a sudden increase in heart rate, and does not pass for several minutes, and sometimes several days.
Physiological tachycardia does not need emergency assistance. It passes on its own after the disappearance of the causes that caused it.
If signs of tachycardia often appear and it is not possible to find out their cause, you should definitely visit a doctor. Even without causing physical discomfort, it can lead to depletion of the heart muscle and the development of various complications.
The causes of sinus tachycardia can be divided into two large groups:
- Intracardial – the causes of increased heart rate lie in the heart. They are both congenital and arise due to various heart diseases.
- Extracardiac – heart rate increases due to various extracardiac factors: diseases of other organs and systems or under the influence of external factors.
Heart rate can increase with almost any cardiovascular disease, including:
- cardiac ischemia;
- arterial hypertension;
- myocardial infarction;
- heart failure, both acute and chronic;
- heart defects, both congenital and acquired;
- cardiomyopathy – while reducing the contractility of the heart, which reduces the amount of blood that it throws into the vessels in one reduction; to compensate for this, he has to work faster;
infectious endocarditis and others.
Extracardial causes of tachycardia:
- physiological reasons – heart rate rises with active physical work, due to excitement, strong emotional overstrain;
- neurogenic – they occur when the work of the cerebral cortex and subcortical nodes is disrupted, and also with various dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system: neurosis, affective psychosis, neurocirculatory dystonia; most often they are young people with an unstable nervous system;
- endocrine diseases;
- acute blood loss;
- severe pain attack;
- taking medications that affect the functioning of the sinus node (adrenaline, atropine, aminophylline and others); tachycardia, the reasons for which lie in taking medications, is called medication;
- not only drugs can increase the heartbeat, but also nicotine, alcohol, coffee and caffeinated drinks;
- fever in certain infectious diseases (pneumonia, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, etc.) – it was found that a rise in body temperature by one degree increases heart rate by about 8-9 beats per minute.
In addition, tachycardia is adequate and inadequate. The latter does not go away even after the person has eliminated any stress, physical or emotional.
Finding the cause of tachycardia at first glance is also not possible. In all respects, the heart should beat evenly and calmly, because there are no provoking factors.
Why it occurs is not fully understood, however, there is an assumption that it is associated with a primary lesion of the sinus node.
Determining the type of tachycardia is important for the appointment of the right treatment, since most often it is necessary to treat it, but the pathology that caused it. If you simply reduce the heart rate without eliminating the cause, you can trigger a drop in blood pressure.
Symptoms of tachycardia depend on how strongly it is expressed, how long it lasts, and also what caused it. Sometimes a person may not feel anything at all. Among the frequently noted are:
- palpitations, sometimes patients note booming blows in the chest;
- discomfort in the heart, sometimes even pressing pain;
- hand shake.
Sinus tachycardia is characterized in that it begins gradually and also smoothly ends. If severe tachycardia is observed for a long time, that is, organs and tissues, including the brain, receive poor nutrition for a long time, signs of oxygen starvation may join the symptoms: head is dizzy, sometimes the patient may lose consciousness, focal neurological disorders may occur, and may sharply decrease blood pressure, as well as decreased amount of urine.
With inadequate tachycardia, shortness of breath joins these symptoms, as if the patient does not have enough air. The patient quickly gets tired, notes a decrease in working capacity, is often in a bad mood.
The presence of other symptoms of tachycardia will depend on what disease caused it.
Without adequate treatment, pathological tachycardia can lead to the development of various complications that threaten the health and sometimes life of the patient. It can be:
- wear of the heart muscle, because it has to constantly work with increased load;
- oxygen starvation of the brain, because it lacks blood and nutrients;
- pulmonary edema;
- sudden cardiac arrest;
- ventricular fibrillation;
- arrhythmic shock.
In order to determine the causes of tachycardia, as well as prescribe the correct treatment, it is necessary to conduct a diagnosis. Begin by collecting a medical history of the patient and his complaints. At this stage, it is important to find out how tachycardia manifests itself in each specific case, what provokes it and what helps to relieve an attack of increased heartbeat. Sometimes the patient themselves suggest a possible cause of its appearance.
Next, an external examination of the patient is carried out, the color of his skin (with prolonged oxygen starvation, the skin looks pale), the heart rate and respiration are calculated. At this stage, heart murmurs may be heard if a cause of tachycardia is any heart disease.
After collecting the anamnesis and conducting an external examination, laboratory and instrumental examination methods are connected.
Here you can see signs of anemia or an increase in white blood cell count, which is typical for the inflammatory process. In addition, the general picture of the state of the blood is important for the further diagnosis and treatment of tachycardia.
Biochemical analysis of blood
The most important diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction are the medical history, characteristic ECG changes, and serum enzyme activity indicators. Complaints of a patient with myocardial infarction depend on the form (typical or atypical) of the disease and the extent of damage to the heart muscle. Myocardial infarction should be suspected with a severe and prolonged (longer than 30-60 minutes) attack of chest pains, impaired conduction and heart rate, acute heart failure.
Characteristic ECG changes include the formation of a negative T wave (for small focal subendocardial or intramural myocardial infarction), a pathological complex of QRS or Q wave (for large focal transmural myocardial infarction). Echocardiography reveals a violation of locally contractile ventricle, thinning of its wall.
In the first 4-6 hours after a pain attack in the blood, an increase in myoglobin is determined – a protein that transport oxygen inside the cells. An increase in the activity of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in the blood by more than 50% is observed after 8-10 hours from the development of myocardial infarction and decreases to normal in two days. The determination of the level of CPK is carried out every 6-8 hours. Myocardial infarction is ruled out with three negative results.
To diagnose myocardial infarction at a later date, they resort to the determination of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the activity of which increases later than CPK – 1-2 days after the formation of necrosis and comes to normal values after 7-14 days. Highly specific for myocardial infarction is an increase in the isoforms of the myocardial contractile protein troponin – troponin-T and troponin-1, which also increase with unstable angina. In the blood, an increase in ESR, leukocytes, aspartate aminotransferase (AsAt) and alanine aminotransferase (AlAt) is determined.
Coronary angiography (coronarography) allows you to establish thrombotic occlusion of the coronary artery and a decrease in ventricular contractility, as well as assess the possibilities of coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty – operations that help restore blood flow in the heart.
Only a cardiologist can determine how to treat heart tachycardia. It is useless to treat tachycardia itself – the cause of the increased heartbeat should be eliminated.
To diagnose the underlying disease, a number of examinations are prescribed:
- ECG (daily according to Holter, 2-3-day monitoring);
- blood and urine tests;
- analysis to detect thyro >
All these types of diagnostics can be provided in any modern cardiology clinic.
Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes, prevention
Preinfarction (prodromal) period
About 43% of patients report a sudden development of myocardial infarction, while in the majority of patients, a period of unstable progressive angina pectoris that is different in duration is observed.
Typical cases of myocardial infarction are characterized by extremely intense pain syndrome with localization of pain in the chest and radiating to the left shoulder, neck, teeth, ear, collarbone, lower jaw, interscapular region. The nature of the pain can be compressive, bursting, burning, pressing, acute (“dagger”). The larger the area of myocardial damage, the more pronounced the pain.
The pain attack proceeds in waves (sometimes intensifying, then weakening), lasts from 30 minutes to several hours, and sometimes even days, it does not stop by repeated administration of nitroglycerin. Pain is associated with severe weakness, agitation, a sense of fear, shortness of breath.
Perhaps an atypical course of the acute period of myocardial infarction.
Patients have a sharp pallor of the skin, a sticky cold sweat, acrocyanosis, anxiety. Blood pressure during the attack period is increased, then moderately or sharply decreases compared to the initial (systolic lt; 80 rt Art., pulse lt; 30 mmHg Art.), noted tachycardia, arrhythmia.
During this period, acute left ventricular failure (cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema) may develop.
In the acute period of myocardial infarction, the pain syndrome usually disappears. Preservation of pain is caused by a pronounced degree of ischemia of the near-infarction zone or by the attachment of pericarditis.
As a result of the processes of necrosis, myomalacia and perifocal inflammation, a fever develops (from 3-5 to 10 or more days). The duration and height of temperature rise during fever depend on the area of necrosis. Arterial hypotension and signs of heart failure persist and increase.
There is no pain, the patient’s condition improves, and body temperature normalizes. Symptoms of acute heart failure become less pronounced. Tachycardia, systolic murmur disappears.
In the post-infarction period, clinical manifestations are absent, laboratory and physical data with practically no deviations.
Atypical forms of myocardial infarction
Sometimes there is an atypical course of myocardial infarction with localization of pain in atypical places (in the throat, fingers of the left hand, in the area of the left shoulder blade or cervico-thoracic spine, in the epigastrium, in the lower jaw) or painless forms, the leading symptoms of which can be cough and severe suffocation, collapse, swelling, arrhythmias, dizziness and dizziness.
Atypical forms of myocardial infarction are more common in elderly patients with severe signs of cardiosclerosis, circulatory failure, against the background of repeated myocardial infarction.
However, usually only the most acute period usually occurs atypically; further development of myocardial infarction becomes typical.
The erased course of myocardial infarction is painless and is accidentally detected on an ECG.
With paroxysmal tachycardia, seizures are usually pronounced. They begin suddenly and also suddenly pass. The patient feels a rapid heartbeat, dizziness, fear, and sometimes fainting and even collapse occurs. Sometimes the patient describes the condition with one phrase: “heart in the heels” or “heart in the throat”.
With a constant frequent heartbeat, the patient complains of general weakness, dizziness, lightheadedness, lack of air, rapid fatigue and intolerance to physical exertion. Diagnosis of tachycardia
Diagnosis of the tachycardia syndrome itself is not so complicated. It should be noted immediately that with paroxysmal tachycardia, the increase in heart rate is almost always very strong from 250 and above heart rate per minute. In chronic tachycardia, it usually ranges from one hundred to one hundred and thirty times per minute.
Almost always, tachycardia is determined using an ECG or exercise ECG. With a paroxysmal form, Holter monitoring is prescribed (daily ECG monitoring).
The usual auscultation of the heart also allows in most cases to determine tachycardia. Moreover, if the rhythm of the gallop is heard, then this indicates in most cases that the cause of tachycardia is heart failure, and if dyspnea is still present in the symptoms, then this is almost 100% confirmation of heart failure.
Additional studies are also prescribed depending on the disease that caused the appearance of tachycardia.
The main treatment for tachycardia is the elimination of the root cause, that is, the disease that led to the development of heart palpitations. If tachycardia is neurogenic, then at the time of the attack, a mild sedative is prescribed, for example, corvalol or valocordin 40-60 drops at a time.
With any form of tachycardia, physiotherapy exercises (LFK), a balanced diet (diet), and a necessarily healthy lifestyle and rejection of bad habits are prescribed.
Also, drugs that reduce heart rate, such as isoptin, anaprilin, isotrapine, etc. are prescribed. In any case, the treatment of tachycardia should be prescribed only by a doctor after a thorough examination and identification of the root cause.
Sinus tachycardia, what is it, and how to treat the disease?
In some cases, the sinus node begins to fail, causing the heart to beat faster than necessary. The heartbeat accelerates to 140-180 beats per minute.
This is not a disease, but a certain state of the body that normalizes if harmful living conditions are eliminated, sleep and nutrition are established, and bad habits are abandoned.
There is sinus tachycardia in various situations:
- with a lack of potassium or magnesium in the body;
- with overwork and chronic insomnia;
- with prolonged exposure to stress;
- in acute painful conditions of the body (poisoning, infectious disease, with dangerous blood loss, etc.).
Treatment of sinus tachycardia consists in taking sedatives and herbal preparations and establishing a sparing diet and rest.
In those cases when the patient’s heartbeats cause lightheadedness, antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed.
The main principles for the treatment of tachycardia include:
- Treatment of a disease that provoked cardiac pathology (accelerated heartbeat).
- Correction/elimination of the conditions causing the disease.
- Normalization of work and rest.
- Refusal from alcohol, smoking, drinking large quantities of coffee and strong tea.
- The use of sedative therapy aimed at improving the emotional state.
- Prescribing magnesium and potassium preparations that normalize the work of the heart.
- The use of antiarrhythmic therapy – tachycardia tablets that affect heart rate and pace.
Most often, in the treatment of tachycardia, complex therapy is used, which involves the synthesis of antiarrhythmic drugs and measures aimed at eliminating the underlying disease, eliminating the causative factors. Lidocaine (1 mg per 1 kg of body weight) is injected intravenously into patients. The procedure takes several minutes. If the expected effect does not occur, the administration of lidocaine is repeated after 15 minutes.
With recurrent tachycardia, an intravenous drip of the drug is carried out at a rate of 1 to 2 mg per minute. The duration of the treatment session is from 1 to 2 days. Drugs used to treat heart tachycardia, such as Aimalin, Novocainamine, and b-blockers, are used by doctors when lidocaine does not block heart palpitations.
If tachycardia is accompanied by a sharp decrease in blood pressure, the latter is increased with the help of norepinephrine or other pressor amines, due to which the sinus rhythm normalizes. In the absence of effect, electropulse therapy is additionally carried out.
If the accelerated heartbeat is due to intoxication with cardiac glycosides, they are canceled and an intravenous drip of lidocaine and sodium chloride or a slow jet administration of Obzidan are prescribed.
Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of tachycardia
In the treatment of heart palpitations, minimally invasive surgery can be used. Commonly used methods include:
- Installation of a pacemaker. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. In parallel to the clavicle, a skin incision is performed. Puncturing the subclavian vein, a pacemaker electrode is inserted. To control its movement using the x-ray method. As soon as the electrodes are connected to the heart muscle, their free fragments are connected to a pacemaker. Then, in a specially formed cavity (performed in the projection of the pectoralis major muscle), equipment is installed.
- Radiofrequency catheter ablation. To determine the focus of arrhythmia, catheter electrodes are inserted through large veins. Before that, hemostatic introducers (in the form of tubes) protecting vessels are installed in large vessels. Electrodes are delivered directly to the heart under the control of fluoroscopy. Then, using the “ablation” electrode, they “burn” the foci of tachycardia. On average, the operation takes 45 minutes – the time depends on the depth and size of the lesion. Already on the second day the patient is discharged.
Many modern medical surgery centers successfully carry out such operations.
Sinus tachycardia during pregnancy is a variant of the norm, if it does not adversely affect the condition of the woman. Manifestations of the disease are explained by the increased load on the heart during the gestation, weight gain, the need to maintain a constant flow of blood to the uterus.
To improve the condition of a pregnant woman with a sinus form of tachycardia helps:
- diet food;
- good rest;
- drinking at least 2 liters of fluid per day;
- intake of vitamin and mineral complexes.
If tachycardia is severe and the heart rate rises to more than 90-100 beats per minute, a cardiologist’s consultation is required. When treating a disease in pregnant women, the use of:
- beta-blockers (allow you to control the effect of adrenaline on the sinus node);
- antiarrhythmic drugs and calcium channel blockers (responsible for regulating the generation of electrical pulses by the sinus node).
Self-selection of drugs for a pregnant woman without medical advice is unacceptable, since many antiarrhythmic drugs can cause serious violations in the development of the fetus.
Symptoms of Tachycardia
Complications of myocardial infarction
Complications often arise already in the first hours and days of myocardial infarction, making it harder. In most patients, in the first three days, various types of arrhythmias are observed: extrasystole, sinus or paroxysmal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, complete intraventricular block. The most dangerous is ventricular fibrillation, which can go into fibrillation and lead to the death of the patient.
Left ventricular heart failure is characterized by congestive rales, cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema and often develops in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. An extremely severe degree of left ventricular failure is cardiogenic shock, which develops with extensive heart attack and usually leads to death. Signs of cardiogenic shock is a fall in systolic blood pressure below 80 mm Hg. Art., impaired consciousness, tachycardia, cyanosis, decreased diuresis.
A rupture of muscle fibers in the area of necrosis can cause cardiac tamponade – hemorrhage in the pericardial cavity. In 2-3% of patients, myocardial infarction is complicated by thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery system (can cause pulmonary infarction or sudden death) or a large circle of blood circulation.
Patients with extensive transmural myocardial infarction in the first 10 days may die from rupture of the ventricle due to acute cessation of blood circulation. With extensive myocardial infarction, scar tissue failure may occur, its swelling with the development of acute cardiac aneurysm. Acute aneurysm can transform into a chronic one, leading to heart failure.
Deposition of fibrin on the walls of the endocardium leads to the development of parietal thromboendocarditis, which is dangerous because of the possibility of embolism of the vessels of the lungs, brain, and kidneys from detached thrombotic masses. In a later period, a post-infarction syndrome may develop, manifested by pericarditis, pleurisy, arthralgia, eosinophilia.
Diet for tachycardia
With tachycardia, it is recommended to abandon:
- caffeinated drinks and foods;
- spicy, salty, smoked and fatty dishes;
- cream and sour cream;
- products that include soda;
- boiled and fried eggs.
The daily menu should include:
- natural juices;
- dairy products;
- diet meat.
Meals should be regular, in small portions. You should refuse a meal before going to bed. Sweets limit. Give preference to low-calorie foods rich in potassium and magnesium. Once a week, it is advisable to spend fasting days (the best option is vegetable).
With myocardial infarction, emergency hospitalization to cardiological resuscitation is indicated. In the acute period, the patient is prescribed bed rest and mental rest, fractional, limited in volume and calorie nutrition. In the subacute period, the patient is transferred from resuscitation to the cardiology department, where treatment of myocardial infarction continues and the regime is gradually expanding.
Relief of pain is carried out by a combination of narcotic analgesics (fentanyl) with antipsychotics (droperidol), intravenous administration of nitroglycerin.
Therapy for myocardial infarction is aimed at preventing and eliminating arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock. Prescribe antiarrhythmic drugs (lidocaine), ß-blockers (atenolol), thrombolytics (heparin, acetylsalicylic acid), antagonists of Ca (verapamil), magnesia, nitrates, antispasmodics, etc.
In the first 24 hours after the development of myocardial infarction, perfusion can be restored by thrombolysis or emergency balloon coronary angioplasty.
To eliminate tachycardia, a disease is treated that causes an increased heart rate.
It is recommended to establish a gentle mode:
- A full night’s sleep for at least 8 hours.
- Refusal of every bad habit, including the use of strong tea or coffee.
- It is better to eat 5 times a day, a little. Preference is given to simple low-fat foods and greens.
- Nervous overwork and unrest should be avoided.
- You can take decoctions of herbs with a calming effect: valerian, motherwort, peppermint, hawthorn.
During an attack of tachycardia, which is accompanied by painful symptoms, antiarrhythmic drugs are taken: Etatsizin, Finoptin (Verapamil, Isoptin), Ritmilen (Ritmodan), Reserpine (Rausedil, Raupasil), Raunatin (Rauvazan).
If tachycardia occurs, you should undergo a medical examination to exclude the occurrence of a serious disease.
Prognosis for myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction is a serious, associated with dangerous complications of the disease. Most deaths develop on the first day after myocardial infarction. The pumping ability of the heart is associated with the localization and volume of the infarct zone. If more than 50% of the myocardium is damaged, as a rule, the heart cannot function, which causes cardiogenic shock and death of the patient. Even with less extensive damage, the heart does not always cope with stresses, as a result of which heart failure develops.
After an acute period, the prognosis for recovery is good. Adverse prospects in patients with complicated myocardial infarction.
Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes, prevention
In order not to encounter the question of how to treat tachycardia in the future, doctors recommend:
- stop smoking and drinking alcohol;
- control blood pressure;
- include more vegetables and fruits in the diet and limit the consumption of animal fats;
- control blood cholesterol;
- annually be examined by a cardiologist.
This article is posted for educational purposes only and is not scientific material or professional medical advice.
The necessary conditions for the prevention of myocardial infarction are maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle, giving up alcohol and smoking, balanced nutrition, eliminating physical and nervous stress, monitoring blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels.