From this article you will learn: the characteristic signs of a heart attack in men, how to provide first aid before the doctors arrive.
Myocardial infarction is an acute lesion of the heart muscle, accompanied by a sharp spasm or blockage of the coronary arteries, leading to the death of part of the cells.
In men and women, a heart attack proceeds differently, which is associated with constitutional and hormonal differences.
Symptoms of a beginning myocardial infarction appear in men in 3–7 days. Due to nonspecificity, they are often missed without any connection with cardiac pathology.
If any of these symptoms occur, consult a cardiologist immediately.
Each patient with coronary heart disease, as well as his relatives, needs to study the symptoms of a heart attack and the rules of first aid, since up to 30% of patients do not live to see the doctors.
- General fatigue, increased fatigue – observed 2,7 times more often in men;
- dizziness attacks, which may be accompanied by vomiting, loss of consciousness;
- dull or aching pain behind the sternum at rest;
- unexplained pain in the upper half of the trunk, jaw, teeth;
- signs of ailment similar to flu – aches, drowsiness, weakness;
- symptoms of indigestion, nausea;
- previous depression is observed in men 4 times more often;
- dyspnea after moderate habitual physical activity.
In women, the first signs begin in 14-30 days, are of a different nature.
The signs of a beginning myocardial infarction revealed at this stage with adequate first aid do not lead to necrosis of the heart muscle.
And, therefore, a scar does not form, the rhythm is not broken, and a fatal outcome is prevented.
Therefore, contact a cardiologist if your condition changes.
In the acute phase of a heart attack, men are characterized by a classic version of the course with acute severe pain behind the sternum, shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air, disorientation, and increased heart rate. These symptoms develop at rest, without physical exertion. The pain with a heart attack is long, from 15 minutes to a day, can be wave-like.
Distinctive symptoms of a heart attack in a man can be:
- “Neck” pain, burning sensation behind the sternum;
- compression of the chest cavity (men describe it as if the elephant is sitting on the chest and shoulders);
- pain behind the sternum, extending to the right side, occurs 5 times more often in men;
- pain in the biceps, left shoulder, left arm, that is, passing to the upper belt;
- gastralgic variant of a heart attack is 3,7 times more common in men – abdominal pain, nausea, heartburn, bloating. Vomiting is more common in women (3,9 times more);
- cold sweat;
- cyanosis, pallor of the skin, complexion becomes gray, earthy;
- numbness, a tingling sensation in the limbs, which can signal peripheral vasospasm;
- anxiety, fear of death, panic;
- feeling of a sinking heart;
- an increase in blood pressure during the first days of a heart attack in patients without a history of hypertension;
- a rare symptom may be a dry cough, fever, an unexplained rash on the skin.
Such differences are explained by the structural features of the body: in men, the heart is larger, more centrally located. In women, the heart is smaller, located lower to the left.
In men, large arteries are more often clogged, the affected area is better visualized during angiography.
Before the development of a heart attack, men are more examined, have a diagnosed ischemic disease 5 times more often.
Female heart attack is characterized by damage to small vessels, which is often not noticeable on the angiogram and leads to late diagnosis, most of the symptoms are regarded as false positive.
The painless type of heart attack (“dumb”) occurs in both sexes, signs of a condition “on the legs” may include pulmonary edema, arrhythmias, and severe hypotension (lowering blood pressure). This option is typical for patients with diabetes.
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- First aid
- First aid
- Critical age
- Signs of a heart attack depending on the type of development
- Critical age
- Critical age
- Differences from symptoms in women
- How not to confuse with other diseases?
- What is myocardial infarction?
- Lifestyle after a cardiovascular disaster
- What to do if there are signs of a heart attack
- How does a heart muscle heart attack manifest itself?
- How to prevent?
- Signs of a pre-infarction condition
- What can cause a heart attack in men
- How many live
The signs of myocardial infarction in men are very variable, so always call “Ambulance” for any inexplicable pain, discomfort, unusual symptoms. An examination by a cardiologist and an ECG will allow you to remove or confirm the diagnosis.
If you have a history of coronary heart disease, carry nitroglycerin with you.
When someone has signs that are similar to the first manifestations of a heart attack, you need to quickly take action.
Remember, cardiac muscle necrosis can be prevented only in the first 20-45 minutes after vascular thrombosis.
With severe myocardial ischemia, there are 6-12 hours to prevent complications.
First aid for myocardial infarction:
- put the man on a hard surface;
- take off all the squeezing clothes, relax the tie;
- open the windows, providing access to fresh air;
- put a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue;
- call the ambulance team;
- if the pain does not subside and the ambulance has not arrived, give nitroglycerin three times, with an interval of 5 minutes, while measuring blood pressure to prevent hypotension;
- give a 0,25-0,5 g aspirin tablet and ask the man to chew it;
- try to reassure the patient, inspire confidence that help is close;
- do not give any antihypertensive drugs before the arrival of doctors;
- put documents (passport, policy, data from previous examinations) in a prominent place so as not to lose time after the arrival of the ambulance.
First aid measures for oneself are the same.
The first and main signs of a heart attack in men and women differ in 35% of cases, but it is too early to draw conclusions about the characteristic symptoms. Only a third of studies take into account gender differences.
In this case, male heart attack is better studied and proceeds more often typically. First aid correctly and in full is also more often provided to men, since women are not accepted to suspect a heart attack.
It is not entirely true to compare symptoms depending on gender; each patient has a different state of the body and a previous history.
The signs of a beginning myocardial infarction revealed at this stage with adequate first aid do not lead to necrosis of the heart muscle. And, therefore, a scar does not form, the rhythm is not broken, and a fatal outcome is prevented. Therefore, contact a cardiologist if your condition changes.
Prolonged coronary heart disease often leads to another life-threatening disease, heart attack.
As a result of clogging of one of the arteries, which cannot pass blood, one or more sections of the myocardium begin to die.
At this place, a scar forms, which subsequently does not resolve. Such a serious violation in the body should not pass unnoticed by the patient, but sometimes it happens that a person does not feel almost no symptoms.
Then it is difficult to recognize the disease and take the necessary measures to eliminate the disease. Therefore, everyone needs to know the symptoms of a heart attack in order to prevent an impending life-threatening illness and start treatment on time.
Yachnaya Alina, oncologist surgeon, higher medical education with a degree in General Medicine.
An approaching heart attack can make itself felt 3-7 days before a serious attack. Unfortunately, men often do not pay any attention to these symptoms, since they are not associated with heart pains. So, the following manifestations can be harbingers of a heart attack:
- unexplained severe fatigue and fatigue, which does not pass either after sleep or after rest;
- dizziness, which men ignore, perceiving them as a reaction of the body to weather, fatigue, etc. (dizziness can be so strong that it is accompanied by vomiting or loss of consciousness);
- malaise, similar to a cold or flu, – temperature, body aches, drowsiness, weakness;
- stomach upsets; nausea;
- toothaches, despite the absence of problems with the teeth;
- jaw pain, usually on the left side;
- depressed or lethargic, unwillingness to do anything;
- shortness of breath, shortness of breath even with low physical stress;
- pains extending to the left arm, leg and neck (also on the left side).
The danger is that such pains are felt for some time, and then pass. So, a man, having calmed down, forgets about them. This is especially true for those who do not suffer from any heart ailments.
If a heart attack has already begun, first of all, you need to urgently call the ambulance. Timely medical care can save a person’s life, since the bill is not for hours, but for minutes. Until the paramedics arrived, the following actions should be taken:
- Lay the man on a bed or sofa and put something soft under his head, however, in case of shortness of breath, it is better to provide a comfortable sitting position by unbuttoning the shirt collar and belt, untying the tie. Feet should be freed from shoes or at least untied the laces. You can not allow a person to stay on his feet.
- Be sure to open the window – access of oxygen will make it easier to breathe.
- Give the patient 2 tablets of Nitroglycerin – one every 15 minutes. You can give half a tablet of Aspirin, but you need to chew it, and not swallow it.
- Calm a man and support him morally if he is in a panic state and feels a strong fear of death.
- Make artificial respiration and try an indirect heart massage if the patient’s condition is critical (there is no heartbeat, loss of consciousness and breathing), and the doctors have not yet arrived.
Myocardial infarction is one of the clinical forms of coronary heart disease, in which necrosis (necrosis) of the heart muscle develops.
About half of the cases of a heart attack end in the death of the patient if resuscitation measures are not taken on time, so it is important to know the first signs of the pathology and the basics of emergency care.
Symptoms in men and women are approximately the same. But there are some differences that you need to pay attention to when diagnosing a disease.
If a person has significant overweight, chronic pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, leads an improper lifestyle, it is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of a pre-infarction condition that may appear several days or hours before an acute attack.
The first signs of a heart attack in men
A couple of decades ago, most of the heart attacks in men were between 53 and 75 years old. Now this figure is significantly “younger”. The likelihood of a heart attack increases several times after reaching the age of forty.
Doctors believe that the main factors provoking a sad trend are:
- arterial hypertension;
- lack of sufficient motor activity;
What is myocardial infarction
Important! Scientists have found that heart attacks are most often diagnosed in men with an aggressive and severe nature, who often raise their voices, break into a cry and cannot control their emotions.
Constant nervous tension is one of the causes of coronary heart disease, so it is very important to keep emotions in check.
If you can’t cope with the problem on your own, it’s better to contact a specialist (in many clinics you can get free help from a psychologist if necessary).
Speaking of age limits, it is necessary to understand that mean values are meant.
Working on a rotational basis, serious physical activity can also undermine the work of the heart muscle and increase the risk of strokes and heart attacks.
Blood pressure is one of the main indicators of the functioning of the heart, so it is important to control it at least once a week.
Hospitals and clinics have special rooms where you can measure pressure without waiting in line. If you don’t want to go to the hospital, you can purchase a blood pressure monitor for home monitoring.
Factors affecting the development of myocardial infarction
In 90% of patients, a heart attack begins with a sharp increase in blood pressure, which can reach 190/110 elderly patients, as well as patients with a lot of excess weight, this figure can be significantly higher – up to 220/110. Such values are critical for the human body, so most heart attacks occur in an acute form and end in the death of a man.
In the following days, the pressure begins to decline and can even drop to normal values, which is very dangerous, since the man takes this for improving his health and thinks that the danger has passed. But on day 3-4, the tonometer readings rise again to the initial mark (or very close to it).
|1 day||Sharp rise to very high marks|
|2-3 day||Gradual decrease with subsequent stabilization of indicators and well-being of the patient|
|4 day||Raising to the original value or higher (to a critical point)|
Important! Pressure surges in any direction – a serious burden on the body of a man. If the patient has chronic cardiovascular pathologies, the heart may not be able to withstand, and death will occur, therefore, for any increase in blood pressure, you need to contact a cardiologist. This is especially true for men who are at risk for developing a heart attack and pre-infarction conditions. You can find out about this from the local cardiologist.
Normal pressure values depending on age
The main sign of a heart attack in men of any age is pain, which is localized behind the sternum. Most often, the pain syndrome is of high intensity and begins suddenly.
Some patients experience severe pain shock and cannot help themselves (unfasten the buttons on the shirt, get pills from the box, etc.).
Important! The appearance of any chest pain is a serious symptom that can indicate many pathologies: from cervical osteochondrosis to myocardial infarction.
You can not drown out the pain with pills, as this will lead to the progression of the underlying disease and poor health. Examination by a cardiologist with the appearance of pain behind the sternum is mandatory for men of any age.
Heart attack pain is usually acute or stitching, pressing, burning, compressing or bursting with radiation to the left arm, neck, lower jaw, left shoulder blade or interscapular space. It lasts more than 20 minutes and is not supervised by taking Nitroglycerin.
At the same time, other symptoms of pathology can be determined in a man, which include:
- cold sweat on the surface of the skin, having a sticky consistency;
- pallor of the skin (in some cases, characteristic cyanosis may appear);
- fear of death;
- increased motor activity;
- increased heart rate followed by a fall to almost zero;
- feeling short of breath;
- nausea and vomiting may occur;
- dizziness, up to loss of consciousness.
The patient’s complaints of severity, discomfort behind the sternum, chest pain of a different location, severity, discomfort or pain in the epigastric region, shortness of breath do not exclude the presence of a heart attack.
Such atypical complaints occur in 30% of cases and are more often presented by women, elderly patients, patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure or dementia.
Therefore, in some cases, it is not possible to provide the patient with the necessary assistance in a timely manner.
Important! With a myocardial infarction, the count can go even not for hours, but for minutes, therefore, if there are signs that may indicate a heart attack, you must immediately call the emergency team. If a person has already suffered a heart attack in the past, you need to act as quickly as possible, so relatives and family members of the patient should know the rules for providing assistance at home (before the arrival of the ambulance).
If you pay attention to your own body and respond to changes in its work, the first signs of a pre-infarction state can be noticed before the onset of the attack.
In fact, it is possible to determine the beginning of a pathology a few days before an exacerbation – it is enough to know what symptoms may be the precursors of a heart attack.
The nature of pain in myocardial infarction
In almost half the cases, 2-3 days before the attack, men have pain in the jaw and teeth, which is localized on the left side.
You can distinguish it from true toothache by the following signs:
- the presence of other possible symptoms of a pre-infarction condition;
- the nature of the pain is acute (real toothache more often has a pulsating and aching character);
- pain does not go away after applying local or systemic analgesics.
Important! If there is pain in the tooth on the left side, an urgent visit to the dentist is necessary to exclude the possibility of inflammatory and carious processes. If the tooth is healthy, and the pain does not go away, this is a direct reason to consult a cardiologist. You can’t drag him to the hospital with a toothache!
Signs of a heart attack depending on the type of development
The underlying cause of myocardial infarction is a significant violation of blood flow in the arterial vessels of the heart, which leads to ischemia (insufficient blood flow) of one of the sections of the heart muscle and provokes the death of myocardial cells. Such a violation of coronary blood flow can develop due to the following diseases and conditions:
- Atherosclerosis of coronary and coronary vessels. It is blockage of these vessels by atherosclerotic plaques that is the most common cause of coronary blood flow disturbance and the development of myocardial infarction.
- Cramping of coronary vessels during smoking, taking drugs and unexplained causes.
- Coronary artery thrombosis or fat embolism.
- Surgical obstruction of the coronary arteries with angioplasty (dissection and ligation of the arteries).
In most cases, the development of myocardial infarction occurs against such diseases as atherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
Fig. 2 – Conditions preceding myocardial infarction.
An important role in the development of this serious disease is played by such risk factors as:
- elevated levels of triglycerides and “bad” cholesterol (LDL) in the blood;
- low levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL) in the blood;
- arterial hypertension more than 140/90 mm RT. st .;
- hereditary predisposition (coronary heart disease, strokes and heart attacks even in one of close relatives: parents, grandfathers, grandparents, brothers or sisters);
- bleeding disorders;
- previous myocardial infarction;
- stressful situations;
- heart injuries;
- neoplasms (tumors and metastases);
- age over 45-50 years;
- previous streptococcal and staphylococcal infectious diseases;
- excessive physical exertion;
- rheumatic heart disease.
The presence of even one of the risk factors described above significantly increases the likelihood of myocardial infarction, and a combination of several predisposing factors increases the likelihood of developing this dangerous disease at times.
|Stage||Duration||Description of symptoms|
|Preinfarction||A few days or weeks.||Very fast and fatigue is felt. Sleep worsens, persistent insomnia occurs. Weakness, irritation and fatigue are observed, which does not go away even after a long sleep and rest. This stage does not occur in all patients.|
|Acute (ischemic)||From 20 minutes to 3-4 hours.||Sharp pain is characteristic, which gives to the shoulder, jaw. Ischemia is observed, and an area of necrosis is also formed.|
|Sharp||From 2 days to 2 weeks.||There is a temperature, a febrile state. Myocardial tissue is melted.|
|Subacute||4 to 8 weeks.||There are breathing problems, but the temperature is normal. Scar tissue is formed.|
|Post-infarction||In the period after the attack.||A post-infarction scar is formed. The myocardium adapts to the emerging structural changes. Relapses are possible.|
Fig. 2 – Conditions preceding myocardial infarction.
Speaking of age limits, it is necessary to understand that mean values are meant. In some regions (for example, in the Far North) there are a large number of heart pathologies in men aged 30-40 years. Work on a rotational basis, serious physical activity can also undermine the work of the heart muscle and increase the risk of strokes and heart attacks.
A heart attack tends to manifest itself in both a typical and atypical form. The exact symptomatology completely depends on the specific form, so each should be considered separately.
This form is known to most people, and it is characterized by familiar signs:
- acute burning behind the sternum, the so-called “tie pain” when cutting at the level of a tie;
- acute lack of air, shortness of breath;
- increase in heart rate to 140 beats per minute;
- pallor of the nasolabial triangle or its blueness;
- severe sweating of hands and feet, throwing in a cold sweat;
- squeezing of the chest, as if something heavy had fallen on the shoulders;
- pain in the area of the shoulder and biceps on the left side;
- numbness and tingling in the limbs, and in this case a spasm of peripheral vessels is possible;
- anxiety, panic, fear of death;
- the heart, as if, freezes and stops;
- possible increase in blood pressure;
- lowering blood pressure in men with diabetes;
- sharp and severe abdominal pains, as well as nausea, heartburn, bloating.
In general, the listed symptoms develop even at rest, paroxysmally for 15 minutes. The pain may subside, and after a second attack occurs.
|Form||Description of symptoms|
|Atypical pain||There is pain in the shoulder or little finger of the left hand, in the neck, cervico-thoracic spine, scapula or lower jaw.|
|Arrhythmic||The heartbeat is broken, and the man is tormented by arrhythmia. Possible atrioventricular blockade. Pain is weak or not at all noticeable. Arrhythmic infarction is rare – in 1-5% of cases.|
|Abdominal||Pain appears in the upper part of the anterior abdominal wall. They may resemble pain in gastritis or stomach ulcers. For a correct diagnosis, instrumental and laboratory research methods are required.|
|Collaptoid||A man does not feel any pain. His blood pressure drops sharply, his head is spinning, a profuse cold sweat is released. In general, the condition is fainting. The development of cardiogenic shock cannot be ruled out.|
|Cerebrovascular||The man has cuts on his arms and legs. Consciousness is darkened, dizzy, speech is disturbed, nausea is possible and vomiting is possible. Fainting may occur. Such a heart attack is observed in the presence of neurological pathologies, therefore, an ECG is required for its diagnosis. The diagnosis is made in 5-10% of cases.|
|Asthmatic||Initially, a man feels shortness of breath, suffocation, lack of oxygen and heart palpitations. The pulse is weak and arrhythmic. The patient may cough, with the release of foamy sputum. Gradually shortness of breath can increase. Pain is absent altogether or weakly expressed. In severe cases, pulmonary edema develops against the background of suffocation. This form is more characteristic of older people and those who have relapses of the disease.|
|Edematous||Pronounced shortness of breath, weakness and a rapid increase in edema are observed until the appearance of ascites.|
|Painless||A man has only uncomfortable sensations in the chest area. A pronounced weakness is felt and sweat is liberated abundantly.|
|Gastralgic||Abdominal pains are felt, especially in the upper part of it. A man is also tormented by a number of unpleasant symptoms: hiccups, belching, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhea. This form is observed in 5% of patients.|
|Malosymptomatic||In this case, a heart attack starts, develops and ends without any signs. As a rule, he is diagnosed with ECG. It occurs in 0,5-20% of cases. It usually affects men with diabetes.|
It is worth noting that the exact symptomatology may also depend on the form of the lesion. If a small part of the heart muscle is affected, then the infarction is small focal and is not expressed as clearly as large focal. The second option is the most life-threatening.
The formation of foci of necrotic tissue in the heart muscle due to poor circulation in it leads to acute myocardial infarction. There are many signs of the development of this pathology in men, among which the heart is more often affected due to vascular pathology.
In women, there are mainly other factors for the development of the disease.
The immediate causes of myocardial infarction in women have been known for a long time and are fairly well understood:
- Coronary artery thrombosis in the area of atherosclerotic plaque (95% of all heart attacks)
- Vascular obstruction after surgical procedures (artery ligation, angioplasty)
- Spasm of the heart arteries on the background of angina pectoris
The causes of heart attack in men are impaired blood flow in the coronary vessels. Cell death occurs as a result of malnutrition of myocardial tissue.
“Doctors hide the truth!”
Even “neglected” vascular and heart diseases can be cured at home. Just remember to drink once a day .
Plaque and blood clots, which enter the ducts and clog them, interfere with the unhindered flow of blood to certain areas.
Differences from symptoms in women
The difference in heart attack symptoms in men and women is explained by different constitutional features and a hormonal background.
The symptoms of the acute phase of the disease in most cases are similar for both sexes, with the exception of only a few male features. But the early signs differ much more.
|Early manifestations in women||Early manifestations in men|
|Heart rhythm disturbance: tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, extrasystole||Symptoms similar to acute viral infection|
|Swelling in the lower extremities||Prolonged pressure increase|
|Frequent and profuse urination||Respiratory distress|
|Prolonged depression||Anxiety, depression|
|Numbness and pain in the left upper limb||Aching and dull chest pains|
At the same time, the first signs of myocardial ischemia in women arise already a month before the acute phase, and in men they can be seen a maximum of a week.
It is characteristic that depressive disorders, mood swings and increased fatigue are 3-4 times more likely to occur in males.
As for the asymptomatic or mute course of this pathology, it happens in both women and men.
How not to confuse with other diseases?
It is widely believed that a heart attack is a sharp unbearable pain in the region of the heart. Of course, this is so, but often the heart attack also disguises itself as other diseases, not so terrible, which the man will simply ignore.
So, you can confuse myocardial infarction with the following diseases:
- Appendicitis, gastric diseases. They are accompanied by such symptoms: nausea, vomiting, bloating, acute abdominal pain. These signs do not resemble a heart attack. Nevertheless, if after taking the medication the pain persists, but intensifies, one does not have to endure. Perhaps this is a pre-infarction condition.
- Bronchial asthma . Cramping in the breath, feeling that “there is nothing to breathe” (not enough air). This condition can hardly be correlated with a heart attack, but asthma can be removed with drugs and breathing techniques such as Strelnikova gymnastics, but the heart attack will not disappear from this.
- Osteochondrosis. He is characterized by pain in the shoulder, under the scapula, extending to the chest area. May be dizziness. However, unlike a heart attack, the pain does not pass to the shoulders and ribs, which is possible with neuralgic attacks.
What is myocardial infarction?
The causes of myocardial infarction are different. The main cause of heart disease is atherosclerosis and the circulatory disturbance that occurs on its basis in coronary vessels. Plaques filling the vessels contribute to the deformation of their walls, which can collapse and cause vasospasm and thrombosis.
Some parts of the heart muscle die as a result of a lack of oxygen. It is believed that a heart attack occurs more often in men. This is probably due to the reason that they have more reasons for the appearance of this disease.
More often, a heart attack occurs in men who have poor heredity, abuse alcohol, and smoke.
People who move a little, are overweight, creating an additional load on the heart muscle, working in an intense mode to supply organs with oxygen. Elderly men are at risk, although in recent years young people from thirty years old have been admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
One of the causes of the disease is an unbalanced diet, the use of fatty, spicy, fried and smoked foods, which leads to an increase in cholesterol, and it, in turn, is deposited on the walls of blood vessels, narrowing them and making blood more difficult to pass through.
Men who have diabetes and have high blood pressure are much more likely to have a heart attack. Important causes of heart attack in men are stressful conditions and psychological stress, because men are predisposed to rivalry, confrontation, disputes and pay less attention to the prevention and treatment of diseases that turn into chronic ones.
To establish the correct diagnosis, the patient undergoes some procedures:
- Electrocardiography, which determines the location of the lesions, their size and the amount of time the course of the disease. An ECG is performed every half hour to establish a more detailed monitoring of the development of the disease.
- Be sure to do a biochemical blood test, which shows the presence of special markers, which are a sign of a heart attack.
- In addition, echocardiography is performed, with the help of which some details of the disease and the presence of angina pectoris and coronary heart disease are clarified.
- If the disease is complicated, then it can lead to congestion in the lungs. It is recognized by radiography.
After establishing the correct diagnosis, the doctor prescribes treatment with medications. Eliminate heart pain, improve blood circulation, have an expanding effect on blood vessels and reduce the load on the heart nitroglycerin, isosorbite, mononitrate.
Pain medications are suitable for the localization of pain. To achieve a quick result, narcotic analgesics are used. All patients are prescribed thrombolytic drugs, which activate blood flow to the heart and breaks down blood clots.
In order for blood clots to dissolve and blood to become thinner, in order to avoid stress on the heart and to normalize biochemical processes, beta-blockers are prescribed: toprol, inderal, which begin to be taken with a minimum dose, gradually increasing to normal. These are acetylsalicylic acid, heparin, warfarin. Reduce cholesterol statins, niacins, fibrates.
After an extensive heart attack in men, both acute and long-term consequences can occur., And acute pain includes:
- Heart failure, when the left side of the heart is damaged by a heart attack. It is poorly reduced through the presence of a scar. As a result, blood stagnates, its release decreases, and internal organs are poorly supplied with blood.
- Pulmonary edema. Then the patient suffocates, coughs, he does not have enough air, shortness of breath appears.
- Arrhythmia that occurs in the left ventricle of the heart.
- Thrombosis. Blood clots spread throughout the body to the brain.
- Heart rupture occurs as a result of a large blood pressure on a heart muscle damaged by a heart attack.
Long-term effects have a lesser effect on the patient’s body, these are:
- cardiosclerosis, which appears due to poor circulation;
- left ventricular failure, which is manifested by cardiac asthma and circulatory disorders;
- atrioventricular arrhythmia or sinoatrial block;
- pericarditis – inflammation of the serous membrane of the heart;
- heart aneurysm;
- post-infarction syndrome;
- neurotrophic changes in the myocardium.
All these consequences do not pass without a trace, and over time, the process of the resumption of blood clots can begin, the work of the heart worsens and the risk of heart rupture increases. The consequences of the disease can negatively affect the nervous system. In men, there are cases of aggressive behavior, they often become depressed.
In such cases, you need to visit a psychologist so that they can be optimistic about the future. The recovery period can last several months, and can last several years.
A heart attack can be prevented. Patients who have had this disease need to change their attitude to life, forget about bad habits, and forever give up smoking and alcohol. Protect the nervous system from stress, depression.
It will not be superfluous to engage in feasible sports, guided by the recommendations of a cardiologist. You can not overload yourself with physical work, it is imperative to alternate it with rest. Sanatorium-resort rest and treatment are shown. Proper nutrition is also not the last thing to prevent the disease and helps a speedy recovery.
It is necessary to abandon fats, except for plant origin. It is allowed to eat steam or boiled white poultry, sea fish. Salt should be used in limited quantities. Fresh vegetables and fruits are very healthy and rich in vitamins. It is forbidden to eat salted, spicy, smoked, fried foods. Do not consume alcohol, coffee, or caffeinated products.
Men who have experienced acute myocardial infarction must not forget that a second attack may occur, which will further worsen health and can lead to death, therefore, you need to be careful about restoring your health and leading a good lifestyle.
In order not to complicate your own health in the future and not to develop chronic heart disease, you need to contact a cardiologist if the main symptoms of the disease appear. If a person is at risk, then he needs an annual medical examination.
These are the following categories of people:
- patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus of any form;
- having close relatives endowed with pathologies of the heart and blood vessels;
- suffering from hypertension of 3 degrees.
If the first manifestation of a heart attack does not provide the patient with urgent medical attention, then this condition is likely to lead to the development of stroke and coronary heart disease, which are considered hazardous to health. The “rejuvenation” of this disease is negatively affected by inattention to one’s own health, frequent smoking and alcohol abuse, as well as smoked, fatty and spicy foods included in the diet.
As mentioned above, one of the causes of heart problems is a neglect of your health. If you do not take measures to treat some diseases at an early stage, they can go into a chronic form and provoke the development of a heart attack.
Such diseases include:
- improper or impaired metabolism leading to obesity;
- coagulation dysfunction;
- high cholesterol;
- lack of exercise.
The more of the above reasons the patient will have, the higher his risk of developing myocardial infarction.
Causes of myocardial infarction in men:
- Atherosclerosis Burdened heredity matters. Cholesterol plaques are deposited on the vascular walls, narrowing their lumen. The heart muscle feels a deficiency of oxygen, which manifests itself in the form of acute heart pain – angina pectoris. These pains cannot be tolerated: if they last for a very long time, the part of the myocardium, which is deficient in oxygen, begins to die. Nitroglycerin is used to relieve pain.
- What else causes a heart attack in men? Against the background of stable high blood pressure – blood pressure, increased blood viscosity and the formation of a blood clot, clogging the lumen of the vessel supplying the myocardium.
- Long spasm of the coronary arteries against prolonged stress or heavy loads.
- Squeezing the supply vessel during surgery or manipulation.
The mechanism of development of the pathological process is associated with the stratification of cholesterol plaque, accompanied by bleeding. If bleeding is localized inside the plaque and organizes into a blood clot, then this does not always cause necrosis, but worsens the course of IHD.
A much more serious disease occurs if a blood clot forms in the lumen of the vessel and completely blocks it. This usually happens under the influence of some external or internal factors: stress, a sharp increase in blood pressure, etc. With such a thrombus, MI is guaranteed to develop.
This condition is especially dangerous in old age, because then the lumen of the vessels is very vulnerable and can burst or form a blood clot.
Let us consider in more detail the first symptoms of myocardial infarction in men and methods of treating this dangerous disease.
The mechanism of myocardial infarction starts the cholesterol plaque, which clogs the vessel, forming a blood clot and a violation of blood supply.
This can be caused by high blood pressure, strong physical exertion on the body or emotional overstrain, which led to a sharp increase in heart rate.
Despite this, a heart attack in men can also develop into a state of rest – in the morning or even in a dream.
1. Excess weight, due to which an additional burden is placed on the heart.
2. Not an active lifestyle.
5. Frequent drinking and smoking, which leads to vasospasm.
6. Arterial hypertension (sudden surges in pressure).
Lifestyle after a cardiovascular disaster
Life after a heart attack in men must obey certain rules. After suffering an MI, the patient should be engaged in the restoration of motor activity for a long time:
- the first day he should lie motionless on his back;
- if there are no complications, on the 2nd day it is allowed to turn over on its side;
- if there are no pains and shortness of breath, begin physical therapy (exercise therapy);
- the sitting position is taken on 5-18 days;
- Exercise therapy daily;
- the patient takes an upright position on 11–25 days;
- gradual increase in exercise therapy loads under the supervision of an instructor;
- begins to walk independently after 14-30 days;
- Exercise therapy is carried out in different positions;
- walk on stairs is allowed from 4-6 weeks;
- Exercise therapy with increasing loads throughout the rehabilitation.
Movement helps restore cardiac function and prevent the development of complications.
Proper nutrition is also important. 1-2 days of the acute period, you should use semi-liquid mashed food prepared from high-calorie foods.
Then the diet is expanded: boiled and stewed dishes are not rubbed, gradually boiled vegetables and fruits (especially bananas, dried apricots, raisins – a source of potassium), cottage cheese, dairy products (a source of calcium needed to reduce myocardium) are gradually introduced. Fried, smoked dishes are not recommended. Do not eat fatty, salty and spicy foods.
Sometimes acute oxygen deficiency and myocardial necrosis develops against a background of diseases and defects that are not associated with atherosclerosis:
- Coronaritis (autoimmune, infectious, rheumatic vascular inflammation).
- Congenital defects in the development of coronary arteries (narrowing).
- Organic (irreversible) damage to the vascular wall against the background of metabolic disorders (calcification, amyloidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis).
Mechanical injuries, severe shock and chest damage can cause myocardial infarction:
- with crushing, damage or concomitant deformations of large coronary arteries;
- with a direct effect on any part of the heart (mechanical damage to blood vessels, disruption of work, blood supply, post-traumatic necrosis of myocardial tissue).
Sometimes the same consequences cause postoperative complications (blocking the lumen of blood vessels by a thrombus after angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting, installation of pacemakers).
A dull chest injury can trigger myocardial infarction
What to do if there are signs of a heart attack
The main cause of heart attack in men is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in the body. With this disease, atherosclerotic plaques form in the blood vessels, narrowing their lumen. At any time from the plaque, a blood clot can break off, which will finally block the lumen of the artery and disrupt the flow of blood to the tissues of the heart muscle.
There are several other potentially dangerous causes of the attack:
- coronary spasm (it can occur against the background of stress, mental trauma);
- chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- kidney disease;
- arterial hypertension;
- elevated cholesterol.
For any signs that indicate a possible impending heart attack, you should immediately call an ambulance team. Prior to her arrival, the patient is given first aid. The patient must be laid on a hard surface, to ensure access to fresh air. If the doctor has recommendations, the patient should be given medications, for example, Nitroglycerin.
Fast (no later than 12 hours from the onset of the first symptoms) medical assistance to a patient with a heart attack reduces the risk of adverse effects.
A disease can be recognized with absolute certainty only in a hospital, the diagnosis is confirmed on the basis of electrocardiography. For clarification, echocardiography and a biochemical blood test may be needed.
The consequences of a heart attack in men are different. It all depends on the volume of the focus of necrosis and the timeliness of the treatment started.
Intensive therapy, begun in the first 6 hours after the onset of the most acute period, will save lives, give a chance for a full restoration of health.
Effectively treatment in the first 12 hours. Rehabilitation will take from 4 months to six months, depending on the severity of the transferred process.
The prognosis of the disease is not always favorable. Extensive necrosis is often complicated by chronic cardiovascular failure. Severe arrhythmias often develop. If it is not possible to fully restore health, the patient is diagnosed with disability.
They provide pre-medical care (it is provided by relatives or the patient himself), primary medical care (provided by an emergency doctor) and specialized (provided by a cardiologist and resuscitator in the hospital) help.
According to statistics, most people die in the first hour of the most acute period. Therefore, when the initial signs of a heart attack in men appear, first aid is needed immediately. This is first aid, its algorithm includes timely emergency call and limiting the impact of traumatic factors. Relatives of patients with coronary heart disease should clearly understand how to help a loved one.
Primary medical care should be provided in the first 6 to 12 hours after the onset of the acute process:
- the introduction of painkillers – this will prevent the development of a serious complication – pain shock;
- the introduction of drugs that support the work of the heart: cardiac glycosides (under their influence the myocardium contract less often and with greater force) diuretics (remove excess fluid) potassium (helps myocardium contract);
- if there is arrhythmia, antiarrhythmic drugs are introduced;
- the patient is hospitalized as quickly as possible.
Specialized care is provided by a cardiologist or resuscitator in a hospital – this is a continuation of treatment initiated by an ambulance aimed at eliminating the main syndromes of MI and preventing complications.
Sometimes the patient receives surgical help: the lumen of the vessel is expanded using various mechanical devices or anastomosis is established – a new vessel is brought to the affected area of the myocardium, carrying blood from the aorta.
Most of the deaths with myocardial infarction occur during the first day. When 50% of the heart muscle is damaged, the heart can no longer fully function and the patient develops cardiogenic shock and a fatal outcome occurs. In some cases, and with less extensive myocardial lesions, the heart cannot cope with the stresses that arise and the patient develops acute heart failure, which can cause death. Also, an unfavorable prognosis of the outcome of the disease can be observed with a complicated course of myocardial infarction.
The severity of the clinical picture in the first days after a heart attack is determined by the vastness of the zone of myocardial damage, the reactivity of the nervous system and the initial state of the heart muscle. The most dangerous and prognostically severe are the first 3 days of the disease, and it is during this period that maximum attention is required from the doctor and medical personnel.
In the early days, the patient may develop such severe complications:
- pulmonary edema;
- paroxysmal, atrial or signs of sinus tachycardia;
- ventricular fibrillation;
- pulmonary embolism;
- intracardiac thrombosis;
- thromboembolism of blood vessels of the brain, kidneys, etc .;
- heart tamponade;
- cardiogenic shock;
- acute aneurysm of the heart;
- extensive pericarditis.
The next 2 weeks after a heart attack are quite dangerous. After the expiration of the acute period, the prognosis for the patient’s recovery becomes more favorable.
According to statistics, before the hospitalization of a patient, a fatal outcome during the first hour with myocardial infarction is observed in about 30% of cases. Death in a hospital within 28 days occurs in 13-28% of patients, and death in the first year after a heart attack occurs in 4-10% (in patients over 65 years of age – 35%) cases.
Cardiologist Petrova Yu.
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Not so long ago, almost all people who suffered a heart attack became disabled for the rest of their lives. Today’s forecasts are comforting. 80% of those who have had a heart attack after 4-6 months can go to work and have a normal life.
Life after myocardial infarction requires a person to make big changes. After the illness, not all work is allowed. You will have to limit physical activity, change the diet, constantly monitor your condition, adhere to all the healing measures that your doctor will prescribe, and limit yourself in activity.
Life expectancy after a heart attack will depend on whether you can observe the following rules in your lifestyle:
- It will be necessary to abandon large physical exertion, as they will make the heart system work intensively, which, due to a lack of oxygen, can provoke the development of dangerous complications.
- Accordingly, for the same reason, sports loads are prohibited. At the same time, moderate walking, therapeutic physical exercises, on the contrary, are recommended, since in small doses this will prevent the development of heart failure and the formation of blood clots. According to the doctor’s prescription and under his control, their intensity is gradually increased.
- If a person has suffered a myocardial infarction, then its consequences can be minimized as follows: after it, try to exclude various shocks from your life, tension in the emotional and mental plan, since all this leads to an increase in heartbeat, more oxygen is required, and cramps can occur.
- If a person has suffered myocardial infarction, the prognosis after him will be positive if he changes his diet, which he led before the disease. It is important to abandon fatty and fried foods, hunger strikes and diets that debilitate the body are contraindicated. You need to include vegetables, fruits, dietary meat, greens in your diet. Nutrition must be rational and proper.
- In order to minimize the consequences of a heart attack in men, they need to abandon bad habits. Smoking and drinking alcohol is strictly prohibited.
- You can not dramatically change the climate.
- You can not interrupt treatment, it is necessary to strictly follow preventive measures, otherwise the consequences can be deplorable, this leads to the development of various life-threatening complications. Medicines prescribed by a doctor should be taken exactly at the dosage that is prescribed.
How does a heart muscle heart attack manifest itself?
|Cerebrovascular||Symptoms of damage from the brain are observed. A person may feel dizzy, confused, at the very least, fainting. There are no pain, neuralgic signs are traced.||It occurs in patients in 1-1,5% of clinical cases.|
|Painless type of myocardial infarction||May occur with relapse of cardiac muscle necrosis. This form is expressed in insufficiency of the right ventricle.||It is found in 3-4% of patients.|
|Arrhythmic||Diagnosis of this type of heart attack is complicated by the fact that the pathology disguises as arrhythmia. The patient may exhibit atrial fibrillation, ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia, intraventricular or atrioventricular blockade of varying degrees.||It is detected in people in 1-6% of examinations.|
|Asthmatic||This type of heart attack is most susceptible to people of old age, against the background of a strong pathological change in the myocardium. Often accompanied by swelling of the respiratory tract, which makes itself felt lack of oxygen, suffocation. Such an attack occurs as a cardiac asthma.||It appears in 6-12% of patients.|
|Gastralgic||Alarming symptoms appear from the gastric tract. The patient may experience vomiting, nausea, hiccups, upset stools, and other symptoms.||It is observed in approximately 6% of patients.|
|Weakly Symptomatic||The most dangerous form of cardiac pathology, due to the fact that it can only be detected by chance as a result of an ECG. It is completely asymptomatic or a person may feel periodic unpleasant sensations from the heart, as well as general malaise. But since the symptoms quickly disappear, no one relates them to the likelihood of developing myocardial infarction.||It occurs among patients in percentage terms from 0,5 to 17%.|
A heart muscle infarction makes itself felt long before a fatal attack. With careful attention to his health, a person can control the development of a heart attack. Heart pathology associated with myocardial ischemia does not occur in one day. This disease is the result of many years of improper lifestyle or neglect of health problems.
In order not to cause the development of a pre-infarction state, at the first alarm signals it is necessary to consult a cardiologist. If a person notices pain in the heart with minor physical exertion, shortness of breath and the inability to breathe fully, this eloquently indicates that a pre-infarction can begin.
The first signs of a heart attack in men:
- Compression, feeling of fullness, pain in the area of the heart.
- Pain in the left side of the body.
- Shortness of breath, lack of oxygen, inability to take a deep breath.
- Feeling very tired, weak, cold sweat.
- From the gastrointestinal tract, a feeling of nausea or pain.
- Decline in blood pressure.
- Heart rhythm disturbances, arrhythmia.
The main symptoms of a heart attack in a man:
- Suddenly, severe, intolerable pains in the chest area begin.
- Unpleasant sensations in the chest are oppressive and constricting.
- Pain extends to the left side of the body (neck, shoulder, arm, jaw).
- Panic fear of death begins.
- A heart attack in men can be accompanied by vivid anxiety, throwing from side to side.
- The heart rate is greatly increased or, conversely, is weakening.
- Cold, clammy perspiration appears on the face and body.
- The skin turns pale and acquire an earthy-grayish tint.
- Consciousness becomes cloudy, a strong weakness is felt.
Signs of myocardial infarction in men, starting suddenly, will always be associated with pain in the heart region of a pressing nature and lack of air. As soon as a person notices the symptoms of myocardial infarction, especially if he is in old age, suffers from cardiac pathologies or bad habits. In this case, immediately call an ambulance crew.
There is very little time for resuscitation during a heart attack, since in addition to examining the patient and making a diagnosis, the ambulance still needs to spend time on arrival.
How to prevent?
At risk are men whose close relatives suffer from angina pectoris. To avoid a cardiovascular accident, it is recommended:
- move more; engage in feasible sports;
- follow a diet: eat more fish (including marine, oily), seafood, cottage cheese, kefir, cereals, vegetable dishes, fruits;
- exclude fatty meat, fried foods, as well as all spicy, smoked and salty from the diet;
- monitor weight: overweight increases the risk of developing MI;
- get rid of smoking (contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis);
- regularly determine the amount of cholesterol in the blood: with an increase in indicators, carry out the therapy prescribed by the doctor with statins and other drugs;
- avoid prolonged stress, heavy loads;
- monitor your blood pressure and take antihypertensive drugs prescribed by your doctor.
In women of childbearing age, myocardial infarction develops very rarely, since estrogens, sex hormones that support the vital activity of the whole body, prevent this. They prevent the development of disorders of cholesterol metabolism and spasms of blood vessels. After the onset of menopause, estrogen secretion decreases, and the incidence of MI gradually increases. Older women and men are equally affected.
Symptoms of MI in women also have their own characteristics. They are less pronounced, which is why the diagnosis sometimes causes difficulties. So, pain often has uncharacteristic localization in the back of the head. Sometimes cerebral symptoms predominate, since cerebrovascular accident occurs simultaneously.
Microinfarction is characterized by weakness, irritability, decreased performance and increased anxiety.
Signs of a pre-infarction condition
An extensive heart attack may not have such terrible consequences if one recognizes its approach even at the stage of a pre-infarction state. The following symptoms are characteristic of this period:
- There are pains behind the sternum, which can have different intensities and are stopped by taking Nitroglycerin.
- Increased sweating.
- Violation of the heart rate.
- With any physical exertion, the pain only intensifies.
- If an electrocardiogram is made during this period, then it will show disturbances in the blood supply to the heart muscle.
If you pay attention to such symptoms in time, then you can prevent an extensive heart attack (consequences). The chances of survival (rehabilitation will not be long) will be high.
The main method of researching the disease is electrocardiography. Using an ECG, you can determine where necrotic lesions are located, evaluate their volumes, and determine how long the process takes. To get a more complete picture, an ECG is performed every 30 minutes. After checking the indicators, an accurate diagnosis is established and treatment is prescribed.
Be sure to conduct a biochemical blood test. The appearance of special markers in it is a sign of a deadly organ damage.
An auxiliary research method is echocardiography, which helps to clarify some details. With the help of this study, cardiac ischemia, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction are detected.
A complicated form of the disease leads to the appearance of stagnation in the lungs, which is diagnosed by x-ray.
The very first thing that emergency doctors suspect necrosis of the heart muscle is doing is an electrocardiogram, as well as a general blood test and an analysis for the presence of heart attack markers.
Female heart attacks often occur with atypical symptoms, so an ECG should be done, even if there are no pronounced pain and other signs of the disease.
An ECG records the electrical activity of the heart with high accuracy, this helps to determine the location and extent of myocardial damage. In addition, MRI, ECHO KG, ECG monitoring, doppler and duplex scanning of blood vessels are prescribed.
To avoid complications and death in cases of suspected myocardial infarction, a person should properly provide first aid. The patient needs fresh air, it is also important to raise his head, give a tablet of Nitroglycerin, Aspirin, Baralgin and 40 drops of Corvalol.
If necessary, conduct an indirect heart massage. Further treatment is carried out in the intensive care unit in a heart attack unit.
- relief of pain;
- prevention of complications;
- restoration of coronary blood flow;
- limiting the spread of necrosis.
Mandatory bed rest and complete rest for 3-4 days in the acute period of the disease, the use of narcotic analgesics and oxygen inhalations. Conducting thrombolytic treatment and lowering cholesterol concentration improve blood composition.
Nitroglycerin and beta-blockers regulate the work of the heart.
Inpatient treatment lasts 3-4 weeks, followed by outpatient rehabilitation with nutrition correction and an active lifestyle.
Modern medicine has high-tech examination methods that facilitate the diagnosis of the disease. This helps cardiologists accurately determine the condition of the myocardium, makes it possible to prescribe effective treatment.
The cause of the manifestation of hypertension and high blood pressure are constant nervous overstrain, prolonged and deep experiences, repeated shocks, weakened immunity, heredity, night work, exposure to noise and even a lot of salt!
Emergency care for myocardial infarction should begin immediately, since only timely measures can save the patient’s life and contribute to a more favorable prognosis of the outcome of this dangerous ailment.
- Myocardial infarction is a predominantly male disease with a hereditary predisposition.
- Signs of a heart attack are severe pains of variable localization, shortness of breath, heart rhythm disturbance, fear of death.
- The highest risk of morbidity is in men whose close relatives suffer from angina pectoris or suffered a heart attack.
- To reduce the risk of morbidity, you need to know about the problem and adhere to rules specially designed for people who are predisposed from an early age.
What can cause a heart attack in men
But due to the deterioration of the ecological environment, the fast pace of life and other negative factors, cases of pathology in young men who have not reached even 30 years have become more frequent.
In this regard, it is necessary to know the signs of myocardial infarction in men in order to understand the severity of the situation and get medical attention on time.
A heart attack is the death of the heart muscle (myocardium). If blood from clogged vessels stops flowing to it, and blood flow does not resume in the next 15 minutes, the main muscle of the heart dies.
Heart attack, signs on the heart
The main cause of dangerous pathology is vascular obstruction.
It is enough for a blood clot or blood clot to get stuck in some part of the artery, as the circulation of blood through the heart stops.
Because of this, about 95% of cases of heart rupture occur. However, there are many other factors provoking an attack:
- heredity and impaired development of arteries;
- exorbitant physical activity in men or, conversely, a sedentary lifestyle;
- smoking, alcohol and drug use;
- stress and nervous tension;
- overweight in men;
- complications due to heart surgery;
- injury by mechanical shock or electricity.
Recently, myocardial infarction is increasingly recorded in young people. If earlier signs of a heart attack were usually diagnosed in men over 60 years of age, then in recent decades, the disease has been increasingly recorded in men after 30 years of age. According to statistics, men in the age group of 40-60 are most vulnerable to heart attack.
After 40 years and up to 60, the likelihood of a heart attack increases, then it begins to decline, and at 70 years old, heart attacks are diagnosed much less frequently. The reason is that with frequent attacks of angina pectoris collateral vessels are formed, which are activated in case of circulatory disorders in the central arteries. In men older than 50 years, the incidence of heart attack is the same as in women in this age group.
The most common causes of heart attack in men include atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels. Often, the pathological process develops in the presence of a genetic predisposition, kidney disease (with damage to the renal glomeruli), arterial hypertension, endocrine disorders.
A passive lifestyle, chronic stress, an unbalanced diet, alcohol abuse, overweight, and elevated blood cholesterol contribute to a heart attack. One of the main risk factors for myocardial infarction is smoking, which leads to microtrauma of lung tissue, subsequent thrombosis and obstruction of the coronary arteries. The risk of developing myocardial infarction increases in the spring-autumn period.
- spontaneous attacks of pain in the region of the heart, lasting more than 15 minutes and occurring both against the background of physical activity, and at rest;
- the appearance of heart palpitations, asthma attacks and perspiration;
- an increase in the number of attacks of coronary pain throughout the day;
- decrease in effect when taking nitroglycerin or the need for an additional dose to eliminate pain;
- unstable signs of myocardial ischemia on the ECG arising from attacks of pain or within 2-3 days: inversion of T waves, depression and short-term ST segment elevation.
With the cessation of blood flow, cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) die and myocardial infarction occurs.
Initially, the necrosis zone captures the upper layer of the myocardium. Then it begins to spread to the deeper layers of the heart muscle, heading to the outer lining of the heart – the epicardium. During the first hour of ischemia in a number of cardiomyocytes, the changes become irreversible. In the next 4 hours, the heart attack zone spreads to 60% of the thickness of the affected area of the heart muscle, and over the next 20 hours, the lesion covers the remaining 40% of the myocardium.
With the timely start of treatment, the necrosis zone does not increase and by 7-10 days a young granulation tissue appears on the affected area of the myocardium, which gradually begins to be replaced by connective tissue. As a result, after 2-4 months, a scar appears on the myocardium, which does not resolve and remains throughout life.
Depending on the scale of the zone of damage to the heart muscle, there are:
- large-focal heart attacks – the area of necrosis of the heart muscle extends to the entire thickness of the myocardium;
- small focal heart attacks – the area of cardiac muscle necrosis does not affect the entire thickness of the myocardium.
How many live
The prognosis for myocardial infarction is almost always unfavorable, which is associated with the development of dangerous complications. The most critical are the first day after an attack of acute ischemia. During this period, the most fatal cases are observed. People live less after a heart attack. If you eat right, seek help in time and take medicine, you can live several tens of years.
The number of people who have suffered myocardial infarction is more than 2 million. For this part of the population, the prognosis is disappointing. In a hospital, mortality is about 35%. If a person has lived a month since the start of the attack, then in the future the probability that he will live for at least a year is about 80%. Five-year survival (life expectancy) after myocardial infarction is 70%.
Some people after a heart attack live 10 years or more, but in this case, the risk of relapse is high. The number of such patients does not exceed 50%. Only 20% of people who have had a heart attack live 25 years or more.
With a heart attack, the prognosis largely depends on:
- from the age of the person;
- causes of a heart attack;
- concomitant pathology (arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis);
- timeliness and completeness of medical care.
If help is provided in the first hours and minutes from the onset of an ischemic attack, then the risk of complications is lower, thereby five-year survival is higher. Such a person lives for a long time. With myocardial infarction, the prognosis for life worsens if there have already been attacks of acute ischemia.
Myocardial infarction often leads to disability or even death. After intensive treatment, a period of rehabilitation begins. It is important for the normal restoration of the function of the cardiovascular system and the adaptation of a person to life after a heart attack. Rehabilitation consists in physiotherapy exercises, proper nutrition, and rejection of bad habits.
After a heart attack, it is very important to reconsider your lifestyle. This affects not only the course of the rehabilitation period. The introduction of new good habits and the rejection of harmful ones helps prevent the development of subsequent heart attacks. According to statistics, the risk of death with each subsequent heart attack increases several times.
Как же должна измениться жизнь после инфаркта? Придерживайтесь следующих правил:
- Откажитесь от вредных привычек. Особенно это касается курения и употребления алкоголя.
- Ограничьте прием кофеина. Употребляйте не больше 2 чашек кофе в день. Можно перейти на кофе без кофеина, заменить напиток более полезным (например, цикорием).
- Больше ходите пешком. Ходьба позволяет укрепить сердце и сосуды.
- Спите не меньше 7-8 часов.
- Откажитесь от ненормарованного рабочего дня. Отдых должен быть полноценным.
- Занимайтесь физическими нагрузками хотя бы 30 минут в день. Не обязательно выбирать бег или атлетику. Подбирайте вид спорта с учетом индивидуальных особенностей. Можно заниматься йогой, пешим туризмом, плаванием, танцами.
Еще одно обязательное условие реабилитационного периода – лечение сопутствующих заболеваний. Особенно это касается артериальной гипертензии и тромбоза. Может понадобится пожизненный прием некоторых лекарств. Например, препаратов с антигипертензивным действием, Аспирина, нитратов. Схема приема медикаментозных средств должна назначаться лечащим врачом в индивидуальном порядке.
Правильное питание – еще одно условие реабилитационного периода. Диета после перенесенной болезни должна соответствовать следующим принципам:
- Содержать минимальное количество соли.
- Исключать употребление жирных сортов мяса. Разрешается есть птицу, говядину, телятину. От употребления свинины лучше отказаться.
- В рационе должна присутствовать рыба. Это источник Омега-3 и Омега-6 жирных кислот.
- Содержать достаточное количество полезных жиров. Они имеются в растительных маслах, семечках, орехах.
- Суточный рацион должен покрывать потребность в витаминах и минералах. Особенно это касается калия и магния, которые благоприятно влияют на работу сердца. Микроэлементы содержатся в картофеле, бананах.
Пищу лучше употреблять в небольших количествах, но часто. Подходит дробное питание 5-6 раз в сутки (3 основных приема пищи и несколько перекусов).