The first signs of myocardial infarction can be a sharp, compressive pain in the sternum, which can be transmitted to the muscles of the hands, shoulders, cervical region, and jaw. Acute pain can last up to twenty minutes. A characteristic feature of the pain syndrome is its manifestation even at rest.
Some people suffer a heart attack painlessly, but this is a small part of those who have suffered an ailment. The asymptomatic course of a heart attack is not a sign of its absence.
In addition to pain with myocardial infarction, other sensations may occur:
- profuse sweating, sticky perspiration;
- loss of consciousness (especially often in people who suffer from diabetes);
- sudden weakness;
- pallor of the skin;
- a sharp increase, and then a decrease in blood pressure.
Important! In myocardial infarction, in some cases, cardiac arrest may occur, which is the cause of death.
Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence of a heart attack, you should know the causes of its occurrence and try to eliminate them.
Myocardial infarction is a pathological disruption of the heart muscle, caused by a mismatch between the need for an organ in oxygen and the speed of its delivery. Subsequently, necrosis of muscle tissue develops. In men, the development of a heart attack is more common, in women, a tendency appears after menopause. The most common factors leading to a state of heart attack include:
- Gender feature. Men are more prone to heart attacks.
- Climax During the restructuring of the body, a malfunction in blood pressure and weight gain occurs. A combination of factors can cause a heart attack.
- Hereditary predisposition.
- An excess of cholesterol.
- The use of tobacco products.
- Psycho-emotional overvoltage.
- Frequent increase in blood pressure above 145/90.
About 98% of heart attacks cause narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery as a result of an atherosclerotic change in the vessel — a commonplace “cholesterol plaque”.
The remaining 2% of all heart attacks have their causes:
- Coronary spasm
- Coronary Artery Thrombosis
- Complications after coronary artery surgery
Risk factors include:
With age, the walls of our blood vessels begin to become damaged. The body has a system for repairing these defects: it “covers up” cracks in the vessels with cholesterol. If a person has high cholesterol, then this “bad” cholesterol will aggregate on the walls of blood vessels in places of smeared cracks. Aggregation of cholesterol in the form of a “plaque” over time overlaps the coronary artery.
It leads to increased trauma to the walls of blood vessels and provokes the process of atherosclerosis described above.
- Elevated homocysteine levels
Homocysteine is an amino acid that accumulates in the body with age and injures the inner wall of the vessel. It leads to atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
Tobacco smoke damages blood vessels, including by increasing homocysteine levels.
Sugar exchange defect has a destructive effect on all cells of the body, including vascular.
Vascular degeneration is an age-related change.
Men suffer from heart attacks more often.
Animal fats cause an increase in cholesterol and provokes its deposition on the walls of blood vessels.
It creates an additional load on the vascular system and negatively affects all metabolic processes in the body.
In order for our heart to work well and not lack nutrition, it must periodically be in a loaded state. Exercise trains the heart muscle.
Psychological stress can cause vasospasm and, together with a general weakening of health caused by a sedentary lifestyle, can be an additional risk factor.
Extensive heart attack is especially dangerous for human life. If with a normal heart attack, blood circulation is disrupted only in a small part of the organ, then with an extensive form of a nutritional disease, almost the whole heart is lost, which leads to necrosis of the heart tissue.
Depending on the area of necrosis, an extensive heart attack is divided into infarction of the posterior wall and anterior. With infarction of the posterior wall, the right coronary artery becomes clogged, and with infarction of the anterior wall, the left artery.
Extensive infarction of the anterior wall threatens greater danger.
This severe pathology provokes many negative factors. Basically, an extensive myocardial infarction is caused by several reasons:
- Causes of high and low blood pressure
- Which means when the pressure is 140 to 60
- Pressure 140 to 60: what to do
- Daily Rules for Normalizing Pressure
Blood pressure is the most important indicator of the functioning of the body. Normal data are 120/70, small deviations usually do not cause much concern.
With intense loads and unrest, the pressure can increase, but if there is no pathology, it quickly recovers to an average level.
Pressure figures 140 to 60 are not the norm for either the lower or the upper indicator. What do these data mean and what treatment needs to be done?
Elevated pressure begins to alarm people after thirty years, but low blood pressure even attacks adolescents.
With an upper pressure of 140 and the following symptoms, there is a likelihood of a hypertensive crisis requiring immediate medical attention:
- Strong headache;
- Nausea or vomiting;
- Darkening in the eyes or “goosebumps” in front of the eyes;
- Sudden breakdown;
- Sticky sweat.
If you neglect your condition, serious complications are possible.
This deficiency will not go unnoticed for the body, and a person will feel a complete set of unpleasant symptoms.
The difference between the upper and lower pressure is considered the pulse pressure. Its norm is from 30 to 40 mm Hg. Art. With pressure surges or a sharp decrease in pressure, the pulse pressure remains at the usual level. But sometimes the difference is more than 40 mm, which indicates the presence of pathology.
An increase in pulse pressure also occurs in healthy people with various overloads, but over the course of a minute, PA blood pressure usually normalizes.
At a pressure of 140 to 60, a thorough examination is required. A significant difference in performance may indicate serious ailments:
- Aortic valve disease
- Heart disease, including chronic failure;
- Intracranial hypertension;
- Negative changes in the vessels.
With such diseases, a continuous monitoring by a cardiologist is mandatory. The greater the pressure, the less flexible the vessels. The cause of this can also be iron deficiency or interruptions in the functioning of the thyroid gland.
High upper pressure with lower lower pressure is typical for elderly patients. This is a consequence of a decrease in vascular flexibility due to damage to atherosclerosis. An isolated increase in upper arterial pressure sometimes provokes a stroke and myocardial infarction.
It is necessary to constantly monitor the pulse pressure, measuring it twice a day. Modern electronic blood pressure monitors make it easy to determine the pressure indicators at home, which gives doctors the opportunity, if necessary, to analyze the dynamics and adjust the therapy.
There are methods that allow you to normalize the pressure yourself:
- Ginger decoction (2 tbsp.spoons of grated root are poured with a liter of boiling water and infused for half an hour). Take a drink three times a day for a month.
- Breathing exercise: taking a deep breath with your mouth, holding your breath for 5 seconds and exhaling through your nose. It is performed slowly 15 times a day.
- Self-massage of the cervical vertebrae, rotation of the head in different directions.
- Eating foods rich in folic acid and iron (legumes, nuts, boiled potatoes, sauerkraut). And no diets!
- Pulse pressure decreases with diuretics, which reduce the volume of circulating blood, and the load on the heart decreases.
If the pressure does not return to normal, a quick call to the doctor is required.
Observing a number of simple recommendations, you can significantly alleviate the condition and bring pressure to normal values:
- A full night’s sleep (an average of 8 hours is required).
- Properly composed menu, which implies a minimum of 4 meals during the day.
- Prevention of oxygen starvation. You need regular ventilation and walks.
- Properly organized workplace. A lighting shortage or an uncomfortable posture can trigger headaches and pressure surges.
- Before going to bed, lying on your back, you need to raise your legs high (you can lean them against the wall) to ensure the outflow of blood. Lie in this position for a quarter of an hour.
- clinical picture
- How a heart attack begins: just about the difficult. Signs, stages, complications
- Infarct periods
- Pressure in women and men
- Types of arrhythmias
- How pressure helps to recognize a heart attack
- Heart attack symptoms
- Diagnostics and differential diagnostics
- Heart attack and high blood pressure treatment
- Surgical method
- First aid
- Heart attack complications
- preventive measures
- Life prognosis: how many patients live after suffering a myocardial infarction, and how to avoid relapse?
- Risk Factors
- Exercise stress
- Life forecast
In most cases, pain during a heart attack is compressive or oppressive. They are located in the atrium and usually give to the left shoulder, arm, neck. Pain can be felt even in the lower jaw. In addition, discomfort is often felt between the shoulder blades. Sometimes pain occurs in several places at once.
Often there are various combinations of irradiation of pain. In this case, typical localization in the left part of the body is combined with atypical, when discomfort occurs in the right area of the trunk and epigastric region.
A distinctive feature of a heart attack is a pronounced and quite prolonged angina syndrome, which is characterized by pain behind the sternum. Also, pain can be localized in the apex region.
As for the duration of the attack and the severity of symptoms, they can have a very different nature. The discomfort is short-term or long enough, lasting for a day.
In some cases, the pain manifests itself in the form of one long attack. In other situations, pain occurs in the form of several seizures, which are accompanied by gradually increasing discomfort. There are situations when the pain syndrome is not too pronounced.
Almost every angina attack, including atypical pain, in a person who has several risk factors for developing ischemia should make the doctor suspect the development of myocardial infarction.
Severe pain, which lasts quite a while, is characteristic of common lesions. In such cases, mortality is much higher.
Pain syndrome accompanies a number of manifestations – to them, in particular, include general weakness. At the beginning of the attack, excitement may appear, which subsequently replaces fear, depression, pallor of the skin, and sometimes excessive sweating. Often there is shortness of breath.
In addition, a person’s skin becomes pale, cyanosis of the mucous membranes is observed. Often there is tachypnea and acrocyanosis. It is also possible the development of tachycardia, which is characterized by increased resistance and is not associated with an increase in body temperature.
In more rare cases, people have bradycardia. As a rule, it is transient and temporary, if not associated with a violation of conductivity. Then it is replaced by a normal heart rate or transformed into tachycardia.
One of the complications of a heart attack is cardiogenic shock. It is characterized by a pronounced decrease in pressure – less than 80 mm Hg. In this case, a weak filling pulse is observed, having a frequency of more than 100-120 beats per minute.
If the pressure drops below 60/40 mm Hg, it becomes threadlike. With a more pronounced decrease, it is not possible to feel the pulse.
How a heart attack begins: just about the difficult. Signs, stages, complications
According to the stages of development, a heart attack is divided into the most acute, acute, subacute and the scarring period. Each of them has its own characteristics of the flow.
Acute myocardial infarction lasts up to 2 hours from the onset of the attack. Strong and prolonged bouts of pain indicate the proliferation of the focus of necrotic lesion.
The acute period of a heart attack lasts several days (on average, up to 10). The area of ischemic necrosis is delimited from healthy myocardial tissues. This process is accompanied by shortness of breath, weakness, and an increase in body temperature of the degrees. It was at this time that the risk of complications of a heart attack or its relapse was especially great.
In the subacute stage of a heart attack, dead myocardial tissue is replaced by a scar. It lasts up to 2 months after the attack. All this time, the patient complains of symptoms of heart failure and increased blood pressure. The absence of angina attacks is a favorable indicator, but if they persist, it increases the risk of a repeated heart attack.
The period of scarring after myocardial infarction lasts about six months. The healthy part of the myocardium resumes its effective work, Blood pressure and pulse return to normal, symptoms of heart failure disappear.
1. Coronary heart disease (CHD).
In the vast majority of cases, a heart attack does not develop suddenly and is a consequence of coronary heart disease. The term “ischemia” means a lack of blood supply to organs.
CHD is characterized by periodic chest pains that occur especially during movement, physical and emotional stresses that make the heart beat faster and, therefore, require more nutrition for the heart muscle.
The progression of coronary heart disease increases the risk of sudden heart attack.
2. The period of religious pain
Usually a heart attack occurs at night or in the morning, but can occur during the day, for example, from emotional stress. The first fifteen minutes of undulating chest pains are called religious. They can be acute unbearable in nature or be dull laying pains. The attack of pain reaches its maximum, then the intensity decreases, after which the attack gains new strength.
The period of religious pain can last 15 minutes, but can last up to several hours. All this time, the myocardium experiences circulatory deficiency and thus signals a person about the need to take action.
3. Myocardial damage
Depending on the state of blood vessels, physical activity of a person, age and other individual factors, damage to myocardial cells occurs within 30 minutes after the onset of angiological pain. Myocardial necrosis occurs within 3 days from the onset of a heart attack.
4. Resorptive stage
Starting from the fourth day, the lesion is reduced. The boundaries of a heart attack take on a clearer outline. The cells of the outer part of the focus are restored, but continue to suffer from ischemia.
In the second week, fibroplasts and collagen fibers are formed along the edge of the necrosis focus, which are the basis of future connective tissue. Final scar formation takes up to 4 months.
In the event of an unforeseen situation, such forethought will play into the hands, as it will help to determine what indicators of pressure during a heart attack are life-threatening.
It is also necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
- in case of a constant increase in pressure, you need to register with a cardiologist;
- it is necessary to constantly monitor blood glucose and cholesterol levels;
- avoiding the development of a life-threatening condition will help quitting smoking and drinking alcohol;
- Being overweight is a burden that puts a significant strain on the heart, so you should get rid of it;
- very often a heart attack develops due to overwork, so you need to ensure a full night’s sleep;
- in order not to provoke the development of this disease, you must by all means avoid stressful situations;
- prevent the formation of blood clots proper nutrition and physical activity.
Many patients are interested in what should be the pulse after a heart attack? With a favorable prognosis, the heart rate will fully normalize.
After the patient is discharged from the hospital, he should take care of his health carefully. The main requirement is to monitor the pulse and pressure level. If these indicators deviate significantly from the norm, you should immediately contact a specialist. In addition, you must follow these rules:
- To refuse from bad habits. This is a complete exclusion of alcohol and smoking. Substances contained in alcohol and nicotine, even in small doses, can cause a second attack.
- Nutrition correction. The diet should be balanced. The body needs daily intake of all the minerals and vitamins necessary to strengthen the heart. You should eat as many fruits and vegetables as possible.
- Physical activity. This is especially true for those people who lead a sedentary lifestyle. Regarding the necessary exercises should consult with a specialist.
- Periodic spa treatment. An annual visit to such facilities has a beneficial effect on the patient’s condition. In addition to fresh air, procedures and a balanced diet, the necessary examination is also carried out here.
In some patients, a high pulse after a heart attack remains for some time. In such cases, it is necessary to see a doctor before normalization of indicators.
Changes in heart rate and pressure are often warned of the approach of a heart attack. In such cases, it is urgent to call an ambulance, which will prevent an attack. If it has already taken place, then before the arrival of the doctors, the patient should be given first aid, and specialists should be informed of all rescue actions taken. The prognosis of the disease largely depends on literacy and speed in this difficult period.
Pressure in women and men
The pressure in men and women is slightly different in nature. Although the indicators are identical, however, men statistically perform more physical work, which is associated with stress on the heart and blood vessels.
Thus, in men, a heart attack occurs three times more often than in women. Representatives of the fair sex are hormonally protected from heart diseases: their body provides for possible loads on the vessels (during childbirth, pregnancy).
Thus, in the case of a heart attack, tachycardia and high blood pressure are noted in men, while in women the pulse will be normal and blood vessels too.
Only after suffering a myocardial infarction can an increase in blood pressure be observed. With a problem with systole, it will be even less than normal.
Initially, blood pressure in representatives of different sexes differs from nature. The indicators may be equal, but men, due to their activity, are usually physically heavier loaded, which affects the congestion of the heart and blood vessels.
In this regard, with a heart attack, representatives of the stronger sex are 3 times more likely than women. The latter are protected by nature itself from heart pathologies, since their body is ready for stress on the vessels during the gestation and birth.
A heart attack can cause a man to increase blood pressure, tachycardia, and a woman’s heart rate and blood vessels can remain normal, only after a heart attack can blood pressure rise. If a problem with systole is detected, the pressure will be reduced. In women, heart pathologies are more difficult to identify, it is necessary to carefully examine.
Change in the rhythm rate of the heartbeat – arrhythmia. Every second person on the planet is faced with a similar deviation. Sensations, frankly, not very. Due to interruptions in the work of the heart, cardiac tremors or their fading are felt.
Unfortunately, many do not pay attention to such a feeling, but in vain. Most deviations require expert help. Normal heart rate for adults is 60-90 beats per minute. Moreover, such a heart rate indicator should be measured when a person is in a calm state, and the interval of heart beats is the same.
With an increase in load, the rhythm of contractions increases. This is normal. At this point, the body is enriched with enough nutrients and oxygen levels. With the cessation of the load, the number of heart beats per minute returns to normal.
Another thing is when the load on the body is absent, and the amount of contraction of the heart muscle increases. In this case, immediate treatment is required to avoid serious complications.
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Types of arrhythmias
- Ventricular tachycardia.
- Heart Rate Disorders.
The most common is extrasystole, when an extraordinary contraction of the heart occurs with sensations of an additional cardiac impulse or its fading. When this happens, the heart rate is broken, and the person himself does not notice it.
The pulse and pressure indicators for representatives of both sexes may be identical, however, this does not mean the same course of this disease. According to statistics, men have more physical labor, which is why the heart muscle and vascular system are additionally loaded.
According to statistics, male heart attack occurs three times more often than female.
This is partly due to the fact that the fair sex has hormonal protection against cardiac pathologies. During childbirth and during pregnancy, their body experiences significant stress on the vessels, and therefore the body is initially programmed to withstand such factors.
What heart rate is observed in both sexes with a heart attack? If men can have tachycardia and a significant increase in pressure during the attack period, then most women in this case maintain a normal pulse and the vascular system functions in the usual way. Therefore, to identify pathologies in the latter, a thorough examination is necessary.
If a patient has suffered a heart attack, then his likelihood of a relapse of the disease increases significantly. The reason for this is the pressure drops as a result of malfunctioning of the heart muscle. Therefore, for some time, the patient should be in the intensive care unit, which will help maintain his body in a normal state.
In the process of daily monitoring, specialists monitor the systole and diastole, which helps prevent the occurrence of repeated heart attack. Usually, the patient returns to the general ward after 10 days of being in intensive care.
If the female body normalizes the pressure within five days after the attack, then in men, drops are possible and after twice as much time. The danger of a heart attack is that sometimes a relapse of the disease occurs even as a result of careful treatment. Therefore, after the passage of therapy, experts recommend that patients visit special institutions of the sanatorium type. The absence of stress is also important, because the patient should avoid serious nervous shocks whenever possible.
How pressure helps to recognize a heart attack
Arterial hypertension is the most common pathology of the cardiovascular system. High blood pressure is always bad. However, it is high pressure that may indicate an approaching myocardial infarction.
Any person should be wary of a situation in which pressure suddenly rises, and then also suddenly begins to decline and rise again to its original level. However, what is surprising is that such pressure surges are commonplace for most people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
Meanwhile, this is possible only in two cases:
- in violation of cardiological dynamics;
- in case of malfunctioning vessels.
However, not every person should have it exactly as it is written in the script. In some people, the pressure may not change at all. In any case, pressure surges indicate a decrease in the heart and a reduction in its volume as a result of the death of muscle tissue. Moreover, the restoration of pressure to the usual level always indicates a positive trend.
Equally important is the heart rate. Normally, it can be from 50 to 60 beats/min. A rapid pulse with myocardial infarction indicates the progression of the disease. In this case, blood pressure indicators may be slightly increased or correspond to the norm. In some cases, the pressure can increase significantly.
This means that high blood pressure during a heart attack is not dangerous, since in this way the heart tries to compensate for the lack of oxygen. More dangerous is a significant decrease in blood pressure. This condition can cause cardiogenic shock – a complication of myocardial infarction, in which heart failure develops.
Heart attack symptoms
|Typical||All of the above symptoms are characteristic. The most commonly reported type of heart attack.|
|Gastralgic||The first symptom is abdominal pain.|
|Asthmatic||It is manifested by a feeling of suffocation, masking pain in the posterior part of the chest.|
|Arrhythmic||Caused by a severe failure of the heart rhythm, can cause fatal consequences.|
|Cerebral||Concerned with the symptoms of a stroke, in severe cases, there is a high risk of developing cardiogenic shock.|
|Asymptomatic||There are no characteristic signs.|
- Chest pain (acute piercing, strong compressive or oppressive).
- The wave-like nature of the pain: each subsequent wave in its soreness exceeds the previous one.
- The pain almost does not pass from taking nitroglycerin.
- Pain radiating to the neck and lower jaw, to the left arm, wrapping around the ribs and back.
- Lowering blood pressure.
- Irregular intermittent breathing, feeling of lack of air.
- Dizziness, weakness, agitation, anxiety.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Increased sweating.
- Loss of consciousness, lack of breathing, pulse and palpitations.
Even educated people can not always answer the question: does a heart attack increase or decrease with a heart attack? The generally accepted point of view is the opinion that blood pressure during myocardial infarction increases sharply. However, the general symptoms of this condition look like this:
- Lowering blood pressure. This is due to the fact that the heart cannot contract with the same frequency. The presence of low blood pressure in combination with arrhythmia is considered one of the main symptoms of a heart attack.
- Pressive, sometimes unbearable acute pain in the upper left part of the body, passing to the back, left arm, shoulder blade and neck.
- Very strong pain can provoke nausea, an attack of vomiting, fainting, convulsions.
- If the patient remains conscious, then he has a panic state, waves of fear roll over his life, a cold sweat appears.
However, the symptoms of a heart attack can be atypical. In this case, a person has a stomach ache as if pancreatitis is exacerbating, breathing problems, arrhythmia can be observed. Sometimes this insidious disease occurs even without any symptoms and pressure changes, and only in time the ECG done helps doctors determine that a person has had a malfunction in the heart.
This disease can be recognized by the following signs:
- The presence of severe compressive pain localized in the chest. Such an attack is not stopped by Nitroglycerin. The transition of pain to the left arm is possible. The duration of unpleasant sensations can pass within twenty minutes, but it can be several hours.
- An irregular heart rate during a heart attack is noted quite often (increased frequency, rhythm malfunction).
- Nervous arousal, against which there is a lack of air.
Diagnostics and differential diagnostics
Diagnosis of a heart attack is carried out:
- by external signs
- based on a cardiogram
- laboratory blood tests for the level of cardiomyocytes.
The external symptoms of a heart attack are very similar to the pains that accompany three cardiovascular diseases:
- angina pectoris
- acute coronary insufficiency
Unlike angina pectoris, the pain in a heart attack is less defined, more extensive and has a growing character. In addition, angina attacks are relieved by nitroglycerin.
Pain arising from acute coronary insufficiency does not pass from nitroglycerin, which reminds heart attacks. But their duration is different: heart attacks can last several hours, with coronary insufficiency – no more than an hour. Changes in muscle after a heart attack are irreversible. In coronary insufficiency, the heart muscle recovers after 3 days.
Pericardial pains, although they can be pulsating and undulating as in a heart attack, but they are not of an increasing nature.
Often pain gives to the right side. Characterized by shortness of breath, asthma attacks, wheezing and noise in the lungs (pulmonary infarction).
Atypical pains arising sharply without preliminary manifestations. The pain migrates down to the waist and legs.
Shingles appear after eating. One of the key symptoms is frequent vomiting.
Noises in the lungs, fever.
- Herniated disc and other diseases of the spine
Pain depends on the position of the body and the movements performed.
Appear after eating, affects the right side of the chest.
Heart attack and high blood pressure treatment
The main harbinger of a heart attack is high blood pressure. Patients with arterial hypertension are most at risk of developing a heart attack.
To treat high blood pressure and prevent a heart attack, it is recommended to adhere to the following measures, due to which blood pressure will return to normal:
- diet food, which excludes fatty, smoked foods, fast food, alcohol;
- regular physical (not heavy) stress, an active lifestyle;
- elimination of bad habits – smoking;
- reduction of stressful moments and mental stress.
If a heart attack occurs, first aid is designed to restore blood supply to the affected area of the heart and should include the following actions:
- call an emergency ambulance, describing the condition of the patient;
- lay the patient, raise his head. At low pressure – on the contrary – reduce the position of the head. If there is shortness of breath, it is better to place the patient in a sitting position, raising his legs;
- with shortness of breath, take a tablet of Nitroglycerin. At low pressure, this measure is useless;
- measure blood pressure;
- you can take half a tablet of Aspirin.
As a rule, an ambulance takes the patient to the intensive care hospital unit, where he takes the necessary measures to save him.
To provide medical treatment, a combination of drugs is used that relieve pain:
- Morphine solution (1%) in an amount of 1-2 ml, in the same amount of Promedol, the same amount of Diphenhydramine and 2-4 ml of tranquilizer (Seduxen);
- a solution of Fentanyl (0,005%) in an amount of 1,2 ml (or a solution of morphine (1%) or Omnopon, or a solution (1%) of Promedon), twice the solution of Droperidol (0,25%).
When first aid is provided by the emergency team, measures may be taken in the intensive care unit: anesthesia from nitrous oxide and oxygen.
The drugs are administered intravenously: any of the combinations is diluted with a 5% glucose solution. In acute pain, analgesics should be reintroduced.
When the pain is stopped, the possible complications are eliminated: cardiac asthma, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmia. To do this, use drugs that eliminate the area of necrosis: thrombolytics, nitrates, beta blockers.
Surgical treatment of myocardial infarction includes methods to restore clogged vessels and restore blood flow:
- coronary artery bypass grafting. It involves the creation of bypass vessels, which are located around the affected area. Open heart surgery involves a sternum incision;
- coronary angioplasty. It involves the introduction of an expanding catheter – a balloon into the affected vessel to expand it. In this case, the mesh tube is inserted into the dilated vessel to ensure blood flow in the coronary artery.
Operations are performed in cases when the narrowing occurred on a large area of the vessel, with the defeat of several arteries, as well as with post-infarction aneurysm.
Important! At home, with the onset of a heart attack, the disease can not be cured! If you experience suspicious symptoms, you should call an ambulance and take the first measures of assistance to the victim.
Folk remedies will help to recover after medical treatment, during the rehabilitation period.
After discharge, the doctor prescribes drugs for the restoration of blood vessels.
In addition, you can apply:
- remedies with hawthorn, which contribute to a sedative and vasodilating property;
- herbal infusions to relieve swelling from the heart muscle and surrounding tissues.
At the first symptomatic manifestations of the patient must be sent to the hospital. The timely provision of medication can help the thrombus to resolve and resume blood flow. After that, prophylactic treatment is carried out that prevents thrombotic formation. However, more often the patient will need to do the operation.
The recovery period lasts several months. Due to a heart attack, heart failure and a number of other complications can occur. The consequences of an attack and a return to normal levels depend on the speed of medical care. Physical activity of the body increases gradually, patients are encouraged to review the rhythm of life. The pills prescribed by your doctor require you to take your whole life to maintain cardiac activity.
Surgery for a heart attack is not always required. Its expediency is determined in each case. The main indication for surgery is a progressive narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery. It is carried out to a greater extent to improve the overall prognosis than to treat an already completed heart attack.
In some cases, with the timely admission of the patient to the hospital, an emergency operation may be performed to reduce the focus of necrosis of the heart muscle.
In order to restore myocardial blood supply, three methods are used:
- Coronary Angioplasty
- Coronary stenting
- Coronary artery bypass grafting
Angioplasty is the name of a combination of minimally invasive techniques, as a result of which the expansion of the lumen of the vessel is performed without an open operation. One of the common types of angioplasty is the use of a balloon, which is inserted into the bloodstream using a special catheter and delivered to the site of narrowing.
The use of angioplasty for heart attack has its limitations. It is not performed on the main trunk of the coronary artery, as well as on the main artery supplying the remaining portion of the intact myocardium with blood.
Stenting is an independent method that can also complement angioplasty to stabilize the vessel. The metal structure – the stent – when folded, placed on the balloon, is passed through the bloodstream to the site of stenosis. When air is supplied to the balloon, the stent opens, creating a frame supporting structure for the vessel.
Despite the effectiveness of stenting, it also has some disadvantages, among which it should be noted:
- The possibility of injury to the vessel wall with a metal frame.
- The need to take anticoagulants to avoid adherence of blood cells to the stent.
Coronary artery bypass grafting is an open operation that has become the classic way of radical treatment of cardiac ischemia. The coronary artery at the site of damage is replaced by the so-called graft – part of the patient’s healthy vessel.
It is of paramount importance, as the pain leads to an increase in adrenaline, speeds up the heartbeat and, accordingly, increases the nutritional requirement of the myocardium, which cannot be adequate due to the narrowing of the coronary artery.
Due to the fact that nitroglycerin with a heart attack is ineffective, analgesics are used to relieve acute pain, including intravenously:
To reduce the negative effects of analgesics, antihistamines and antipsychotics are used:
2. Anticoagulants and thrombolytics
Even in the absence of a blood clot, blood thinning with antithrombotic drugs improves its passage through the vessels and can increase blood supply to the myocardium. In addition, anticoagulants prevent the development of thromboembolic complications. This is, first of all:
In combination with anticoagulants, agents that destroy existing blood clots are used:
They can be administered in combination with, for example, heparin.
3. Reducing the load on the myocardium
Nitrate agents are also used:
- Isosorbide dinitrate
- Isosorbide mononitrate
A heart attack diet requires a lightweight diet with a low calorie content.
Excluded from the diet:
- Any fatty foods (including fatty broths)
- All fried, smoked, baked
- flour products
The basis of the diet should be:
- Vegetables (stewed and fresh)
- Fruits (can be mashed)
- Juices, compotes
The probability of sudden death during a heart attack is from 30% to 50% of all cases.
If a person survived during the first day, then in the first year, sudden death occurs in 5% of patients.
The risk of death increases significantly:
- With ongoing stenosis of the coronary artery.
- In a group of patients with tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (arrhythmias) that occurred after a heart attack.
- With a significant degradation of the function of the left ventricle and a reduction in blood flow to 40% or less.
In the absence of complications, timely therapy, and a change in lifestyle, a person who has had a heart attack has a good prognosis and can survive for decades.
Some cardiologists before discharge of patients with myocardial infarction carry out a special test – a submaximal load test. The purpose of the test is to elucidate the response of the heart muscle to physical activity. This technique allows you to give a fairly realistic forecast and, in addition, to choose the necessary level of physical activity.
It should be borne in mind that atherosclerotic vascular lesion does not have a clearly defined localization in the body. Myocardial ischemia can be a harbinger of further ischemia (for example, limbs, brain, and other internal organs).
There are quite a few methods for treating the consequences of a heart attack. Initially, experts advise to abandon increased loads. Moreover, psychological and physical overloads are contraindicated for such patients.
An important step is to call an emergency. For symptoms of the development of the disease or acute pain, it is necessary to immediately take the Nitroglycerin tablet, if necessary, take the tablet again. It is forbidden to reduce pressure, with a heart attack, sharply reduced pressure will lead to disastrous consequences. In an acute attack, loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, loss of heart rhythm are observed, emergency care is required.
The main thing in a situation where a person has obvious signs of a heart attack is not to panic. Actions must be conscious and confident. First you need to call an ambulance, and then try to alleviate the condition of the patient yourself. First aid for an attack is to lay the person in a way that is convenient for him.
With a heart attack, you need to give the patient immediately one tablet of nitroglycerin 0,5 mg. An aspirin tablet in a dosage of 150 to 250 mg will also help alleviate the condition. If there is no nausea and vomiting, then you can drink Corvalol (40 drops per ½ cup of water). Prior to the arrival of the Ambulance, nitroglycerin should be taken every 15 minutes on a tablet, absorbing them under the tongue, while not forgetting to regularly measure the pressure during a heart attack.
What should I do if a person becomes ill on the street, in a store, or an acute myocardial infarction happened at home? This can occur from fright, overexcitation, with excessive physical exertion, strong emotional stress.
The man heard bad news, grabbed his heart and began to suffocate, and only you were nearby .
It is known that in half the cases, patients do not die during a heart attack, but only because they were not helped on time or were rendered wrong. But emergency care for myocardial infarction does not require a medical education! It is enough to have the most general concept of what and how happened in the body and remember the algorithm of priority actions to help the victim hold out until the doctors arrive.
In case of a heart attack, you should immediately call an ambulance. Calling the dispatcher, say that the person became ill with the heart and describe the symptoms, then the resuscitation or cardiology team will come to the call. It is better to meet doctors in an agreed place, and they will not have to look for an entrance, wait at the intercom or find out exactly where the accident happened on the street. While the doctors are going:
- Check the pulse of the victim. If a heart attack occurs outside the home, ask for help at your nearest pharmacy: the pharmacist will measure the patient’s pressure and bring the necessary medicines.
- The first thing to do immediately after a heart attack is to give the victim such a position of the body so that he feels better and his heart is strained as little as possible. If it was not possible to measure the pressure, first aid for myocardial infarction will depend on how the patient looks:
- The man turned pale, the heart beats slowly and unevenly. Lay the victim on a hard, flat surface, and slightly tilt his head back.
- He probably has low blood pressure. A rush of blood to the brain will help prevent fainting.
- The heart rate is not slowed down, and the complexion is normal. It is better to lay the patient on the ground or on the floor with his head raised, placing a rigid roll of twisted clothes under his neck (but not under his head!).
- Sometimes with a heart attack, cardiac asthma develops: a person becomes restless, he often breathes – respiratory movements per minute. Set him on a hard chair, bench, bed (closer to the edge, legs down).
Open the shirt collar to the patient. If a heart attack occurred at home, open the windows and doors, even if you yourself do not feel stuffy. In winter, just open the door and window.
A patient with dyspnea must be given nitroglycerin. In no case do not immediately give a second pill if he does not feel better! With a heart attack, nitroglycerin does not completely relieve pain, as with a normal heart attack – angina pectoris. You can drink a second tablet of nitroglycerin only after 10, and preferably 15 minutes.
- A pale person with a weak pulse cannot take nitroglycerin! The pressure will decrease and he will feel worse. Let him chew a 325 mg aspirin tablet.
- Analgin or another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug will help reduce pain.
- First aid for a heart attack does not include Valocordin! It does not help relieve pain, although there will be no harm from it – it will act as a sedative. But motherwort or valerian drops better soothe the heart.
If you saw that there was a cardiac arrest (a person is unconscious, he is not breathing, the pulse is not palpable), proceed to the next resuscitation measures. Even those who have never done this before can help a person and bring him back to life!
Lay the patient face up on the floor or on the ground. Put him a short strong blow with his fist in the sternum – it is called precardial. Such a stroke acts in the same way as an electric discharge of a defibrillator, and in the first seconds after a stop it can help “start” the heart muscle. The more time has passed since the alleged moment of clinical death, the more difficult it is for doctors to make the heart beat.
If the attempt fails, emergency care for myocardial infarction proceeds to the next step: indirect heart massage and artificial respiration. First, check the airway – if the tongue is sunken, if there are any vomit, push the lower jaw of the victim forward. After every 15 thrusts into the sternum over the heart region, two breaths and two exhalations “mouth to mouth” or “mouth to nose” are made and the pulse checked.
In our turbulent times, heart attacks occur quite often, and the topic “first aid for myocardial infarction” is constantly discussed in popular medical programs. Nevertheless, there are several tips that are passed from mouth to mouth – and following them is not only useless, but also deadly!
One of them – with a sharp pain in the heart, put a heating pad on the chest. You can’t do this! It does not relieve pain, and sometimes even intensifies it. In addition, if it is difficult for a person to breathe, a warm heating pad in the heart area only worsens his well-being and condition.
Another mistake is to take “something from heartburn or stomach pain” instead of calling an ambulance. A heart attack pain may resemble heartburn (and the patient takes a soda solution) or an ulcer attack (and he drinks Almagel). Soda and stomach medicines, of course, will not harm him. But they will not help.
Therefore, if heartburn or “stomach pain” does not go away from the usual remedies, call a doctor immediately! Perhaps this is really an ulcer. But if you are wrong, then losing time is dangerous.
Heart attack complications
Timely recognized heart attack and the provision of adequate medical care in most cases guarantee the absence of complications.
However, in practice, not everyone arrives at the hospital on time. The following complications are the most common.
1. The deterioration of the contractility of the heart.
The likelihood of heart failure is proportional to the magnitude of myocardial necrosis. As a result of a decrease in the beneficial muscle, the contractile functionality of the heart decreases while maintaining the same load, which leads to faster muscle wear and the appearance of additional symptoms and syndromes.
2. Tachycardia and chaotic contraction (fibrillation) of the ventricles.
Arrhythmia is the most common complication after a heart attack. Requires maintenance therapy.
3. Permanent pain syndrome.
Often encountered complication, accompanying about 30% of patients who survived a heart attack. Pain sensations give an extra load on the heart and complicate rehabilitation. Drug therapy is indicated.
4. Change in the mechanics of the heart.
These complications are rare and include structural changes such as rupture of the septum between the ventricles, aneurysms. Mechanical defects of the heart require surgical intervention.
5. Dressler’s syndrome.
A rare set of symptoms, which is based on an autoimmune reaction of the body, leading to pleurisy and pericarditis. Hormone therapy is indicated.
Myocardial infarction is dangerous both in itself and the complications that occur at different stages of the disease.
Early complications of a heart attack include impaired heart rhythm and conduction, cardiogenic shock, acute heart failure, thromboembolism, pericarditis, myocardial rupture, hypotension, respiratory failure and pulmonary edema.
In the late stages of a heart attack, there is a risk of developing chronic heart failure, Dressler’s post-infarction syndrome, thromboembolism and other complications.
Myocardial infarction in the first months of rehabilitation is accompanied by a pulse with a high frequency and low amplitude, which are caused by the presence of a defect in the muscle tissue of the heart. Heart rate monitoring is performed to prevent complications.
The pulse rate value characterizes the reaction of the cardiac conduction system to changes in the percentage of oxygen in the tissues. A pathological frequent pulse after a heart attack is accompanied by the presence of the following clinical symptoms:
- pain in the heart;
- shortness of breath;
- cyanosis or hyperemia of the skin;
- peripheral edema;
- impaired consciousness.
These conditions can be caused by repeated ischemic attack, acute heart failure, or other causes.
The defeat of a significant portion of the myocardium is accompanied by an expansion of the heart cavity and rhythm contractions. An increase in the volume of the heart chambers with areas of hypokinesia is characterized by the development of blood clots (blood clots) in the area of reduced contractile function. The presence of atrial fibrillation contributes to the separation of blood clots from the walls of the heart and advancement in the bloodstream. Stroke is one of the options for complications that occurs as a result of a thrombus clogging of the arteries of the brain.
After the patient has been discharged from the hospital, care must be taken to maintain good health. To do this, you will have to go through several stages of redistributing the daily routine and rejecting harmful substances:
To refuse from bad habits. For women and men, alcohol and smoking are equally dangerous. Even in small doses, it can cause repeated attacks, impairs the functioning of blood vessels and the heart.
Any prohibited substances should not be taken so as not to create an additional burden on the cardiovascular system.
Proper nutrition. It is necessary to monitor the sufficient intake of vitamins in the body and monitor pressure indicators. After discharge, it is important to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables.
You can make juices and fruit drinks to improve well-being. use confectionery less – they have a lot of simple carbohydrates and cholesterol, which negatively affects blood vessels and can increase blood pressure. For women, this information is especially relevant, because they consume sweets more.
It is important to contact an ambulance as soon as possible, to ensure peace of mind. Compliance with the doctor’s prescriptions is the main way to recovery.
To maintain pressure after a heart attack, you should normally change your lifestyle and strictly adhere to the doctor’s recommendations. Along with the use of medical treatment aimed at supporting blood pressure indicators in conditions comfortable for the patient, it will be necessary to change the lifestyle in order to improve the state of health and prevent the recurrence of dangerous conditions.
Avoid dangerous re-infarction will help:
- refusal of junk food that can increase cholesterol and blood clotting;
- weight loss on the recommendation of a doctor;
- complete cessation of smoking, alcohol intake even in small doses;
- daily maintenance of physical activity – performing a set of exercises recommended by a doctor, walking, using light physical labor aimed at self-care;
- prevention of stressful situations, daily maintenance of good mood, positive communication with friends or relatives;
- conducting medical consultations with doctors of narrow specialties, the strict implementation of their recommendations;
- regular monitoring of blood pressure.
What to do to prevent death or dangerous complications of a heart attack? No matter how terrible the situation is, relatives of the patient with signs of a heart attack should take control of the situation. You need to act clearly and quickly. An urgent call to the ambulance team, monitoring the pressure indicators of the patient with a heart attack will help to avoid many troubles. Whether a person can survive a heart attack depends on a number of factors, but the timeliness of emergency care is the main one.
After discharge from the hospital, you need to know how to maintain a stable state and prevent pressure drops. To do this, review the daily regimen, draw up the correct schedule, adjust the diet and remember the following recommendations:
- Forget bad habits forever. Alcohol and nicotine are equally harmful to both sexes. Even in small doses, harmful substances disrupt the functioning of the heart, can provoke a second attack. Taboo also applies to prohibited substances.
- Adjust nutrition. The necessary vitamins and minerals must be supplied to the body daily to strengthen the heart muscle and improve the condition of blood vessels. The diet should have a lot of vegetables and fruits, and it is better to refuse cakes and pastries – they contain an excess of cholesterol and simple carbohydrates, which in the long run has a bad effect on blood vessels and increases blood pressure. So that the pressure does not jump, you need to eat less smoked and fried foods, reduce the amount of salt on the table. If it is difficult to make the right diet yourself, a cardiologist and a nutritionist will come to the rescue.
- Normalize physical activity. Physically, you should not overstrain immediately after discharge from the hospital – the doctor will recommend a normal level of physical activity. Overvoltage is dangerous, but physical inactivity is no less harmful, so you need to provide moderate stress to your body. There is a special therapeutic gymnastics that supports muscle tone and good condition of blood vessels. The doctor will tell you what exercises will be useful. In addition, outdoor walks will help. You just need to choose the right rhythm, so as not to suffocate, and move further away from dusty roads.
- Ride to the sanatorium. Improving health at resorts and spas is best annually throughout life. This will help maintain overall health at altitude. Fresh air, a comprehensive examination, useful procedures are what you need to restore strength and replenish energy reserves.
Many people wonder why a heart attack occurred after the attack, but you need to take care of your health in advance. To prevent an attack, experts recommend leading a healthy, active lifestyle, adhering to a healthy diet, and abandon addiction. Contributes to the development of pathology overweight, diabetes, high blood pressure, an excess of cholesterol.
- it is worth maintaining the level of pressure at around 90-140 mm RT. Art;
- with excess weight, the norm of permissible weight is determined and the process of losing weight begins;
- get rid of addictions;
- increase lifestyle activity;
- limit stressful situations;
- normalize the daily routine.
The best prevention of heart attack is maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
1. Activity and mobility.
For early recognition of coronary artery ischemia and to prevent a heart attack, daily light physical activity, such as brisk walking, is required. Doctors in different countries agree that daily aerobic (i.e., fresh air) exercise for 2 hours is optimal for health.
Do not forget about morning exercises. It is useful to diversify life with other physical activities: do swimming, yoga or table tennis.
2. Refusal of cigarettes.
Smoking constricts blood vessels, including coronary vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack. In addition, tobacco smoke destructively affects hundreds of processes occurring in the body.
3. Nutrition without cholesterol.
There is nothing more important than what we eat. This is absolutely true for the prevention of all cardiovascular diseases.
Eliminate or at least minimize foods high in animal fats: fatty meat and fish, cheeses, fatty cottage cheese, eggs, butter.
Increase the presence in the diet of vegetables, fruits, nuts, vegetable oils.
Life prognosis: how many patients live after suffering a myocardial infarction, and how to avoid relapse?
Nutrition and Diet
Depending on how timely the medical care was provided for a heart attack, the prognosis of the further state of a person depends. If, with the help of drugs, it was possible to remove a blood clot from the coronary artery, or to successfully conduct an emergency operation on the heart, thereby normalizing the work of the heart muscle and pressure, then a cautiously optimistic prognosis can be made in the future.
Prevention of the possibility of a repeated heart attack includes the following medical requirements:
- The patient must unconditionally get rid of bad habits. Even the smallest doses of tobacco smoke and alcohol can increase blood pressure and contribute to relapse.
- Since the cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, that is, the formation of cholesterol plaques on the inner surface of the vessel walls, you need to streamline your diet and revise your lifestyle to prevent the appearance of new blood clots in the vessels. The need to introduce fresh fruits and vegetables into the diet, normalize body weight, eliminate fatty and salty foods, eat less sweet pastry, dictates the need to stay healthy.
- Immediately after a heart attack, you should not engage in physical education and start running, but doctors recommend gradually increasing the minimum physical activity, doing at least morning exercises. This will help normalize blood pressure and avoid a repeated heart attack.
Myocardial infarction – a disappointing prognosis? Contrary to popular belief, this is not always the case. The diagnosis should not be taken as a sentence. Many people have microinfarctions on their legs and learn about it only by chance at a medical examination. Life expectancy after myocardial infarction depends on correctly carried out rehabilitation measures and the patient himself.
How many live after heart attack on average in Russia? For such a disease as myocardial infarction, the statistics today are disappointing. Mortality among primary hospitalized patients is 10% of the total. If the patient was able to survive the first month after the attack, then his chances of annual survival are about 80%, and five-year – 70%.
To prevent a heart attack and prevent a second attack, the patient should be aware of the risk factors for the disease. The causes of cardiovascular diseases include:
- Hypertension, since increased pressure in the vascular bed contributes to a change in the morphology of the walls of blood vessels, they become less elastic and cannot perform their functions at the same level;
- The presence of concomitant diseases accompanied by metabolic disorders. Most often refer to diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by the occurrence of dyslipidemia in the patient, leading to atherosclerotic vascular lesions, micro – and macroangiopathy;
- Male gender. According to statistics, in men, the frequency of heart attacks is four times higher than in women;
- Genetic predisposition. Diseases such as arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis are considered inherited;
- Age over 55 years in both men and women;
- Hypodynamia also leads to an increase in blood pressure, metabolic disorders and insufficient oxygen saturation of the blood. Skeletal muscles during contraction facilitate the work of the heart, as they provide blood flow through the veins, this phenomenon is called the “muscle pump”;
- Bad habits, especially smoking, which leads to spasm of blood vessels and changes in the structure of the vascular walls;
- Failure to diet, excess fats and carbohydrates in the diet, addiction to fatty, sweet, salty foods, non-compliance with the drinking regime. All this leads to a violation of water metabolism in the body and metabolic changes;
- Excessive emotional and physical stress, stress can lead to myocardial infarction;
- The consequences of coronary vessels and other surgical interventions.
Classically unfolding myocardial infarction, that is, its typical form, has a vivid picture. Acute pain syndrome comes to the fore, manifested by burning, squeezing, cutting pain in the region of the heart, which can radiate to the left half of the body, left limbs, neck, left shoulder blade.
Breathing quickens, choking attacks, difficulty in breathing are possible. There is tachycardia, a violation of the rhythm of the heart. The autonomic nervous system is characterized by sweating, while the sweat is sticky and cold, discoloration of the skin, pallor, blueness of the lips and peripheral parts of the limbs.
Rehabilitation measures after myocardial infarction reduce the likelihood of relapse and return a person to a normal, able-bodied life. An early period is recommended to take place in a hospital, after which the patient can be advised on spa treatment. The entire rehabilitation course is carried out under the strict guidance of a doctor and complies with the following rules:
- Continuous medical support. The doctor may prescribe drugs of the following groups: antihypertensives, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, statins, antiarrhythmic, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics and others;
- Dosed physical activity. A course of physiotherapy exercises is prescribed for patients, a set of exercises for self-fulfillment is recommended, correction of the regime of work and rest;
- Special anti-atherogenic diet. The rejection of junk foods high in simple carbohydrates and fats is recommended in favor of foods high in protein and essential nutrients;
- Correction of the patient’s controlled risk factors as much as possible: quitting smoking and drinking alcohol, weight control, treatment of chronic diseases.
Change the diet and diet. For each period of heart attack, the doctor prescribes his diet.
In the acute period, physically and chemically sparing food for a period of about two weeks is strictly recommended. The patient is allowed to eat only pureed meals without adding salt, liquid cereal cereals, vegetable soups, dairy products with a low percentage of fat are useful.
After a month from the development of a heart attack, the patient’s diet is changed, since the myocardium enters the scarring phase. During this period, cereals, bran, a large number of vegetables, fruits, decoctions of cranberries and rose hips are recommended for use.
An early but moderate physical activity is recommended for the prevention of thrombosis. If surgery is performed, for example, a stenting operation, then physical exercises are performed in bed. This is a passive and active flexion and extension of the limbs, turns.
After completing the inpatient phase, the doctor recommends that the patient begin with a low intensity of physical exercise, gradually increasing the complexity and time of the training. A set of exercises is selected individually, taking into account age, gender and diagnosis. Walking in the fresh air with heart rate control is very helpful. The load should be physiological, not cause pain in the heart, shortness of breath.
It is recommended to visit the halls of physiotherapy exercises, where the patient will be assigned a set of therapeutic exercises for patients after a heart attack. The most commonly used set of exercises is Professor N. G. Propastin for patients from 50 years old and the complex of I. V. Muravov, where exercises are presented in all planes: lying, standing, sitting, so these methods are suitable for patients at different stages of rehabilitation and in different physical condition.
In people with a history of myocardial infarction, the consequences and chances of survival depend on strict adherence to all medical recommendations.
The consequences of a heart attack include:
- First of all, cardiac arrest, which is a fatal complication.
- Post-infarction cardiosclerosis, which refers to a variety of coronary heart disease and is characterized by the fact that the muscle fibers of the myocardium begin to be replaced by connective tissue, which leads to a decrease in all cardiac functions, and primarily contractile.
- Extensive myocardial infarction in the acute phase is fraught with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. Patients with pulmonary edema need emergency resuscitation and their observation in the intensive care unit.
- Rupture of the walls of the heart, which will provoke hemorrhage and expansion of the necrosis zone.
- Long-term complications include the development of chronic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, damage to the valve system.
- The complications of ongoing drug therapy include autoimmune diseases, hypotension, respiratory failure due to the use of certain analgesic drugs.
The prognosis of life in patients with myocardial infarction varies greatly depending on many factors: the patient’s age, area and location of the damage to the heart muscle, concomitant pathology and proper rehabilitation, so no doctor can tell exactly how many years you can live after a heart attack.
For example, a person after suffering a microinfarction even at a young age has high chances to restore heart function almost completely, while for an elderly patient with concomitant pathology, the life expectancy after a heart attack is only a year.
Diet is a special component in the post-infarction period. You need to eat at least six times a day in minimal portions.
There are such ways of eating:
- in the acute stage of the disease. A strict diet is prescribed by a doctor, includes vegetable lean soups, cereals, low-fat dairy products in grated form, without salt;
- in the period after exacerbation, when you can add a little salt to food, eat lean soups, sprouted wheat. You can’t eat smoked meats, drink coffee or strong black tea. It is advisable to neglect confectionery in favor of dried fruits;
- during the rehabilitation period. Enough four meals a day, before going to bed (yes a couple of hours before), you can drink kefir or yogurt. You can’t eat smoked meats, add spicy seasonings, fat milk.