Supraventricular tachycardia causes and treatment

Symptoms of supraventricular tachycardia are as follows:

  • a sharply arising significant increase in heart rate to 150 −200 −250 beats per minute;
  • dizziness, blurred consciousness, up to a swoon;
  • squeezing or pain in the chest, may be in the neck;
  • shortness of breath, lack of air, difficulty swallowing;
  • anxiety, fear.

In each case, the manifestations of tachycardia may have individual characteristics depending on the presence of organic heart diseases, the state of the myocardium, the degree of circulatory disorders, and also on the duration of the attack. The more often the heart beats during paroxysm, the brighter the clinical manifestations of the disease.

An attack of supraventricular tachycardia can last from several hours to a day. With frequent and prolonged seizures, a person is at high risk of developing cardiovascular failure, the initial manifestations of which are visible to the eye: shortness of breath, especially on inhalation, blueness of the nasolabial triangle and nails, swelling.

For supraventricular tachycardia, a characteristic sign may be low blood pressure. Hypotonics have very good chances for developing this type of arrhythmia. Increased heart rate is a compensation to the body in conditions of oxygen starvation due to poor blood supply at low pressure in the vessels.

The supraventricular tachycardia of the ICD 10 class develops with an increase in contractions of the heart muscle from 100 beats / min. The impulse begins to spread from top to bottom (figure below). This happens because of the pathology in the circulation of impulses – development above the level of the ventricle of the heart organ. In addition, various ventricular tissue damage can be the cause.

The duration of the attack varies from 24 hours to several days and can pass without the use of drugs. This disease is young, i.e. risk group – children and people of working age.

Atrial tachycardia manifests itself in the form of the following symptoms:

  • heart palpitations suddenly beginning and also ending;
  • discomfort in the sternum;
  • nausea;
  • weakness in the body;
  • feelings of anxiety and panic;
  • dyspnea;
  • dizziness, fainting;
  • difficulty urinating.

These symptoms also occur along with other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is difficult to establish a diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia class 10 independently. If the above symptoms are found, you should visit the cardiologist’s office for examination and diagnosis. The ECG, by far, is the most informational type of examination. Only by the results of the tests will the doctor be able to refute or confirm the diagnosis.

Varieties of the disease

Specialists divide supraventricular tachycardia into:

  • nodular atrioventricular disorder;
  • arrhythmia caused by WPW syndrome;
  • atrial flutter;
  • atrial.

Arrhythmias of this type are diseases that occupy a borderline state between the maximum permissible deviations from normal indicators of the heart rhythm to critical (can lead to death).

According to the observations of doctors, tachycardia of this type in most cases proceeds favorably for patients.

Features of the state, form

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia – specialists determine the condition of the patient in which there is a sharp and unexpected contraction of the heart muscle (up to 300 beats per minute), occurring in the upper sections.

Paroxysm of supraventricular tachycardia appears for two main reasons:

  • The first theory claims that the attack occurs due to the increased production of electrical impulses by the cells of the ectopic focus. This leads to suppression of the activity of the sinus node;
  • According to the second theory, the mechanism of development of tachycardia is the re-entry of excitation waves (re-entry). In this case, a vicious circle is formed, where an electrical impulse passes, causing frequent and rapid myocardial contractions.

In the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, conservative and surgical methods are used.

The therapeutic procedure for the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia contains the following measures:

  • taking medication antiarrhythmic drugs prescribed by a cardiologist;
  • relieving seizures by intravenous administration of antiarrhythmic drugs or by means of electrical pulse stimulation of the heart.

The patient is selected the dosage and the drug itself, taking into account the degree of development of the disease, the effectiveness of the drug, the presence of side effects. All this is done on the basis of the general condition of the patient, the presence of chronic diseases, etc.

Amiodarone is used in cases of low effectiveness of previously used drugs with the obligatory consideration of side effects. In the treatment, along with antiarrhythmic drugs, glycosides are used.

In cases where conservative methods of treatment of attacks of supraventricular tachycardia do not bring the proper result, surgical methods are used.

Surgery is used if the patient has the following conditions:

  • attacks occur more often, and their severity increases;
  • the impossibility of drug therapy for the patient (for example, young age);
  • arrhythmia does not stop when taking special medications.

In surgical intervention, a radiofrequency ablation technique is used. According to this method of treatment, an electrode is inserted into a patient inside a vein. A high-frequency pulse is applied to the electrode, which also affects the focus of pathological tissue changes. Each focus of the pathology is treated separately.

In addition to the high cost of surgery, there are side effects. Among them is the imbalance in the functioning of the atria and ventricles. Here you can not do without implanting a pacemaker to the patient.

Supraventricular or supraventricular tachycardia is a less dangerous form of arrhythmia than ventricular. It rarely leads to sudden cardiac arrest, but there is still a risk.

The disorder is more common in women than in men. The development of the problem is more susceptible to people aged 60 years. But there are cases of pathology in the young. Most often this is due to congenital disorders in the development of the cardiovascular system.

With this problem, the excitation of individual muscle cells in the organ occurs at different times and the heartbeat becomes more frequent. The pulse can reach 120 beats per minute. Atria and ventricles in this case are not contracted correctly.

There are several mechanisms for the development of the disease:

  1. The generation of pulses in the sinus node is accelerated. If the generation in the sinoatrial node occurs with a frequency of 90 beats or more, then the heart will contract correctly, but at an accelerated pace. This is how sinus tachycardia develops. Heart rate in this case reaches 120 beats per minute.
  2. The functioning of the sinus node is inhibited or completely stopped. This is accompanied by activation of atypical cells, which play the role of a pulse generator. Such cells are called ectopic, in a healthy heart they are inactive. They produce too many pulses, causing the body to contract faster. Cells produce an atrial rhythm, which is why this type of tachycardia is called atrial.
  3. The work of the atrioventricular connection is disrupted. Accelerated pulse generation for this reason is rarely observed, but it can still be.

According to the frequency of occurrence of attacks, there are:

  1. Paroxysmal tachycardia. In this case, attacks occur unexpectedly and quickly stop. The heart in this case can beat with a frequency of 140 to 250 beats per minute. With paroxysm lasting more than 30 seconds, they speak of stable tachycardia. With a shorter duration of the attack, it will be unstable.
  2. Chronic The patient does not notice at what exact moment the heart began to beat faster. Also, there is no clear end to the attack. Sometimes a person is in this state for several years. Tachycardia can be interrupted by episodes of a normal rhythm.

Even if the attack was interrupted by a stable heartbeat, this does not mean that there is no need for treatment. Tachycardia can take on a chronic form.

A sharp increase in heart rate while maintaining rhythm is called paroxysmal tachycardia. It is ventricular or supraventricular.

If the focus of pathological impulses is located in the sinoatrial, atrioventricular node or atrial tissues, then a paroxysmal supraventricular (supraventricular) tachycardia (PNT) is diagnosed.

The supraventricular form of the disease occurs when an impulse occurs at the level of atrial tissue. The heart rate increases to 140-250 per min.

Such tachycardia develops in 2 scenarios:

  • A normal source of impulses ceases to control heart contractions. They occur under the influence of abnormal foci that are above the level of the ventricles of the heart.
  • The impulse circulates in a circle. Because of this, an increased heart rate persists. This condition is called a “re-breath” of arousal. It develops if bypass pulses appear at the excitation pulse.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia are potential life-threatening conditions. But the prognosis for their occurrence is more favorable than for the development of intense ventricular contractions. They rarely indicate left ventricular dysfunction and organic heart disease.

Attacks last from several hours to several days, can stop without treatment. Persistent paroxysmal tachycardia is rare.

In women, the supraventricular form is diagnosed 2 times more often than in men. People who have crossed the 65-year milestone are 5 times more likely to develop it. But it is not found too often: its prevalence does not exceed 0,23%.

Atrial tachycardia is found in 15-20%, and atrioventricular in 80-85%. Attacks develop at any time.

Many are diagnosed with this disease in childhood. But it can also develop as a complication after cardiological diseases. Paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmias is considered an intermediate link between fatal and benign heart rhythm problems.

Attacks of paroxysm begin and end suddenly. The rest of the time, patients do not complain about the rhythm, it is normal, fluctuations in the frequency of contractions are not significant.

During an attack, the frequency of atrial contractions becomes more than 100, sometimes it reaches 250 bpm. The ventricles contract at the same rate or less with AV block.

Depending on the type of arrhythmia, the mechanism of the course of the attack varies.

  • Sinoatrial tachycardia appears due to recirculation of the impulse along the sinus node and myocardium of the right atrium. On the ECG, in this condition, the R wave remains. It is he who is responsible for atrial contraction. The frequency of contractions reaches 220 bpm.
  • Atrial arrhythmia appears with increased activity of the pathological focus, which has its own automation device. The shape of the P wave on the ECG changes: it becomes negative or biphasic. With this form, an attack can develop gradually. The heart contracts at a speed of 150-250 beats / min.
  • Paroxysmal AV nodal tachycardia appears when 2 parallel pathways of impulses occur in the area of ​​the connection of the atria and ventricles. Their functional characteristics vary. The fast and slow paths form a ring, because of this the exciting pulse begins to circulate in a circle. Excitation of the atria and ventricles occurs simultaneously, therefore, the P wave is absent on the ECG.

Doctors distinguish physiological and pathological tachycardia. In the first case, the increase in rhythm is a reaction to physical activity or stress. The pathological condition develops due to a failure of the pulse formation mechanism in a physiological source.

Doctors identify cardiac and extracardiac causes of the disease. These include:

  • congenital heart defects in children and adolescents;
  • heart disease in adulthood;
  • toxic myocardial damage with drugs;
  • increased tone of the sympathetic nervous system;
  • the appearance of abnormal paths along which the nerve impulse goes to the heart;
  • reflex irritation of nerves, which develops due to the reflection of impulses from damaged organs;
  • dystrophic change in myocardial tissue: after a heart attack, cardiosclerosis, infection;
  • metabolic problems that developed due to malfunctioning of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, or diabetes mellitus;
  • intoxication with alcohol, drugs or chemicals.
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In some cases, the reasons cannot be determined. The risk factors for the development of the disease include:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • period of pregnancy (the load on all organs increases);
  • the use of diuretics.

In childhood and adolescence, tachycardia appears against the background of:

  • electrolyte disturbances;
  • psychoemotional or physical overstrain;
  • exposure to adverse conditions: with an increase in body temperature, lack of fresh air in the room.
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Symptoms

Factors causing pathological tachycardia

The forerunners of the onset of tachycardia attacks in childhood and adolescence are considered to be such factors:

  • stressful situations;
  • nerve stress;
  • violent emotions;
  • state of excitement and experience.

For adults, the following reasons are a catalyst for the development of tachycardia:

  • disorders of the nervous system;
  • instability of the emotional background;
  • shell shock;
  • climacteric restructuring of the body;
  • neurocirculatory disorders;
  • violations in the work of the kidneys, gall bladder, diaphragm, gastrointestinal tract;
  • taking medications that provoke the onset of a tachycardia attack (procainamide, quinidine, glycosides in case of an overdose).

Concomitant heart diseases are often the causes of arrhythmias and tachycardia of the paroxysmal type.

Congenital cardiac pathologies in young patients (Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome) often lead to attacks of supraventricular tachycardia. Weakened immunity, the presence of foci of infection in the body, hypertension, thyrotoxicosis contribute to the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias.

Bad habits – drinking alcohol and drugs, smoking, caffeine abuse significantly approximate the likelihood of a tachycardia attack.

Supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Paroxysm of class 10 supraventricular tachycardia develops if the focus of the pathological process is in the atria of the heart chamber or in the atrioventricular junction. Moreover, the syndrome is not regular in nature, but because of stimulating factors (read about them in the next section).

Atrial paroxysmal tachycardia (ICD class 10) is manifested by two mechanisms:

  1. The focus of excitement lies in the tissues of the atrium. The pulse is located below the sinus node. For this reason, contractile function becomes a pathology.
  2. Failure of the conductive system. The formation of a bypass path of the nerve impulse.

Class 10 supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia has several causes:

  • systematic stressful situations;
  • hypersensitivity of the heart muscle to adrenaline;
  • heart defects;
  • congenital dysfunction in the structure of the pathways;
  • infections, dystrophy;
  • ischemic disease;
  • toxic effects due to abuse of drugs, alcohol-containing drinks and more.

An accurate diagnosis can be made only by the results of an ECG and other types of examinations.

The main cause of the attack is the pathological transmission of electrical impulses through the heart muscle above the ventricles. The disease develops in this way:

  1. The pulse source does not control the frequency of contractions due to exposure to abnormal foci.
  2. The circulation of pulses occurs in a circle against the background of the formation of bypass routes for them.

Causes of a heart nature:

  • coronary heart disease, in which the blood supply process is disturbed;
  • abnormal structure of the conduction system of a congenital form;
  • heart disease;
  • inflammatory processes in the myocardium;
  • heart failure;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • impaired functionality of the heart muscle.
  • pathological disorders in the endocrine system, in which an excessive amount of hormones is produced;
  • thrombosis, thrombophlebitis;
  • the presence of a blood clot in the pulmonary artery;
  • pneumonia and other diseases of the respiratory system;
  • disruptions in the autonomic nervous system.

Treatment for PNT should be comprehensive, so the most important activities are included. It can be supplemented with other methods and drugs, depending on the cause of the disease.

  1. Sedatives – bromine, barbiturates, tranquilizers.
  2. Potassium preparations – potassium chloride, thromcardin, Panangin.
  3. Beta-blockers – Verapamil, digitalis, Metoprolol, Atenolol, Isoptin, Quinidine bisulfate, Sotalol, Procainamide.
  • grinding with cool water;
  • douche;
  • hydraulic massage;
  • circulating shower;
  • taking a therapeutic bath.
  1. Complete rejection of all bad habits.
  2. Strengthening the psyche to maintain a psycho-emotional background. You can use autogenic training and other types of self-regulation.
  3. The daily routine should be as stable as possible – a sufficient amount of sleep and rest.
  4. Moderate physical activity, which is agreed with the attending cardiologist. To begin with, you can visit specialized medical institutions, and then do exercises at home.
  5. Every morning or evening you need to take unhurried walks. Preferably in ecologically clean areas (away from industrial enterprises).
  6. It’s good to go swimming.
  7. If there is excess weight, you need to get rid of it.

From now on, the daily dosage of food is divided into 4-6 meals per day. In this case, you need to consume small volumes, since a crowded stomach irritates the nerve receptors that are responsible for the functioning of the myocardium. Therefore, a tachycardic attack may occur.

In order not to overeat, experts recommend not to read books during meals, not to watch TV, etc. You should focus solely on the absorption of food, eat slowly. Also, do not eat immediately before going to bed.

Products that can trigger a tachycardia attack (they must be discarded):

  • strong tea or coffee drink;
  • sweets, starchy foods, fast food;
  • foods with high fat content – dairy products, lard, butter, mayonnaise sauces;
  • fried, smoked, spicy, pickled dishes;
  • salt.

Heart-friendly substances and products:

  • omega-3 – flaxseeds, sea fish, walnuts;
  • magnesium and potassium – buckwheat porridge, dried apricots, pumpkin, honey, squash;
  • omega-6 – soy, vegetable oil;
  • monounsaturated fats – avocados, various nuts;
  • low-fat dairy products, dietary meat, freshly squeezed juices, cereals, vegetables, fruits;
  • dishes need to be steamed, in water or baked with a small amount of vegetable oil.

The operation is prescribed in 2 cases – when drug therapy did not give a positive result, or there are complications. Surgical intervention may be partial or radical. Most often, such surgical methods are performed:

  1. Radiofrequency ablation. The pathological focus is cauterized.
  2. Installation of a pacemaker. The device can be artificial (pacemaker) and implantable (cardioverter-defibrillator).
  3. An open surgery in which an incision is made in the region of the heart.
  4. Closed surgery is the destruction of auxiliary conduction pathways. Minimally invasive techniques are used, laser, electrical, mechanical, cryogenic or chemical agents are used.

Folk remedies

Traditional medicine recipes do not replace conservative methods of therapy, but can be used as additional funds. Before using them, the permission of the attending cardiologist is required.

Recipes and recommendations:

  1. Take in equal proportions dried apricots, raisins, peeled lemon, honey and walnuts. Grind (you can use a blender) and eat 1 tbsp. l twice a day. Store in the cold.
  2. In salads, add the root and leaf part of celery, greens.
  3. Buy lovage roots at the pharmacy. At 0,5 liters of boiling water you need them 20 grams. Insist in a thermos for 7-9 hours. Drink throughout the day. After a weekly intake, the dosage is increased to 1 liter per day.
  4. Use the pharmacy tincture of valerian, hawthorn and motherwort. Combine the components in equal proportions. Take three times a day for 1 tsp. before eating.
  5. Eat viburnum berries, make decoctions, compotes, tea from them.
  6. Brew a dogrose.

Preventive measures

The best way to prevent tachycardia is to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle. It is important to adhere to proper nutrition and consult specialists in a timely manner.

This applies to absolutely any disease, because absolutely all internal systems and organs are interconnected with the heart.

If you have signs of supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia, do not delay a visit to a cardiologist. Because getting rid of the neglected form is much more difficult than at the development stage. In addition, you run the risk of serious complications. Remember that the heart is responsible for a person’s ability to live.

Nivelichuk Taras, Head of the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, work experience 8 years. Higher education in the specialty “General Medicine”.

In paroxysmal tachycardia, a short-term paroxysmal disturbance of the heart rhythm occurs lasting from several seconds to several minutes or hours in the form of rhythmic acceleration of heartbeats in the range of 140–250 beats / min. the peculiarity of this arrhythmia is that the exciting pulses do not come from the natural pacemaker, but from an abnormal focus in the conduction system or myocardium of the heart.

Such changes can disrupt the condition of patients in different ways, which depends on the type of paroxysm and the frequency of seizures.

Paroxysmal tachycardia from the upper parts of the heart (atria) in the form of rare episodes can either not cause any symptoms at all, or manifest itself with mild symptoms and malaise (in 85–90% of people).

Ventricular forms cause severe circulatory disorders and even threaten heart failure, and the death of the patient.

A complete cure for the disease is possible – medications can relieve the attack and prevent its re-occurrence, surgical techniques eliminate the pathological foci that are sources of accelerated impulses.

Doing this, cardiologists, cardiac surgeons and arrhythmologists.

Normally, the heart contracts due to regular pulses emitting at a frequency of 60–90 beats / min from the highest point of the heart – the sinus node (the main pacemaker). If their number is greater, this is called sinus tachycardia.

With paroxysmal tachycardia, the heart also contracts more often than it should (140–250 beats / min), but with significant features:

  1. The main source of impulses (pacemaker) is not the sinus node, but a pathologically altered area of ​​the heart tissue, which should only conduct impulses, and not create them.
  2. The correct rhythm – heartbeats are repeated regularly, at regular intervals.
  3. Paroxysmal character – tachycardia occurs and passes suddenly and simultaneously.
  4. Pathological significance – paroxysm cannot be the norm, even if it does not cause any symptoms.

The table shows the general and distinctive features of sinus (usual) tachycardia) from paroxysmal.

Characteristics Sinus tachycardia Paroxysmal tachycardia
PalpitationFrequent
RhythmCorrect, rhythmic contractions
SourceSinus node of the heartExtra hearth
FlowGradual beginning and endingParoxysmal, abrupt onset and end of an attack
ValueMay be a variant of the norm and evidence of pathologyAlways a pathological condition
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It is fundamentally important to divide paroxysmal tachycardia into types depending on the localization of the focus of anomalous impulse and the frequency of its occurrence. The main options for the disease are shown in the table.

By localization
Supraventricular (from the upper parts of the heart – 80–90%):
  • Atrial form (20%);
  • Atrioventricular (55–65%);
  • Wolf-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW – 15–25%).
Acute – seizures rarely occur (after a few months or years)
Constantly relapsing (chronic) – seizures completely disappear, but often recur (after a few days or weeks)
Ventricular (from the lower parts of the heart – ventricles – 10–20%)Continuously recurring – a new seizure occurs when the previous one is eliminated

What diagnostic methods are used to identify this pathology?

ECG in supraventricular tachycardia is the first and main method of examination, and it is desirable to record the electrical activity of the heart in dynamics several times or during the day using a portable cardiograph to capture the attack.

A specialist can distinguish this type of arrhythmia from others with similar symptoms by examining the ECG signs characteristic of supraventricular tachycardia:

  • abruptly suddenly begins and also ends the attack of tachycardia;
  • heart rate above 120 beats per minute;
  • maintaining a regular heart rhythm;
  • the basic QRS complexes look normal;
  • the P wave is located up to QRS, in appearance it is reduced and deformed; if the source of pathological impulses is located in the atrioventricular node, then the P wave is superimposed on the QRS complex.

If necessary, additional diagnostic methods are carried out for the pathways in the myocardium, including invasive ones.

Arrhythmia attacks can last from two minutes to several hours. In this case, the heart beats evenly, but quickly. Manifestations of paroxysm of supraventricular tachycardia occur suddenly and are characterized by the following symptoms:

  • the heart begins to contract rapidly;
  • dizzy;
  • pain occurs behind the sternum or in the neck;
  • fainting conditions;
  • the occurrence of panic fear and anxiety.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is characterized by the fact that the attack has clearly defined boundaries at the beginning and at the end of the onset. The patient has a sharp jolt in the heart region, passing to a rapid heartbeat.

In some cases, before the onset of paroxysm, the head begins to feel dizzy, noises are heard in the ears, the heart makes interruptions in work.

The heart muscle begins to contract faster and can reach maximum values ​​- from 100 to 300 beats per minute, while maintaining the correct rhythm.

With an attack, the patient can feel both satisfactory and with deviations from normal health. This can manifest itself in the form of:

  • asthma attack;
  • hand tremor;
  • temporary decrease in vision.

In special severe cases, the patient has speech impairment, the activity and sensitivity of one of the halves of the body are lost.

Violations of a vegetative nature during an attack of tachycardia are often indicated by increased sweating and a violent reaction of the intestine. Bladder emptying may occur at the end or after an attack.

An attack that lasts for a long time is dangerous because the heart muscle operates in an “emergency” mode and is unable to provide normal blood pumping through the vessels. Wherein:

  • heart failure increases, leading to oxygen starvation. Hypoxia of the brain, heart muscle increases the likelihood of fainting, myocardial infarction;
  • edema, cyanosis of the skin (arms, legs, face) are observed, it becomes difficult to take a breath;
  • the pressure drops – and this is also a sign of tachycardia. Hypotensives often suffer from this type of arrhythmia.

When examining and questioning the patient, the disease can be detected on the basis of complaints of malfunctions of the heart, constant weakness, nausea, pressing pains in the chest, frequent dizziness.

The anamnesis is supplemented by information about heart ailments in the patient’s relatives.

Blood and urine tests are prescribed for laboratory examination. The main method for diagnosing tachycardia attacks is electrocardiography during the day. Seizures invisible to the patient are recorded on the cardiogram, which allows you to determine the degree and dynamics of arrhythmia.

There is a technique for diagnosing through the esophagus by introducing an electrode as close to the region of the heart as possible.

This technique allows you to obtain data on the development of the disease and on its basis to decide on the course of treatment.

What are the causes of supraventricular tachycardia?

This condition can be considered quite safe in childhood and adolescence, when concomitant heart diseases were not found, and the occurrence of such tachycardia is explained by the immaturity of the innervation of the heart, the presence of additional pathways in the myocardium. With age, everything normalizes.

If arrhythmia is detected in a small child, you should think about a congenital disorder of the conduction system of the heart. In adolescents and youths, strong emotions, anxiety, and stress can be the cause of tachycardia attacks. In the older category of patients, the situation is more complicated, the reasons are more diverse.

Provoking factors for the occurrence of tachycardia can be:

  • neurasthenia, vegetovascular dystonia, menopause;
  • the presence of underlying cardiac pathology – heart defects, atherosclerosis, heart failure;
  • taking caffeine, alcohol, drugs, smoking;
  • concomitant chronic diseases – kidney, lung, gastrointestinal tract, as well as the spine, diaphragm, pleura;
  • taking certain medications – novocainamide, quinidine, hormones, an overdose of cardiac glycosides;
  • thyroid disease – thyrotoxicosis;
  • surgical interventions.

This is not a complete list of reasons; the problem of the occurrence of tachycardia has not yet been studied.

Tachycardia can be a consequence of pathological processes in the heart or occur under the influence of external factors. In general, there are such causes of disturbance and increased rhythm:

  1. Failures in cardiac activity. Tachycardia occurs with vegetovascular and neurocirculatory dystonia. With these pathologies, the sympathoadrenal system works with great activity and, in combination with an increase in the automatism of the conducting system, causes paroxysms.
  2. Pathological conditions of the endocrine system. With thyrotoxicosis, more hormones are produced than necessary. They enter the bloodstream and stimulate the work of the heart muscle. This occurs with pheochromocytoma.
  3. Metabolic disorders. If for a long time a person suffers from anemia, severe kidney or liver failure, adheres to a strict diet and does not consume enough protein, this negatively affects the work of the heart and causes myocardial dystrophy. With it, the muscle tissue of the organ is depleted.
  4. Organic diseases of the heart and blood vessels. In children, tachycardia can be caused by congenital organ defects. Also, the violation occurs due to dilated cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction, in which cardiomyocytes, ischemia, and myocarditis die.
  5. Small abnormalities in the development of the organ. Tachycardia is possible with mitral valve prolapse, the presence of an additional chord in the left ventricle, and other abnormalities. They can have an arrhythmogenic effect and cause arrhythmia in children and adults.
  6. Genetic disorders. The heart does not work properly with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. At the same time, in the prenatal period, an additional bundle is formed in the area between the ventricles and the atrium, through which the pulses pass, which creates all the conditions for the development of tachycardia.

There are also additional factors that can cause an increase in rhythm. These include excessive physical activity, emotional stress, abuse of drinks containing alcohol or caffeine, smoking.

The development of tachycardia is observed in women during pregnancy. All reasons are not fully defined. But it is believed that this contributes to an increase in the level of hormones in the blood.

In a calm state, a pregnant woman’s heart beats normally, but during exercise, the heart rate decreases.

Class 10 atrial tachycardia develops for several reasons, which in medicine are divided into extracardiac and cardiac, are described in the section “Paroxysmal form of supraventricular tachycardia”. Thus, the causes of this disease are identical regardless of the form of the disease.

In this section, we consider factors that stimulate disease:

  • tobacco smoking;
  • abuse of tonic drinks;
  • excessive physical work;
  • frequent emotional experiences.

The disease can also develop during pregnancy, because on all internal organs, including the heart, an increased load occurs, so all systems work hard. Often the disease complicates the course of pregnancy. But the very position of a woman can stimulate her development. This happens if:

  • anemia develops;
  • dysfunction of the balance of water and salt;
  • hypertension;
  • inflated hormonal background.

By eliminating these factors, the disease can be neutralized on its own. In view of this, pregnant women are advised to consult their doctor at the first symptoms. We do not recommend delaying consultation; the disease can develop into a chronic form. Confirm or refute the diagnosis using an ECG.

Class 10 atrial tachycardia in children is often not caused by organic causes of cardiac organ damage. Electrolyte disturbances, physical and emotional overloads and climatic conditions can stimulate the development of the disease.

Diagnostic measures

The primary diagnosis is to examine the patient and collect an anamnesis. Next, the doctor listens to heart sounds and identifies symptoms. A mandatory procedure is a physical examination, which consists of checking the weight, examining the skin and measuring blood pressure.

If the initial examination indirectly indicates a malfunction of the cardiac organ, the patient is sent to the following types of examinations:

  • general blood and urine tests;
  • biochemical blood sampling;
  • ECG;
  • daily monitoring of ECG.

The most informative is the daily ECG. Thanks to such an examination, the doctor receives the data displayed on the PC screen. The information consists in fixing seizures, the time interval, as well as the accompanying symptoms of other diseases. For example, arrhythmias.

Risk of complications

Atrial tachycardia is dangerous because cardiogenic shock may develop against its background. Most often this happens if the attack is prolonged and accompanied by loss and impaired consciousness.

Another complication is heart failure. If untreated, pulmonary edema may occur. This is due to the inability of the heart organ to pump blood in full. Therefore, it partially remains in the lungs, and the liquid component through the vessels floods the lungs.

Often because of this ailment, an attack of angina pectoris occurs. This is due to a decrease in cardiac output and coronary blood supply.

Of course, the disease is not a high danger, but in advanced forms, complications can develop, which in some cases lead to sudden death. It is because of these circumstances that treatment is recommended to be started immediately. The best way out is to prevent the disease. This is helped by annual preventive examinations recommended by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

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Supraventricular tachycardia is dangerous with the likelihood of developing pulmonary embolism, ischemic stroke, sudden death, heart failure, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmogenic shock. Insufficiency can occur in the case of a prolonged course of the disease for many years.

In case of complicated paroxysm, the patient needs to be urgently hospitalized.

The prognosis for such a disease is generally favorable, but there is a risk of certain complications. 2% of people die from sudden death with this diagnosis.

The consequences depend on the stage of development of the disease, leading to tachycardia. A doctor can assess the risk of complications after a detailed examination.

First aid for a seizure

In most cases, medications are enough to stop the condition. Urgent medical care is needed for people with severe cardiac abnormalities.

To stabilize the work of the heart, apply the introduction of Verapamil, Novocainamide, Cordarone or Adenosine triphosphate into the vein. Anaprilin tablet is also given. These activities are carried out in the prehospital period.

Before an ambulance arrives, if this is not the first attack and it is known that a person has supraventricular tachycardia, he is recommended to resort to vagal tests. You can also strain and hold your breath for several seconds or apply pressure to the eyeballs for several minutes.

To avoid the development of tachycardia, it is necessary to timely treat pathologies that are accompanied by such disorders. For instance:

  • coronary artery disease, in which the heart is not adequately supplied with blood, can be prevented through a balanced diet, moderate exercise, refusal from alcohol and smoking;
  • myocarditis is prevented by the same measures as other heart diseases.

Supraventricular tachycardia can be prevented by:

  • Exclusions of excessive psycho-emotional stress. Stress, conflict situations should be avoided.
  • Refusing bad habits.
  • Moderate physical activity.
  • A rational and balanced diet. It is important to abandon fried, fatty, salt, introduce more vegetables and fruits into the diet.
  • Monitoring body weight and blood glucose.

In the case of a hereditary predisposition to pathology, it is necessary to periodically undergo an examination in order to detect the development of disorders in time and stop the process.

To remove (stop) frequent attacks of atrioventricular paroxysmal tachycardia in severe forms is possible only in the conditions of inpatient treatment. Under the supervision of specialists, antiarrhythmic drugs and oxygen are administered to the patient.

For the treatment of complex cases of tachycardia, radiofrequency and electric pulse exposure methods are additionally used to bring the heart rate to normal values.

To relieve a short-term attack of arrhythmia, the patient himself can do this:

  • make massaging movements on the neck above the carotid artery. This allows you to activate the vagus nerve, which leads to a decrease in the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle.
  • attacks can be stopped by applying an ice collar to the neck;
  • pressure on the eyeballs;
  • washing with ice water and subsequent muscle tension as during bowel movements;
  • simply throwing your head back.

Patients over 50 years old are not recommended to relieve seizures on their own, the likelihood of a stroke is high.

In this case, independent manipulations with the eyeballs and neck require the patient to have elementary medical skills (incorrect movements can lead to injury).

Drug relief of an arrhythmia attack according to the recommendations of specialists should be started using beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, etc.). In the case of insufficient effectiveness of the drug, replacing it with stronger ones from the same group is impractical.

Doctors often use a combined treatment technique using antiarrhythmic drugs and beta-blockers. This allows you to significantly reduce the dose of active substances (side effects are significantly leveled) with good treatment results.

In cases where emergency care is required for the patient with an attack of supraventricular tachycardia, it is necessary to perform the following actions:

  • induce vomiting (putting fingers in the mouth, etc.);
  • wiping with a cold towel;
  • pressing the carotid node on the right side;
  • pressure on the upper abdomen;
  • to press bent legs to the stomach;
  • finger pressure on the eyeballs;
  • take a deep breath, then pinch your nose and strain;
  • drink sedatives (motherwort, valerian, diazepam, valocardine, etc.).

If an hour after carrying out the above actions, the patient does not improve, then they are accepted:

  • antiarrhythmic drugs;
  • Verapamil is injected intravenously (0,005 g);
  • after stopping the attack, take one tablet (0,04 g) up to three times a day;
  • if verapamil does not “work”, then you should proceed to taking beta-blockers (anaprilin, viskens, oxprenolol);
  • if they do not help, then you should resort to the procedure of defibrillation or pacemaker.

Emergency hospitalization is necessary in cases where the attack entailed a deep fainting, ischemic failure, impaired blood flow.

If the patient shows signs of heart rhythm disturbance and it is reliably known that he consumes alcohol, caffeine, smokes, then addictions that provoke arrhythmia should be abandoned. Large physical exertion, stressful conditions also provoke disturbances in the work of the heart. The elimination of these factors can lead to getting rid of tachycardia, the onset of attacks in the future.

Prevention measures are distinguished by the type of pathology:

  • asymptomatic arrhythmia with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, unstable atrial, ectopic atrioventricular nodal tachycardia – require the use of radiofrequency ablation;
  • with paroxysmal atrioventricular tachycardia, it is recommended to use verapamil, diltiazem;
  • ectopic nodular atrioventricular, atrial, poorly tolerated arrhythmia – beta-blockers are used for prevention;
  • paroxysmal nodal tachycardia – amiodarone is used.

Tachycardia can be accompanied by complications in the form of pulmonary edema, heart failure, impaired access to blood to tissues.

It is important to establish the root cause, i.e., the disease that led to the attack of supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia. To make a prognosis of the development of arrhythmia, one should take into account the state of the myocardium, the frequency and duration of attacks, the appearance of complications.

Patients with a diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia, in most cases, lead a normal lifestyle.

Infrequently recurring attacks of arrhythmia are stopped by medication or go away by themselves. In severe forms, tachycardia can lead to serious health problems for the patient, up to disability.

Patients with a newly diagnosed attack of tachycardia must be hospitalized for examination and the selection of adequate therapy. In the hospital, antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed, if necessary, cardiac glycosides, diuretics and other drugs, depending on the presence of concomitant diseases. The patient then takes the drug selected in the hospital at home under the supervision of an ECG at the place of residence.

Emergency care in a sudden attack is reduced to conducting vagal tests by the patients themselves. This pressure on closed eyes for a few seconds; immersion of the face in very cold water for a moment; artificial urge to vomit; strong straining after a deep breath and others.

Medical treatment of supraventricular tachycardia is not always effective, then surgical methods are used – the installation of a pacemaker and catheter ablation, which can radically affect the conduction system of the heart and adjust the frequency of contractions.

With timely treatment and proper treatment, the prognosis for supraventricular tachycardia is favorable.

Even without a medical education, everyone is able to provide emergency care for tachycardia attacks. To do this, carry out activities such as:

  • throw your head back;
  • wash your face with cold water or put ice;
  • provoke vomiting;
  • pressure under the carotid artery;
  • pressure on closed eyes;
  • pressure on the upper abdomen;
  • pushing, breathing deeply and pinching the nose;
  • the use of sedatives.

If the effect of the above manipulations is absent, medications for arrhythmia should be used:

  • Verapamil. Introduced intravenously 0,005 g. Then take 1 (0,04 g) tablets 2-3 per day.
  • Group B adrenergic blockers – viscene or anaprilin.

In the absence of a positive effect from the drugs mentioned above, electro-cardio stimulation or stimulation with a defibrillator is performed. To do this, call an ambulance crew.

A patient is hospitalized urgently if a person loses consciousness, a hemodynamic disorder occurs, or ischemia occurs.

Attention. You can call an ambulance from a landline telephone number 03, or from a mobile phone number 030.

Preventative methods

As a prevention of supraventricular tachycardia, cardiologists advise:

  • To engage in constant physical activity – gymnastics, exercise, yoga, walks in the fresh air, aerobics.
  • Food should be balanced, and food should not be high in cholesterol.
  • You should refuse to use tobacco and alcohol-containing drinks.
  • Monitor body weight and cholesterol and sugar levels.
  • Avoid stress in the psycho-emotional aspect.

If there are blood relatives in the family with a diagnosis of “Tachycardia” at least 2 times a year, visit the cardiologist’s office and do an ECG.

Summarizing the articles, we note that although this disease does not pose a danger to life, it still requires treatment to prevent the development of complications. It is important to prevent the ailment, I use prevention methods. Each person who is attentive to their health is able to live long and healthy years.

If there are signs of tachycardia, you must consult a doctor and undergo an examination. The diagnosis is based on the results:

  1. A physical examination, during which the skin is examined, the pressure in the arteries is measured, tones and sounds in the heart are heard, the rhythm frequency is determined.
  2. General analysis of blood and urine. These studies allow us to identify concomitant diseases.
  3. Biochemical blood test. In its course, it is determined how much glucose, cholesterol, potassium and other elements are in it.
  4. Electrocardiography Supraventricular tachycardia on the ECG is visible very well. This is one of the main methods for diagnosing the disease.
  5. Daily monitoring cardiogram. A device is attached to the patient, which he wears all day. During the day, the device captures paroxysms, heart function at different times of the day, and rhythm disturbances.
  6. Transesophageal cardiac stimulation. It is necessary to identify the mechanism of development of tachycardia, and also fixes rare attacks that could not be detected on the ECG.
  7. Electrophysiological study of the heart. Using electrodes and registration equipment, biological pulses are recorded and it is determined whether surgical treatment of the disease is necessary.
  8. Echocardiography. It allows you to assess the condition of all parts of the heart.

After studying the results, a solution is applied regarding the method of eliminating the problem.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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