Obviously, the word “norm” can only be applied to the bone marrow, because myelocytes in the blood cannot be a priori present. And they are raised there only for certain reasons, and not just like that. Therefore, further – about the place of myelocytes in the bone marrow.
Currently, a bone marrow biopsy and its study (cytological analysis) is a mandatory procedure for suspected development of hematological pathology. Morphological characteristics of bone marrow after testing are compared with peripheral blood counts.
It should be noted that when examining the bone marrow (myelogram), doctors examine both generations of myelocytes together, without dividing them into daughter and maternal ones, since such a separation has absolutely no significance either for norm or pathology.
|Bone marrow elements||The limits of normal values,%||Average values,%|
|Reticular cells (reticular stromal cells)||0,1-1,6||0,9|
|All neutrophilic elements||52,7 – 68, 9||60,8|
|Neutrophil maturation index||0,5-0,9||—|
|Eosinophils (all generations)||0,5-5,8||3,2|
Basophilic and eosinophilic myeloblasts in a healthy bone marrow, as a rule, are not determined (they are difficult to recognize), but they become quite noticeable with a high eosinophilic reaction or chronic myeloid leukemia. Roughly the same thing happens with promyelocytes – young cells that tend to become neutrophils manifest themselves most of all.
As for myelocytes (eosinophilic, basophilic and neutrophilic), here the situation changes somewhat if there are no complaints about the main organ of hematopoiesis. Eosinophilic myelocyte, although the nucleus is similar to neutrophilic, but differs in a thick granular filling of the entire cytoplasm, basophilic myelocyte is also easily recognized, it is the first to acquire a specific granularity, which sparsely covers the cytoplasm. At the onset of the pathological process in the bone marrow, representatives of 3 generations of myelocytes are difficult to distinguish among themselves and all resemble neutrophils.
At the stage of metamyelocyte, the cells have already “determined” in their “profession”, therefore, it is not difficult for a specialist who knows their features and main features to understand “who is who.” Meanwhile, the description of the nucleus, cytoplasm, and other characteristics is unlikely to interest the reader, it’s difficult to understand all this, especially if there is no microscope nearby and the cell cannot be seen firsthand.
The pool of granular leukocytes originates in the bone marrow from pluripotent stem cells. Moving from class to class through a relatively small number of unipotent precursor cells, future leukocytes reach morphologically distinguishable proliferating forms – blasts (myeloblast), which are subsequently destined to become full-fledged “adult” neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils (provided that hematopoiesis goes in normal mode).
A myelocyte in the bone marrow exists in the form of two generations: cells that are larger in size — maternal, smaller — daughter. It is believed that mother cells lose their ability to proliferate and differentiate, but daughter cells have similar capabilities and, having passed the stage of metamyelocytes (young) and stabs, legally go into the blood to circulate through the blood vessels and perform important tasks for the body – to provide primary anti-infection protection by phagocytosis (“eating”) microorganisms that have fallen from outside. That is, before the myelocyte turns into a full-fledged “adult” neutrophil, one more stage of maturation must follow – metamyelocyte.
Metamyelocytes are a type of white blood cells that are concentrated in the bone marrow and for this reason their norm in the general blood test is not determined. The formation of neutrophil precursors in a general blood test is called a left shift of the white blood cell count. The reasons for this may be various pathological processes, which are characterized by absolute leukocytosis (an increased number of leukocytes). High metamyelocytes in the blood may indicate myeloid leukemia.
Band-shaped leukocytes are located in the blood, their number is about 3-5% of the rest of the white blood cells. Leukocyte leukocytes after they mature, are then transformed into a new form – neutrophils.
Protoplasm is quite oxophilic, able to take a pinkish color, sometimes with a bluish tinge, plus it has a fine, almost invisible, graininess that takes on a red-violet color.
Protoplasm of neutrophils contains a number of enzymes:
During certain diseases, such as scarlet fever, skin diseases, pneumonia – the protoplasm of neutrophils begins to contain coarse grains, which are also called toxic granules. Such grains are best seen during staining according to the Freifeld method.
Between the number of individual types of leukocytes contained in the blood, there are certain ratios, the percentage of which is called the leukocyte formula (Table 1).
This means that if the total leukocyte count is taken as 100%, then the content in the blood of a particular type of leukocyte will be a certain percentage of their total amount in the blood. For example, under normal conditions, the monocyte content is 200-600 cells in 1 μl (mm3), which is 2-10% of the total leukocyte content of 4000-9000 cells in 1 μl (mm3) of blood (see table 11.2). In a number of physiological and pathological conditions, an increase or decrease in the content of any type of white blood cells is often detected.
An increase in the number of individual forms of white blood cells is referred to as neutrophilia, eosinogenesis or basophilia, monocytosis or lymphocytosis. The decrease in the content of individual forms of leukocytes, respectively, was called neutro-, eosino-, monocyte- and lymphopenia.
The nature of the leukocyte formula depends on the person’s age, living conditions and other conditions. Under physiological conditions in a healthy person, absolute lymphocytosis and neutropenia occur in childhood, starting from 5-7 days of life to 5-7 years (the phenomenon of “leukocyte scissors” in children). Lymphocytosis and neutropenia can develop in children and adults living in the tropics.
Lymphocytosis is also observed in vegetarians (with a predominantly carbohydrate diet), and neutrophilia is characteristic of “digestive”, “myogenic” and “emotional” leukocytosis. Neutrophilia and a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left are noted in acute inflammatory processes (pneumonia, tonsillitis, etc.), and eosinophilia – in allergic conditions and helminthic invasions.
Thus, the analysis of the content of individual forms of leukocytes but the leukocyte formula has important diagnostic value
Table 1. Leukocyte formula of croci as an adult healthy person
Total white blood cell count
An increase in immature (young) forms of granulocytes in the blood indicates a stimulation of leukopoiesis in the bone marrow
An increase in mature forms of granulocytes (neutrophils) in the blood indicates inhibition of leukopoiesis in the bone marrow
The leukocyte formula refers to the ratio of different types of white blood cells. You should know that in newborn babies the values of these indicators are very different from the adult body. In order to evaluate this formula, sometimes it is necessary to identify the presence of white cells of different shapes and their number.
But it will also show the degree of damage to the body by one disease or another. Also, thanks to this formula, the doctor can navigate the correctness of the treatment. It should be noted that in a newborn, myelocytes are present in the blood in an amount of 0,5%. But this figure should go quickly.
Now you know what myelocytes are. Norms in the analysis of blood, you also know the reasons for increasing them. We hope you find the information useful.
Counting methods edit edit wiki text
White blood cells depending on the density are distributed unevenly in the smears: neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils – on the periphery, closer to the edges; monocytes, lymphocytes – closer to the middle.
When counting leukocytes, Schilling or Filippchenko methods are used.
According to Schilling, the number of leukocytes in four sections of the smear is determined (four-field method). In total, 100-200 cells are counted in a smear.
Filippchenko’s method is that the smear is mentally divided into 3 parts: initial, middle and final (three-field method). Counting is carried out in a straight line across the smear from one edge to the other. In each part, the same number of cells is counted. In total, 100-200 leukocytes are taken into account. Detected cells are recorded in a special differential counting table (Egorov grid). For faster and more convenient determination of the leukocyte formula, a special 11-key counter is used.
Normal metamyelocyte counts
During decryption, the healthcare provider initially counts at least 200 white blood cell cells. After that, he determines the percentage of each population. When these measures are completed, you can proceed to the study of cell structure and determination of inclusions.
As mentioned above, the presented elements are not present normally. Their discovery suggests that the process of maturation of new plasma cells occurs with a certain tension. This can occur in severe cases of an infectious disease. As a rule, this violation causes an increase in the total number of neutrophils. This condition is called a leukemoid reaction.
|from 1 to 4 days||2.5||2.5||%|
|up to 2 weeks||1.5||1.5||%|
|adults (over 2 weeks)||%|
It is not always clear to patients why in the general analysis there are so many different types of blood composition. They ask questions: “Why count incomprehensible neutrophils or metamyelocytes? It seems to be necessary to know only the general level of the main cells – red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. “
In fact, the general analysis contains all the necessary information about the patient’s health status. Doctors never look at any one indicator to detect abnormalities in the body.
The complex value of the quantities, their shifts and the ratio to each other are always taken into account.
Therefore, to understand why it is important to consider the number of myeloid forms, it is necessary to understand the functionality of neutrophils, their mature cells
- Neutrophilic myelocytes are babies who are completely helpless and safe. They are waiting for growing up.
- Neutrophilic metamyelocytes are young bodies that are not able to protect the body until they reach the next stage.
- Band neutrophils are inexperienced defenders, but they are already coping with their functions, although not so fast.
- Segmented neutrophils are mature bodies, fully armed and ready to perform the tasks of the immune system.
Just the last two types of leukocyte cells should already be detected in the blood, because they can protect a person from the attack of pathogens and foreign agents. Normally, segmented Taurus accounts for 50-70%, and stabs only 1-6%.
Granularity of the cytoplasm is also very important, because the granules contain all the necessary substances for the destruction of pests. As soon as inflammation occurs in the body, white blood cells quickly attack the enemy and remove toxins.
But if suddenly immunity does not cope with the disease, then immature cells – myelocytes and metamyelocytes – begin to stand out from the bone marrow to help. Higher numbers should alert the patient. Despite their helplessness in functional terms, according to the analysis, one can understand that the fight is desperate and it is urgent to attack the alien agent with medicines.
Leukopoiesis is a process of formation, differentiation and maturation of peripheral blood leukocytes. Mysopoiesis and lymphopoiesis are isolated in it. Myelopoiesis is the process of formation and differentiation in the red bone marrow of granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) and monocytes from PSGK. Lymphopoiesis is the process of formation in the red bone marrow and in the lymphoid organs of lymphocytes.
It begins with the formation of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes in the thymus and other primary lymphoid organs from PGSC in the red bone marrow and ends with the differentiation and development of lymphocytes after exposure to antigens in the secondary lymphoid organs – the spleen, lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract.
An important role in the regulation of leukocyte formation is played by leukocyte destruction products (leukopoietins), which stimulate PSHC microenvironment cells – T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts and bone marrow endothelial cells. In response, microenvironment cells form a series of cytokines, growth and other early-acting factors that stimulate leukopoiesis.
The formation of leukocytes is also regulated by the action of factors that stimulate and inhibit leukopoiesis of individual forms of leukocytes. The leading role in the regulation of the formation of individual forms of leukocytes is played by the signals of activated blood leukocytes. For example, neutrophilic leukocytes are activated during microbial or viral infections and at the same time form GM-CSF, IL-3, which are necessary to stimulate the formation of more neutrophils in the red bone marrow.
Catecholamines (both hormones of the adrenal medulla and the neurotransmitters of the sympathetic ANS) are involved in the regulation of leukopoiesis. They stimulate myelopoiesis and cause leukocytosis by mobilizing the parietal pool of neutrophils.
Group E prostaglandins, keilons (tissue-specific inhibitors produced by neutrophils), interferons inhibit the formation of granulocytes and monocytes. Growth hormone causes leukopenia (due to inhibition of the formation of neutrophils). Glucocorticoids cause involution of the thymus and lymphoid tissue, as well as lymphopenia and eosinopenia.
An important condition for normal leukopoiesis is the intake of a sufficient amount of energy, protein, essential fatty and amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements.
G-CSF, other cytokines and growth factors are used to control leukopoiesis and stem cell differentiation processes during their transplantation with therapeutic purposes and the cultivation of artificial organs and tissues.
The process of preparing for the analysis
If you want to be sure that this blood test, when decrypted, shows the exact values, then certain rules must be followed. These include the following:
- Diagnose in the morning on an empty stomach. The interval between eating and taking blood should be at least 8-12 hours.
- The night before, you should have a light dinner.
- A few days before the study, abandon the use of fatty, fried foods and alcohol.
- If on the eve it was not possible to avo >
Running and climbing stairs are some of the factors that influence the analysis results.
Going to the delivery of a general blood test, everyone should know the main factors that will affect the result:
- Failure to prepare for the study. Blood collection occurred immediately after eating, physiotherapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
- Performing physical activities such as running, climbing stairs, emotional overexcitation. For this reason, before you take the analysis, you need to relax a bit.
- Taking certain medications. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chloramphenicol, corticosteroids, heparin, levodopa, narcotic analgesics.
Causes of Metamyelocyte Detection
Normal blood counts for white blood cells depend on the age of the patient. In addition, an important role is assigned to the psycho-emotional state at the time of blood donation and even to the region of residence. During the decryption of the blood test, metamyelocytes should be absent. If this condition is not fulfilled, then it is worth asserting the presence of pathology and the development of the disease. Most often, this indicator indicates the development of leukocytosis. This can provoke a number of diseases, which include the following:
- infectious process;
- blood cancer ;
- extensive burns.
Burns relate to the reasons for the detection of metamyelocytes in the blood
The reasons for the detection of metamyelocytes in plasma can lie not only in the disease. Such a process can be accompanied without a certain pathology in the human body. As shown by numerous studies, the presence of metamyelocytes in plasma can indicate a sharp exhaustion of the body after hard work or physical activity.
In addition, the presented elements may be in plasma with a suppressed mental state that arose as a result of a stressful situation, insoluble problems, psychological trauma.
You need to be very careful about your health and take all the necessary diagnostic tests in time. This is the only way to avoid dangerous pathologies and cure the disease in time. Metamyelocytes are important elements in decoding a general clinical blood test. Despite the fact that they are just a type of white blood cells, their presence in plasma can also indicate the development of a certain pathological process. Therefore, be more attentive to your health and before passing an analysis, follow all the recommendations in order to obtain accurate data as a result.
If metamyelocytes are found in the blood of a child, a newborn, the doctor will necessarily find out the cause and prescribe a number of additional examinations to establish the diagnosis.
An important stage in the treatment of metamyelocytes is the intake of vitamin complexes, nutrition correction, and the appointment of medications. If the cause of metamyelocytes in the body are drugs that a person takes, they are canceled or replaced with another dosage form. After treatment, they re-test (after 2 weeks).
Metamyelocytes in the blood of a healthy person are not observed, they should not be. With a decrease in the protective functions of the body, these leukocyte cells are detected in the analysis, which can indicate infection of a person with bacterial or various types of viral infections.
First of all, to reduce the number of young cells in the peripheral blood flow, it is necessary to find out the cause of the violations. Usually it occurs due to an infectious pathogen that provokes an inflammatory process or purulent formation. There are no direct means that would be aimed solely at eliminating myeloid bodies. This requires a range of activities.
If the cause was an infectious disease, then basically treatment is done with antibiotics. In severe cases, it will require the use of anti-inflammatory drugs with hormonal components. Additional medications are prescribed to relieve concomitant symptoms.
In case of intoxication of the body with medicines, infections or heavy metals, it is necessary to exclude contact with irritating substances and carry out detoxification. After this, drugs that restore immune functions and tissue nutrition are used. In addition, it is recommended to take dietary supplements with useful elements and substances to accelerate recovery.
Often, patients simply need to change their diet by adding foods with a high content of vitamins B, C and A. Exclude fatty foods, preservatives, smoked foods, etc. from daily consumption. Proper nutrition will automatically increase immunity, and he will be able to fight various pathogens.
Myelocytes will disappear from blood tests as soon as the root cause of pathological changes in the body is eliminated. Further, you need to maintain good health.
Myelocytes are components that relate to the types of white blood cells. Their composition provides for the presence of a nucleus, or rather, neutrophils. They focus in the bone marrow. When passing a general blood test, this component should be absent under normal conditions.
Neutrophilic cells of a more mature age have pink protoplasm, less mature cells have pinkish-purple. In addition to abundant granularity in protoplasm, large grains can also be detected.
Eosinophilic myelocytes are characterized by weakly basophilic protoplasm, and large grains are present in their composition in large numbers. Their color is pinkish red.
Basophilic myelocytes have oxyphilic protoplasm, and their composition contains violet granularity.
Myelocytes are represented by large cells, and their nucleus may have an oval or kidney shape with a small amount of protoplasm. It is characterized by a special structure, which depends on the alternation of darker and brighter sections of chromatin. The result is a certain folding effect.
The norm of myelocytes in the blood suggests the absence of these cells. All cells are located in the bone marrow. In an adult and a child, the content of neutrophilic cells varies from 4,8 to 9,6%, eosinophilic cells – 0,6–2%, basophilic cells – 0,2–1%.
Causes of appearance in the blood
If, when decoding the general blood test, myelocytes were found in the patient, this may indicate the presence of:
- Acute bacterial infections with the addition of a purulent-inflammatory process. This can be pyelonephritis, tonsillitis, ENT infection, pneumonia, scarlet fever, cholera, blood poisoning, tuberculosis.
- Intoxications with lead or alcohol, which have a negative effect on the bone marrow.
- Necrotic processes (cell death), which lead to gangrene, stroke, myocardial infarction, burns and other ailments.
- Malignant tumors with decay, metastases in the bone marrow. The norm of such components in the blood can be violated, even if a person has completely treated an infectious disease at the time of the general blood test.
- Hematologic diseases such as aplastic anemia, myeloid leukemia and leukemia.
In addition, the appearance of myelocytes occurs due to:
- Acute bleeding.
- Intoxication with bacterial toxic substances without signs of penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the body. So, myelocytes can be detected after the botulinum toxin enters the body.
- Conducting radiation therapy and chemotherapy, radiation exposure. This affects the content of such cells in the blood.
- Lack of vitamins of group B, including B12.
- Displacements of acid-base balance (acidosis).
- Shock development.
- The onset of coma.
- Physical overload.
Violation of the ratio of cells in the blood can be the result of severe viral diseases, such as rubella, flu.
In a person with intestinal infections, myelocytes can also be detected in the blood.
To obtain reliable results of a clinical blood test, you should adhere to several recommendations:
- Diagnosis is on an empty stomach in the morning. Between the last meal and blood sampling, at least eight hours should pass. Therefore, the evening before should not be very tight meal.
- A few days before the analysis, refuse to eat fried, spicy, fatty foods and alcoholic beverages. If the feast could not be avoided, postpone the analysis for 2-3 days.
- Do not smoke one hour before blood collection.
The analysis is not carried out after physiotherapeutic procedures and x-ray studies.
It should be remembered that the diagnosis is never established according to only one analysis. To clarify the reasons, an additional examination and consultation of narrow specialists, including a hematologist, is always required.
Causes of myelocytes in the blood
If myelocytes were found during a general blood test in a child or adult, then this indicates the presence of the following pathological processes:
- Acute bacterial infections, which are characterized by the addition of a purulent-inflammatory process. If the norm of myelocytes in the blood is violated, then the following pathologies can be diagnosed in a person: appendicitis, ENT infections, tonsillitis, acute pyelonephritis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, sepsis, cholera, scarlet fever.
- Necrotic processes are caused by such ailments as a heart attack, stroke, gangrene, large burns.
- Poisoning the body with alcohol or lead, resulting in a negative effect on the bone marrow.
- Intoxication with pathogenic toxins, characterized by the absence of infection by the bacteria themselves. In this case, the norm of myelocytes in the blood will be violated if a botulism toxin enters the human body. Then the decay of toxins did not occur, and the bacteria themselves are dead.
- Malignant tumor with decay.
- The norm of myelocytes in the blood can be violated, even if at the time of the general blood test a person has completely cured an infectious disease.
- Severe diseases. Myelocytes in the blood can be detected in a person suffering from typhoid, paratyphoid, brucellosis.
- The broken norm of cells in the blood can be the result of severe viral diseases: measles, flu, rubella.
- A side effect of taking medication. Most often this happens when taking immunosuppressants, pain medications. Therefore, before using them, you need to carefully study the instructions.
- The norm of myelocytes in the blood may be impaired due to radiation exposure, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
- Blood disease: leukemia, apathetic anemia, lack of B12 and folic acid.
If the norm of the cells in the plasma is exceeded, then this greatly affects the human immunity. As a result, his body is most often exposed to bacterial and viral diseases.
To date, there are no direct means for removing myelocytes from plasma. When the doctor found that the norm of the cells is violated, he must urgently draw up the necessary set of measures to eliminate the pathological process.
If myelocytes in plasma are contained due to medication, then an adjustment of the therapeutic program should be carried out. It may involve replacing drugs or completely abandoning them.
If the reason is an imbalance of nutrients, then the background of B vitamins should be adjusted. For this, medications and diet are used.
If the reason why myelocytes formed in the blood has been eliminated, then all indicators in a couple of weeks will return to normal.
Myelocytes are very important components concentrated in the bone marrow. Under normal conditions, they should not be contained in the blood. If this condition is not met, then, therefore, the human body has undergone a certain disease. The presence of myelocytes in plasma significantly weakens the protective functions of the human body, as a result of which it is exposed to infectious and viral diseases. Only timely treatment will allow to normalize all plasma indicators and improve the condition of patients.
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Illegal penetration into peripheral blood
The main organs of hematopoiesis – bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes, by the end of intrauterine development and the birth of a person, finally acquire their specialization. Lymph nodes and spleen ensure the maintenance of the circulating fund of lymphocytes (lymphocytopoiesis), and the bone marrow is fully responsible for the formation of the formed elements of the myeloid and erythroid series – red blood cells (erythropoiesis), monocytes (monocytopoiesis), platelets (white platelet thrombosis, and also granulation). blood cells (granulocytopoiesis), the largest group in the white blood cell population.
general scheme of hematopoiesis
White blood cells in the peripheral blood are represented only by mature cells: granulocytes already called granular descendants of myelocytes – granulocytes, as well as non-granular – agranulocytes (monocytes, lymphocytes)
Granulocytes, in turn, are divided into:
- Neutrophils (segmented: 47-72% in the blood and stab: 1-6%) are mature, highly specialized cells with a pronounced protective ability (phagocytosis) and high motor activity, which explains their significant number in the group of leukocytes of the granulocyte series. Most of them are in the blood, respectively, and their connection with myelocyte ancestors is maximum;
- Eosinophils (0,5-5% in the blood) – their phagocytic and motor activity is lower than that of neutrophils, the main task is participation in allergic reactions;
- Basophils (0-1% in the blood) are a small group that is directly related to allergies and is involved in blood coagulation processes.
granulocyte leukocytes – descendants of myelocytes
Obviously, what happens to the cells before they enter the bloodstream, the blood of a healthy person does not say anything: everyone is calm, “adult” granular leukocytes, being within their normal values, quietly carry out the important functions assigned to them. Violations can be suspected when conducting a qualitative hematological analysis of blood samples of a sick person.
However, there are situations when cells that still have to “grow and develop” prematurely leave their “native penates”. And if the norm about the appearance of blast cells in the peripheral blood is out of the question – they are rare “guests” in the bloodstream, then under certain pathological conditions, contrary to the natural prohibition, both of them go out into the bloodstream.
Blasts and myeloblasts are slightly elevated (up to 2% in relation to the general leukocyte population) in chronic forms of leukemia. A huge number of blasts (blastemia) generally indicates serious changes on the part of the hematopoietic organs and refers to significant signs of acute leukemia, the form of which will subsequently be specified by other methods.
Of particular concern is the transition of the number of blasts of the 5% border in the blood of a patient suffering from chronic myelogenous leukemia – this may indicate the onset of a blast crisis and the final stage of the tumor process.
myeloblasts in the blood
The presence of propromyelocytes, myelocytes and the closest to mature forms – metamyelocytes, although it is not such a terrible indicator of white blood, however, they still indicate a serious pathology. An increase in the number of these cells to 5% more often has a non-hematological pathology:
- A severe infectious disease of any origin: both bacterial (mostly) and viral;
- The development of a septic state;
- Various types of intoxication (bacterial, alcoholic, salts of heavy metals);
- Tumor (malignant) process;
- Chemotherapy and radiation therapy;
- Acceptance of certain drugs (analgesics, immunomodulators);
- Acute blood loss;
- Coma, shock;
- Violation of acid-base balance;
- Excessive physical activity.
the presence of myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the blood
Meanwhile, a significant jump in myelocytes, pro- and meta- (up to 10 – 25%), as a rule, is observed in the case of the formation of myeloproliferative diseases, which are the main reasons for the maturation forms to leave the bone marrow and their free movement through the blood vessels.
The collective name “myeloproliferative tumors” refers to chronic leukemia, which is formed at the level of the youngest predecessors of myelopoiesis, all of whose offspring – granulocytes, monocytes, erythrokaryocytes, megakaryocytes (except lymphocytes), belong to the tumor clone.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia, opening a list of myeloproliferative processes, acts as a typical representative of tumors that arise from early (very young) precursors, myelopoiesis differentiating to a mature state.
The cell substrate of myeloid leukemia originates from the white sprout of hematopoiesis and is represented by transitional (maturing) forms of granulocytes, mainly neutrophils. This suggests that such significant cells as neutrophils, which play such an important role in protecting the body, suffer the most, so it is clear why this disease is so difficult to treat and, ultimately, has a fatal outcome.
At the beginning of the disease, a shift to myelocytes and promyelocytes is noted in the blood, however, their number at first is still insignificant. In addition to single promyelocytes and a slightly larger number of myelocytes, representatives of other cell populations can be found in the blood (erythrokaryocytes, calculated in units, and high thrombocytosis).
The advanced stage of the disease gives a significant rejuvenation of the leukocyte formula, and, in addition to myelocytes, the absolute values and percentage of already mature forms of the granulocytic series: eosinophils or basophils (less often both – “basophilic-eosinophilic association) are often increased in the blood. It should be noted that a sharp increase in the number of immature neutrophils is a very, very unfavorable sign that complicates the course of the disease and prognosis.
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