The concept of “microstroke” is still interpreted in different ways. Some believe that this is the death of a microscopic part of the brain, others – that this is a condition when insufficient blood is temporarily supplied to some (not necessarily small) area of the brain. Doctors officially declare: a microstroke is a household name for a temporary, lasting less than 24 hours, lack of oxygen in a separate part of the brain. In medical vocabulary, this is called transient cerebrovascular accident (MNC).
Transient cerebrovascular accident is divided into 3 types, the main of which is transient ischemic attack (TIA). Basically, it is called a microstroke.
The term “TIA” stands for:
- transient – it means temporary;
- ischemic – means that the part of the brain lacks oxygen;
- attack – that is, a sharply developed state.
That is, a separate part of the brain ceases to receive the amount of oxygen he needs to work, but this situation lasts a short time (from several minutes to 24 hours). At the same time, a certain amount of oxygen still arrives, so the cells that make up this area of the brain suffer, but do not die. This is the difference between a microstroke and a “large” (“real”) stroke.
Why is there a problem
The causes of microstroke both in young people and in elderly patients are standard, and they, by and large, can be associated with other diseases of the cardiovascular system.
They are usually represented by a violation of the blood supply to the brain through small diameter arteries due to atherosclerosis, embolism or hemorrhage. The prerequisites for disruption of blood vessels are:
- unbalanced diet, improper, irregular nutrition and the prevalence of animal fats in the daily menu;
- overweight (obesity);
- lack of exercise, lack of moderate physical activity;
- bad habits – alcohol abuse, smoking;
- frequent stress and other forms of psycho-emotional disorders;
- overwork, insomnia;
- adverse environmental situation in the region of residence;
- surgical intervention on the heart can also serve as a trigger for the development of a micro stroke, for example, the installation of an artificial valve;
- sharp changes in temperature and humidity, climate change.
Chronic diseases can also provoke a microstroke:
- Sudden jumps in blood glucose in uncompensated diabetes.
- Atherosclerosis (an ailment caused by the formation of cholesterol plaques on the vascular walls and, as a result, a decrease in the lumen of such).
- Problems with cerebral circulation.
- Rheumatic or infectious lesions of the heart valves.
- A “popular” micro-stroke provocateur is myocardial infarction.
- Inflammation of the walls of blood vessels (arteritis).
- Vein thrombosis.
- Congenital or acquired heart defects.
- Oncological diseases.
- Arrhythmias (heart rhythm failure).
- Hypertension (a disease whose symptoms are associated with constantly high blood pressure);
- Sleep apnea syndrome (involuntary respiratory arrest during sleep lasting 10 seconds or more).
Microstroke recovery in men
The cause of a micro stroke in men is chronic disease. These include cerebral atherosclerosis, in which cholesterol plaques form in the vessels of the brain. They clog the arteries, which is why some brain tissue does not receive adequate blood supply.
Arterial hypertension is another reason. If it is accompanied by sharp changes in blood pressure, this can adversely affect the condition of the vessels and cause their spasm.
Doctors also warn that the following factors can lead to illness:
Additional risk factors are bad habits: smoking, alcohol abuse. A sedentary lifestyle and addiction to high-fat fatty foods also negatively affect the state of blood vessels and the body as a whole.
The signs of a microstroke in men rarely differ from the symptoms of a regular stroke. The first alarm is a severe headache. Its distinctive feature is that the pain medication does not help.
Pain syndrome periodically leads to perceptual distortions and coordination problems. In case of severe pain, it is important to analyze your overall well-being. It can worsen in different ways, depending on which part of the brain has suffered from a lack of oxygen or rupture of an artery.
You need to know what symptoms occur with a micro stroke in men in order to seek medical help in time. Alertness should cause:
- weakness in the limbs;
- spontaneous vision problems;
- difficulties in understanding someone else’s speech;
- vomiting and nausea;
- negative reaction to bright light and loud sounds;
- short-term memory lapses.
Similar symptoms of microstroke in older men can be more pronounced than in young men. At the same time, it is not recommended to attribute them to age-related changes, no matter how old a person is. This is fraught with several relapses and damage to a large area of the brain.
Also in both situations, moments of imaginary well-being periodically arise. Under it is understood the improvement that occurs after a seizure. Patients mistakenly believe that the disease has passed, and there is no danger to health. Nevertheless, it is recommended to go to the hospital and make sure that the probability of repeated attacks is excluded.
Doctors inform how a microstroke can be recognized in a man with a sharp deterioration in well-being. One simple test is to ask a person to smile and then show the language. If pathological circulatory disorders are present, then the smile will come out asymmetrical, and the tongue will be turned or twisted in one direction.
Symptoms of a brain microstroke in men can be manifested in difficulties in speech communication. Often the victim cannot pronounce a simple phrase. In addition, coordination of movements may suffer: if you ask a person to hold their hands in an extended position, then after 3-4 seconds one of the hands will begin to fall by itself.
In addition, experts warn that during a microstroke, specific symptoms may appear, to which ordinary people usually do not pay attention.
The crisis is characterized by a critical drop in blood pressure. In a very short time, it can reach values in the region of 180/120 mm Hg, and this is not the maximum indicator.
Even if the patient initially suffered from hypertension, a characteristic distinguishing feature of the crisis is the time during which the pressure drop occurs. As a rule, indicators increase by several tens of units in a matter of minutes. In this regard, the patient experiences a deterioration in well-being.
It is understood as a sharp change in the functioning of arteries and veins located in the head.
Most often, it manifests itself with a transient decline in the level of vision. It is noted that in some people, individual fragments disappear from the field of view. Sometimes vision disappears only in one eye, less often – completely.
Also, the attack is associated with problems in the functioning of the vestibular apparatus, which makes the gait shaky and unstable.
Feelings of nausea, clouding of consciousness, and difficulty in coordinating movements are also noted.
With encephalopathy, intracranial pressure increases, changes occur in the state of veins and arteries of the brain. This is one of the most striking manifestations of not only a microstroke, but also a regular stroke.
Modern diagnosis of a microstroke in a man involves a set of procedures that will reveal if an attack has occurred, and also to establish the localization of the focus of necrosis.
The prehospital phase is based on a medical history and a neurological examination. It is extremely important for the patient not to waste time and make an appointment, since the most significant manifestations disappear within a day.
The most popular and effective apparatus for detecting acute cerebrovascular accident is a tomograph. It can be used to perform magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.
Similar studies analyze the current state of the brain and identify dead areas in it. In addition, an angiography procedure is performed through tomography. A special contrast agent is introduced into the circulatory system of the subject, thanks to which the entire vascular network will be visible in the picture. Thus, you can see the location of all the vessels and find out if they have cholesterol plaques that form plugs.
Prehospital and instrumental methods allow differential diagnosis of different types of stroke. Most often we are talking about ischemic and hemorrhagic types. Each of them needs its own approach.
The specialists of the Yusupov hospital conduct all the necessary tests and studies to determine what type of disease the patient has encountered. When making a diagnosis, it is mandatory to pay attention to both visual signs and the results of the analyzes. In particular, retinal hemorrhage may indicate ischemic stroke.
However, specialists are not limited only to external manifestations, but perform a complete study of the cardiovascular system. The patient is also referred for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, radiography and other studies that can accurately establish the diagnosis and begin to develop a therapeutic plan.
Treatment of a micro stroke in men is carried out mainly by neurologists. The basis of therapy is composed of several groups of drugs:
- Vasodilators help restore and increase blood supply, including in the injured area of the brain.
- Nootropics improve cognitive abilities. They are used to enhance mental activity and improve memory, which could suffer due to an attack.
- Antiplatelet agents are prescribed if there is a danger of thrombosis. These drugs prevent platelets from sticking together and fixing on arterial walls.
- Angioprotectors have a positive effect on the entire vascular bed and improve metabolic processes in them. These drugs are prescribed for almost all patients.
Also, therapy is supplemented by physiotherapeutic procedures. Men are prescribed various types of massage and are given recommendations for physical therapy.
During rehabilitation, patients are prescribed medications to maintain cognitive performance, as well as controlling blood pressure. In particular, these are antihypertensive drugs that stop high-pressure attacks.
During recovery, taking medications that improve the physico-chemical properties of blood and prevent blood clots is important.
Also, during rehabilitation, patients are recommended to exercise physical therapy, but it is important not to overload so that there is no risk of a second attack.
With timely medical attention and the fulfillment of all prescriptions, negative consequences are minimized.
However, if you suffer an acute violation of cerebral circulation on the legs, for a short time you can encounter a series of repeated attacks. In the worst case scenario, ignoring the symptoms threatens the further development of an extensive stroke. With the most unfavorable prognosis, it is fraught with a decrease in the quality of life and pathological changes in the work of consciousness.
General prevention tips come down to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Men are recommended to adjust their diet and refuse harmful products in favor of natural ones. So, experts advise to minimize the use of fatty foods and add vegetables and fruits to the menu.
To avoid repeated attacks, it is worth giving up smoking and excessive drinking.
Several times a week you can go in for sports and visit the gym, but you should not be too zealous in training. Excessive load can adversely affect the state of the cardiovascular system and is more likely to harm the body than give a positive effect.
Men with cardiological problems should carefully monitor their well-being. Ideally, you can keep a diary and record pressure indicators in it from morning to evening.
Microstroke in men most often occurs during stress, high physical exertion or with an increase in blood pressure, as well as against the background of alcohol intoxication. The first signs of a microstroke are a sudden severe headache, dizziness, impaired coordination during movement, impaired vision and speech. The manifestation of symptoms depends on which area of the brain was affected by a micro stroke.
It is a mistake to believe that age is the main factor that increases the likelihood of a micro stroke. Manifestations of a microstroke can be both in a student who has experienced severe stress during the session, and in elderly hypertensive patients. According to medical statistics, the risk of microstroke increases significantly in people older than 55 years.
Groups of patients with a high probability of developing the disease:
- patients with angina pectoris and hypertension – it is high blood pressure that serves as a “trigger”, provoking problems with the blood vessels of the brain and “local” blood circulation;
- people with a hereditary predisposition to microstroke;
- pregnant women;
- patients with thrombosis, poor coagulation and other blood diseases;
- overweight patients (obesity);
- heavy smokers and those who abuse alcohol;
- everyone who suffers from diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- weather-dependent patients sensitively and painfully reacting to changes in weather conditions.
How to recognize TIA from another person?
You can make sure the diagnosis is correct by asking the person to perform three simple exercises:
- To smile. A man can do this with only one corner of his mouth. The second will be omitted.
- Raise two straightened arms to shoulder level. A paralyzed limb will be located much lower or will not rise at all.
- Answer the question what is happening to you. Speech will be inarticulate, inappropriate.
Treatment of the consequences of the disease
To fully restore the functioning of the brain, it is necessary to begin therapeutic measures as early as possible. Therefore, the first emergency actions are important.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page .
Before the arrival of the ambulance crew, the victim must be laid down by turning his head to the side. This will help prevent vomiting from entering the airways when the gag reflex appears.
It is recommended to cover your head with a damp towel, putting a pillow under it. An elevated posture reduces the intensity of the development of cerebral edema, since in this way the volume of accumulated fluid decreases.
It is necessary to ensure the flow of fresh air. You should free the person from squeezing clothes, unfasten the buttons. It is forbidden to move the patient. It is necessary to ensure a calm state and expect medical attention.
As a first aid for a micro stroke, you can constantly maintain a conversation with the victim. This will reassure him and give confidence in a speedy recovery.
The first painful signs are an ideal way to start treatment. This period is characterized by the most favorable prognosis. Due to the not pronounced severity of symptoms, therapeutic measures begin later – which is why a microstroke is dangerous.
Thrombolytics. Means eliminate blood clots, restoring healthy blood flow. Medicines have a therapeutic effect only for 3 days after the blockade. When hemorrhagic, such drugs cause irreparable harm.
Disaggregants – Dipyridamole, Aspirin. Drugs promote blood thinning. Anticoagulants – Fraxiparin, Fragmin. They prevent blood clotting by preventing the formation of blood clots.
Diuretic drugs. Eliminate the swelling of the brain structures, preventing the penetration of the affected areas into the nape of the neck.
Neuroprotectors. They represent a large group of drugs that support brain cells during the rehabilitation period.
Antihypertensive agents. They are used to reduce blood pressure at the stage of treatment and recovery.
Recovering a patient after a blockade has included physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapeutic procedures, massage, diet correction, and swimming. The patient is referred to a rehabilitologist, speech therapist, neurologist. Sanatorium treatment is also indicated. A person should change the menu, normalize weight. It is necessary to refuse spicy, salty, fatty, smoked.
In the first hours after a micro stroke, brain cells die, but due to the fact that the damage is insignificant, over time, the affected neurological functions are restored. To minimize the risk of undesirable consequences of a microstroke, the patient should be taken to the hospital within 3 hours after the attack.
An integrated approach to resolving the problem should take into account the cause of the micro stroke. The following methods of drug therapy have proven effectiveness:
- prevention of blood clots (for this purpose, patients undergoing a microstroke are prescribed Dipyridamole, Aspirin, Clopidogrel, Warfarin, Xarelto);
- antihypertensive therapy (the use of drugs to lower blood pressure);
- the use of drugs that lower blood cholesterol (Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin).
In addition, many doctors additionally prescribe drugs whose benefits are unclear. They include:
- vasodilating and improving blood circulation drugs (for example, Xanthinolum, Instenon);
- medicines to restore “healthy” metabolic processes in the vessels;
- metabolic agents that improve blood circulation and metabolism in the brain (among them, Aktovegin, Mexicoor, Cerakson are preferred);
- treatment with nootropic drugs that improve brain function (Cinnarizine, Piracetam).
Treatment begins at home with the ambulance doctors, and continues in a neurological hospital. It consists in:
- ensuring that enough oxygen enters the bloodstream. To do this, put on an oxygen mask, if necessary, transfer the patient to hardware breathing;
- vasodilation – with drugs “Nimodipine”, “Dibazol”;
- improving the absorption of oxygen and nutrients by neurons. For this, “Cerebrolysin”, “Ceraxon” are used;
- normalization of blood pressure: “Nimodipine”, less often – with other drugs;
- improving heart function – with the help of cardiac glycosides (Digoxin, Strofantin “);
- blood thinning – with heparin preparations;
- elimination of cerebral edema – diuretics: Mannitolum, Furosemide.
If, during angiography of cerebral vessels, a strong (more than 50%) narrowing of one of them is detected, surgical expansion of the diameter is recommended. To do this, they can install a stent (tube inside the vessel), perform an endarterectomy or angioplasty.
Prices for the treatment of the effects of microstroke in women and men
In women, micro strokes are more often diagnosed at the age of over 60, unlike men in whom micro strokes occur at a younger age. Symptoms of a microstroke are more pronounced in women – they tolerate damage to brain tissue more difficult, recover longer than men.
The first signs of a woman’s stroke appear in the form of nausea, dizziness. The woman is falling asleep; she is very tired and unwell. At this point, blood pressure may increase, bursting pain appears in the area of damage to brain tissue. Often breathing becomes quickened, the pain in the heart disturbs, it darkens in the eyes.
Symptoms are growing – a woman feels weakness in the limbs, it is difficult for her to get up, the temperature rises or a strong chill disturbs, irritates the light, loud noises. Facial facial expressions, speech, gait become staggering, the patient is difficult to maintain balance. All these symptoms are signals for urgent medical attention. A microstroke carried over on the legs becomes the cause of the development of an extensive stroke, severe heart disease.
For a quick and effective diagnosis of a microstroke, you should contact the neurology clinic of the Yusupov hospital, consulting a neurologist will help the patient get adequate, timely medical care and avoid serious complications.
The statistics of strokes speaks of the development of complications during the first months after a microstroke, if it was carried on legs, when help was rendered out of time. Even if the microstroke went unnoticed, complications did not develop after local lesions of brain tissue, with age it makes itself felt in the form of depression, decreased vision, frequent headaches, irritability, memory problems and concentration problems appear.