Microinfarction symptoms first signs in men treatment

After a heart attack, regardless of the area of ​​the “dead” zone, the patient must observe absolute peace, both physical and emotional. It is also recommended to adhere to the prescribed diet. Conducted appropriate drug therapy. If necessary and in the absence of serious contraindications, surgical treatment is carried out. First, the patient is under close supervision in a hospital, then continues the treatment course at home.

Drug treatment includes:

  • anesthesia (narcotic drugs);
  • correction of blood pressure (hypotensive drugs);
  • stabilization of the heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics);
  • prevention of blood clots (antiplatelet agents);
  • counteraction to atherosclerosis (statins);
  • dissolution of already formed blood clots (antiplatelet drugs);
  • improvement of patency of coronary vessels (vasodilators).
  • installation of a stent in the coronary vessel;
  • cardiac artery bypass surgery.

What can be done at home? The very first help with a suspected heart attack consists of the following stages:

  • ensuring peace;
  • creating conditions for air flow;
  • ambulance call;
  • a tablet of Nitroglycerin (not for hypotension!) and Aspirin;
  • blood pressure control.

More recently, my colleagues and I considered microinfarction a disease that occurs mainly in men and the elderly. But as statistics and personal observations show, it is increasingly recorded in women and people under 40 years of age.

Harbingers of an attack appear after physical or psycho-emotional overstrain and in some cases resemble colds:

  • weakness;
  • aches in the body;
  • temperature increase;
  • feeling of squeezing behind the sternum.

Then the following symptoms develop:

  • pain in the left side of the chest with radiation to the jaw, back, under the shoulder blade;
  • blue nasolabial triangle;
  • dyspnea;
  • dizziness, fainting;
  • heart palpitations.
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Manifestations in men

Signs of a microinfarction in men are more pronounced: there is a sharp pain in the chest, there is a feeling of pressure or an extraneous body. Therefore, they often seek qualified help.

When making a diagnosis, I always pay attention to the appearance of the patient. In acute necrosis is observed:

  • blue in the lips;
  • temperature increase;
  • weak pulsation on the wrists;
  • limb cooling;
  • significant sweating.

Sometimes patients talk about only one symptom – a sharp pain in the heart, which then passes. A painless course for men is not characteristic.

Women

In women, the signs of a heart attack are weak, they need to especially carefully listen to the slightest deviations in the condition. In 2–4 weeks, precursors of a microinfarction appear:

  • cold extremities due to impaired microcirculatory blood flow;
  • the appearance of edema on the legs and arms;
  • frequent urge to urinate;
  • cramping in the bronchi;
  • pain in the stomach and a feeling of fullness;
  • non-food nausea.

Advice of a specialist

It is very important to recognize a small focal infarction on time. It is necessary to immediately take emergency measures and call a doctor if there are such signs:

  • panic, fear of death;
  • the skin is cold and clammy with sweat;
  • chest pain on the left, gives under the scapula, in the back, jaw, half of the head;
  • the pulse is felt poorly or not detected;
  • the nasolabial triangle turns blue.

You also need to know that sometimes (especially in patients with diabetes and the elderly), a small-focal heart attack occurs without symptoms or manifests itself in the form of asthma attacks, abdominal pain, and rhythm disturbances. But any form can go into large focal or transmural infarction, therefore, requires urgent qualified help.

Assistance for microinfarction should be carried out only in the cardiology department of the hospital. The task of my colleagues is to stop the pain syndrome, localize the focus of necrosis and take measures so that the heart can work in the previous mode.

For treatment, the following groups of drugs are used:

  • anticoagulants;
  • neuroleptanalgesia or narcotic analgesics;
  • polarizing mixture, droppers with a solution of glucose and salts;
  • beta-blockers;
  • antiarrhythmic drugs;
  • prolonged nitrates.

The patient is recommended to observe bed rest, a diet with the exception of salt and fatty foods. After discharge, physical, mental and social rehabilitation is desirable. If the patient’s professional activity is associated with constant overload, he is sent to a commission for transfer to easier work.

The signs of this disease are very similar to the symptoms of other acute coronary conditions (unstable angina, Q-forming myocardial infarction), therefore, according to the clinical picture, these diseases cannot be immediately differentiated.

At the very beginning of the process they are combined into the concept of “acute coronary syndrome”. Depending on how events develop further, tissue necrosis will occur, what will be its size, and a final diagnosis will be made.

Symptoms and early signs of a microinfarction in men and women are similar. The difference is in the age at which the disease often occurs.

Symptoms that make it possible to suspect a microinfarction are the same for both men and women:

  • pain, pressure, tightness or burning behind the sternum, not passing after taking 3 tablets of nitroglycerin, taken at intervals of 5 minutes each;
  • pain radiating to the shoulder, collarbone, upper abdomen, back, neck, jaw;
  • nausea or vomiting
  • sudden shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air;
  • sudden severe sweating and severe weakness;
  • dizziness or loss of consciousness;
  • feeling of anxiety, fear for your life.

Pain or discomfort in the chest that does not go away after taking nitroglycerin is the most common sign of a microinfarction. However, it is not observed at all. Some patients do not feel any special unpleasant signs and do not notice the disease. This is more common in women, the elderly, and those with diabetes.

For example, a woman with diabetes at the age of 65 can suffer several such heart attacks “on her legs,” which together can significantly weaken the contractility of her heart muscle and cause heart failure.

The urgent goals of treatment are to eliminate pain, improve blood circulation and heart function. Long-term goals of treating a microinfarction: preventing complications, managing risk factors, reducing the likelihood of repeated heart attacks. A combination of drugs and surgical procedures is used to achieve these goals.

Depending on the condition of the patient, medications for emergency and / or long-term therapy may include:

  • thrombolytics, dissolving a clot clogged an artery;
  • analgesics, including narcotic, to relieve pain;
  • nitroglycerin, temporarily expanding the coronary arteries;
  • antiplatelet drugs to prevent blood clots in the future;
  • beta-blockers that slow the pulse, reduce pressure and stress on the heart;
  • ACE inhibitors that improve blood circulation;
  • angiotensin receptor blockers that control blood pressure;
  • statins that lower blood cholesterol and stabilize atherosclerotic plaques.

With technical feasibility, angioplasty can be performed, during which a thin tube, a stent, is inserted into the affected coronary artery. If the patient has suffered many micro-infarctions and constantly has angina attacks, he may be offered coronary artery bypass surgery.

Violation of blood flow through the vessels supplying the heart muscle, leads to oxygen starvation of myocardial cells with their subsequent destruction.

Depending on the size of the affected artery, the areas of damage to the heart may have different depths and the ability to recover.

A small area of ​​ischemia is accompanied by the formation of a small focal, or microinfarction. The disease is more common in men.

A blood clot in the coronary artery is the cause of the microinfarction

In the latest classification of diseases, the concept of “microinfarction” is absent. Usually this form of pathology is referred to as acute subendocardial infarction. This disease is not accompanied by necrosis of the entire thickness of the heart muscle, but only a small portion of it, located under the inner surface.

In the future, such damage turns into a shallow focus of necrosis. At the same time, on the ECG there is no characteristic sign of decay of the heart tissue to the entire depth – the Q wave. Therefore, such a heart attack is also called “non-Q-forming” or “without Q wave”.

Signs of a transferred microinfarction on the ECG are often absent

With proper treatment, a small focal or microinfarction is surrounded by normal cardiac tissue. Damaged cells either repair or simply reduce their activity. On the ECG, signs of a transferred microinfarction are often absent.

Sometimes patients are told that they suffered a myocardial infarction, when in fact the morphological basis of the disease, that is, the destruction and death of the cells, did not occur.

In this case, the patient had an acute coronary syndrome, which did not lead to the development of a heart attack, but only provoked unstable angina pectoris.

Prior to conducting special studies, primarily determining the markers of necrosis, it cannot be said whether the patient will have a heart attack, or if everything will end successfully, only with a prolonged attack of ischemic pain.

Microinfarction in men is a serious condition. Despite the small size of the lesion and the potential reversibility of the process, at the beginning of its development, it can affect the most important areas of the heart muscle and cause complications. First of all, these are rhythm disturbances. Therefore, if you experience intense and / or prolonged chest pain, you must urgently call an ambulance.

The first symptoms of pathology

Small focal lesion of myocardial cells with subsequent necrosis occurs as a result of:

  • incomplete overlap of the lumen of the vessel;
  • the presence of collateral blood flow paths;
  • complete clogging of small arteries.

All these factors lead to unexpressed changes, which rarely entail complications. But with a repeated attack or impaired patency of several small-caliber vessels at once, pathology can go into a large-focal process with severe symptoms and severe consequences.

Immediately with the occurrence of a microinfarction in men, the first symptoms of the disease indicate flu-like symptoms (and therefore a person often does not go to the doctor):

  • feeling of fatigue and decreased performance;
  • muscle weakness;
  • body temperature 37,5–38 degrees;
  • aches in the body;
  • discomfort in the chest area.

The main difference with which you can independently distinguish flu from a microinfarction is the absence of cough and wheezing in the lungs. However, smokers are characterized by chronic bronchitis, which makes diagnosis of a microinfarction even more difficult without consulting a doctor. If the focus of damage to the heart tissue is very small, then the manifestations of the disease on these signs are limited.

All these symptoms occur due to circulatory disorders and stress for the body caused by a sudden disruption of the heart. Since these signs can be easily confused with manifestations of a respiratory disease, it is best to immediately contact a therapist who will refer the patient to a cardiologist if necessary.

Causes of microinfarction in men

There is no clearly defined difference between the factors that provoke an extensive and small focal heart attack. Ischemia begins due to atherosclerosis, which then turns into thrombosis of the coronary arteries. A blood clot that has settled inside the coronary artery is the main reason for a further attack of a heart attack caused by a deficiency in the supply of heart muscle with blood and oxygen.

Also, the causes of mini heart attacks can be:

  • local changes in the vascular system;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • diabetes;
  • increased psychological and physical stress, requiring a greater supply of oxygen to the heart;
  • addiction;
  • spasms in the coronary artery (can occur after a fright, with strong feelings, etc.).

Statistics are not in favor of men who have attacks of a microinfarction happen much more often than women. Women are characterized by a manifestation in old age, since the disease mainly develops due to hormonal changes and the onset of menopause. Hormones for a long time protect the female body from attacks, because at a young age the likelihood of a microinfarction is negligible.

There are three main causes of imbalance:

  1. Myocardial needs for oxygen, glucose exceed the ability of the blood vessels of the heart to supply blood.
  2. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
  3. Spasm of the heart vessels.

Increased myocardial oxygen consumption develops with:

  • fever;
  • heart rhythm disturbance, which is accompanied by an increase in the number of heart contractions;
  • complicated hypertensive crisis;
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • aortic stenosis;
  • chronic heart failure;
  • obstructive cardiomyopathy;
  • arteriovenous shunt;
  • the use of cocaine, amphetamines.

A decrease in the ability of coronary vessels to supply blood develops as a result of: anemia, hypoxia, hypotension.

Risk factors for developing a microinfarction include (1):

  • age over 55 years (men), 65 (women);
  • male gender;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • hypertension;
  • smoking;
  • diabetes;
  • lipid metabolism disorders;
  • hereditary predisposition to early cardiovascular disease;
  • passive lifestyle;
  • excess weight;
  • inflammatory processes (psoriasis, arthritis);
  • constant stress, depression;
  • chronic kidney disease;
  • obstructive apnea.

Myocardial infarction is more often observed in men from 40 to 60 years old. The incidence in women from 40 to 50 years old is lower, but after 50 years it becomes the same. In recent decades, there has been a tendency to develop mini-infarction in patients of a younger age. Microinfarction occurs against the background of ischemia or impaired local blood flow.

The main reasons include: previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, high blood cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, excessive physical and / or mental stress, poor nutrition, overweight, bad habits, physical inactivity. risk factors for the development of the disease emit increased irritability, anxiety, exposure to stress, a genetic predisposition.

Microinfarction, similar to a heart attack, is a consequence of vascular lesions by atherosclerotic deposits. First of all, damage is reflected in the coronary and coronary vessels, which provide cardiac circulation. A plaque forms in the vessel membrane, which can come off, clog the vessel, and cause damage to the area of ​​the heart for which it is responsible for the blood supply.

The cause may be morphological and functional changes in the vessel itself, metabolic disorders, in particular, such as hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus. Increased adhesion and aggregation of platelet link in blood cells, high blood pressure can provoke the disease. Also alcohol abuse, smoking, hard physical work, prolonged mental stress.

At risk are people who suffer from ischemia, or have this pathology in a family history. The risk increases with atherosclerosis, bleeding disorders, concomitant diseases. A metabolic disorder, especially obesity, diabetes mellitus has a negative effect on the state of the heart muscle. With high blood pressure, high cholesterol in the blood, the risk of the disease increases significantly.

If a person had one heart attack, the risk of relapse and a massive heart attack increases significantly. People with a low pain threshold, people with alcohol and drug (pharmaceutical) addiction, people with diabetes, former fighters, boxers are at risk of missing a heart attack. All these categories of people have a low pain threshold.

If the nervous system is affected, or there are mental disorders, a person may also not notice a microinfarction. Pathogenesis is based on functional disorders of blood circulation in the body. The process starts with prolonged ischemia, then the lumen of the cardiac artery becomes excessively narrow. Necrotic lesions develop. Tissues undergo major changes of an irreversible nature. Gradually, the cells die. As a result, scar tissue forms at the site of damage.

Microinfarction in men develops at a younger age than in women. This is due to the large number of causes and risk factors for the disease in males. Timely identification and correction of these conditions reduces the likelihood of a heart attack.

The immediate cause of microinfarction is a blockage of a heart artery by a thrombus. Such a blood clot forms at the site of a damaged atherosclerotic plaque. Its basis is low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or “bad cholesterol.”

“Bad” cholesterol settles on the walls of blood vessels, narrowing the lumen

Conditions for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and its damage:

  • high levels of LDL and / or triglycerides in the blood;
  • the use of saturated fats contained in meat, butter, cheese;
  • the use of hydrogenated oils that are part of certain foods, such as margarine;
  • high blood pressure;
  • diabetes;
  • overweight;
  • smoking;
  • age over 45 years (for men);
  • cases of heart disease in male relatives under the age of 55 years or women under the age of 65;
  • acute stress or constant nervous tension;
  • lack of physical activity.

The impact on variable (modifiable) risk factors is the basis for the prevention of microinfarction and other manifestations of coronary heart disease.

The influence of negative factors weaken the cardiovascular system

Consider in more detail the first symptoms of a microinfarction in men, as well as methods of treating this dangerous ailment.

The manifestation of a violation can occur suddenly, the life of the patient depends on the actions of others in providing first aid. Everyone should be able to recognize microinfarction, symptoms, the first signs in women and men, and know the algorithm of initial actions.

Men are more prone to disease than women, but the latter are more likely to have sad consequences.

Having learned what a heart microinfarction is, we can consider the development mechanism and the causes of its occurrence.

The main cause of the pathology should be considered the formation of blood clots in small coronary blood vessels. First, a cholesterol plaque appears on the vessel wall, which interferes with normal blood flow.

Due to the narrowing of the lumen of the vessel leading to the heart, ischemia gradually develops. In the damaged artery, pathological processes begin. First necrobiosis, then necrosis. A scar forms at this place, i.e.

muscle tissue is converted into connective tissue with the loss of its functions.

When the coronary vessels supplying the myocardium with oxygen cease to fulfill their functions, heart failure occurs. Part of the muscle tissue of the heart dies away, which leads to a microinfarction and a serious condition of a person.

Other causes leading to necrosis of part of the muscle tissue of the myocardium are:

  • embolism of an artery leading to the heart;
  • coronary artery spasm, etc.

Factors contributing to the development of myocardial microinfarction can be considered:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • unhealthy food;
  • obesity;
  • bad habits – alcohol abuse, smoking;
  • long-term stress conditions;
  • hypertension;
  • diabetes.

As manifested

Symptoms of a microinfarction, in the event of which you should immediately consult a doctor, are as follows:

  • burning, excruciating pains in the chest area, radiating to the back, shoulder blade, arm, stomach, etc .;
  • profuse cold sweat;
  • increased weakness in the body;
  • anxiety, fear of death;
  • cooling of the fingers of the extremities.

With a developed microinfarction, body temperature can increase to 38 ° C. A heart attack that has occurred previously will be indicated by a tablet of Nitroglycerin taken under the tongue that did not have the proper effect.

It is worth considering the signs of an atypical microinfarction that resemble other pathological conditions, often not similar to IHD:

  • with the asthmatic form there is severe shortness of breath, pulmonary edema, the occurrence of cardiac asthma, pain is not characteristic;
  • with cerebral form, dizziness, headache, sensory and motor disturbances, numbness of the face are noted;
  • with the abdominal form, dyspeptic syndrome, severe pain in the epigastric zone, clinical manifestations of the “acute abdomen” are noted;
  • with an arrhythmic form of the course of the disease, failures in the heart rhythm, pain behind the sternum, and arterial hypotension are recorded.

What is heart bypass after a heart attack

Sometimes with a microinfarction, symptoms do not appear. A person learns about this by chance, when receiving the results of an electrocardiogram. These forms of the course of the disease can lead to incorrect diagnoses and to irreversible consequences.

In men

Symptoms of a microinfarction in men are distinguished by their pronounced manifestation. These include the following:

  • compressive, ongoing chest pain;
  • blue nasolabial triangle;
  • the presence of a coma in the throat;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • increased body temperature;
  • panic fears;
  • inability to feel the pulse.

Symptoms and forms of the disease

In an atypical course, the pain is less pronounced or completely absent, and in addition, it may have a different localization (back, right half of the body, upper limbs, fingers, jaw, etc.). In addition, there is weakness, cold sweat, cyanosis of the lips and nasolabial triangle, dizziness, tachycardia, decreased blood pressure, anxiety, fear of death. Body temperature can rise to subfebrile values. Atypical forms of the disease include:

  • asthmatic – develops in elderly patients against the background of coronary heart disease, heart failure, arterial hypertension; there is no pain, shortness of breath, symptoms of pulmonary edema or cardiac asthma;
  • abdominal – severe pain occurs in the epigastric region, nausea, vomiting, flatulence (resembles the clinical picture of an acute abdomen);
  • arrhythmic – manifested by violations of the heart rhythm; cardiac pain is moderate or absent;
  • cerebral – headache, dizziness, intellectual and mnestic disorders, sensory and motor disorders (reminiscent of the symptoms of transient ischemic attack, dynamic cerebrovascular accident) are noted.

Advice of a specialist

It is very important to recognize a small focal infarction on time. It is necessary to immediately take emergency measures and call a doctor if there are such signs:

  • panic, fear of death;
  • the skin is cold and clammy with sweat;
  • chest pain on the left, gives under the scapula, in the back, jaw, half of the head;
  • the pulse is felt poorly or not detected;
  • the nasolabial triangle turns blue.

You also need to know that sometimes (especially in patients with diabetes and the elderly), a small-focal heart attack occurs without symptoms or manifests itself in the form of asthma attacks, abdominal pain, and rhythm disturbances. But any form can go into large focal or transmural infarction, therefore, requires urgent qualified help.

Immediate and remote effects

Severe headaches, chills, arterial hypertension, increased sweating, joint pain, swelling of the extremities may indicate a seizure attack. Once a heart attack significantly increases the risk of a subsequent attack in the future. Other consequences of a mini-infarction include the development of arrhythmia, pericarditis, and aggravation of heart failure. Once a heart attack has occurred, it significantly increases the risk of a subsequent attack in the future.

The prognosis depends on the speed of care and the implementation of specialist recommendations by patients – both during the acute period and during rehabilitation. But a certain section of tissue is not fully restored and can no longer perform its usual function. Even after adequate treatment, there is a risk of complications:

  • thrombosis recurs with the appearance of multiple small foci and extensive necrosis begins;
  • acute and then chronic heart failure develops;
  • calcification is formed at the site of the lesion;
  • the left ventricle is enlarged;
  • rhythm and conduction disturbances occur;
  • unstable angina appears.

According to statistics, in 30% of cases after the first microinfarction, a repeated episode occurs and leads to large focal damage to the heart muscle. Especially often, complications are observed in patients with diabetes mellitus and severe atherosclerosis.

Case study

A 54-year-old woman came to the clinic with complaints of weakness and nausea. The problem was associated with malnutrition. During the survey, it turned out that she had had angina pectoris for 10 years, seizures occur several times a month and are stopped by Nitroglycerin.

On the ECG, there are signs of acute ischemia along the lower wall of the left ventricle, without the formation of a Q wave. Diagnosis: Small focal infarction.

The woman underwent a full course of treatment in a hospital, her condition improved, she was discharged under the supervision of a local cardiologist. Recommended: diet, aspirin cardio, metoprolol, atrovastatin.

With timely treatment, the consequences of a microinfarction for both men and women are usually favorable. Severe complications for this disease are not so characteristic as for larger necrosis of the heart muscle.

The transferred microinfarction on the legs can accompany such consequences for women and men as:

  • heart rhythm disturbances, blockade, extrasystole, a rare pulse or bouts of heart palpitations;
  • bruises of chest pain during exercise;
  • with a large number of such microinfarctions, a gradual increase in shortness of breath, a decrease in load tolerance.

Prevention of microinfarction consists in eliminating the risk factors for this disease:

  • do not smoke, avoid and second-hand smoke;
  • eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, a moderate amount of low-fat dairy products and lean meat;
  • regularly engage in sports, or at least maintain a possible, albeit small, but constant physical activity;
  • regularly check cholesterol, avoid meat and dairy products with a high fat content, take statins prescribed by your doctor;
  • control blood pressure and, if necessary, take medications daily to reduce it;
  • maintain a healthy weight;
  • find a way to cope with stress, review the regime, perhaps move to a more relaxed working environment;
  • give up alcohol.

We wish you to maintain a strong heart throughout your life, we hope our recommendations will benefit.

For many patients, the word “microinfarction” is misleading. People believe that this disease is not serious, unlike an extensive myocardial infarction. In fact, mortality, the number of complications with an extensive heart attack, is higher only during inpatient treatment. The long-term prognosis for both forms of the disease is equally unfavorable.

The main complications of a microinfarction:

  • arrhythmias;
  • relapse of the disease;
  • development of extensive myocardial infarction;
  • cardiogenic shock;
  • heart failure;
  • mitral regurgitation;
  • rupture of the wall of the left ventricle;
  • Dressler’s syndrome;
  • chronic pericarditis;
  • heart failure;
  • depression;
  • death.

The likelihood of developing complications depends on age, state of health, timeliness of treatment, the presence of risk factors. The probability of hospitalization during the year is about 40%, the mortality rate a year after discharge is 11,6% (5).

Consequences and Prevention

To prevent the disease, the following rules should be observed:

  1. Pass an annual examination and take a cardiogram. This is a prerequisite for people after 45 years.
  2. Control body weight. This will help reduce the burden on the heart and prevent the development of type II diabetes.
  3. Exercise regularly. This improves the general condition of the body and optimizes metabolic processes. A trained heart can more easily tolerate pressure surges and the release of catecholamines during a stressful situation.
  4. Refrain from smoking and alcohol abuse.
  5. Monitor blood pressure and sugar levels, treat hypertension or diabetes on time.
  6. Revise the menu towards a healthy diet, reduce the intake of salt and animal fats.

Secondary prevention consists in the continuous use of Aspirin, statins and beta-blockers. During the recovery period, you should gradually increase physical activity, perform exercise therapy and walk in the fresh air.

The course of a microinfarction in men is milder than a transmural lesion, especially with timely treatment.

ManifestationsFrequency%
Death before hospitalizationLess than 10
Inpatient death at the first microinfarction3 – 5
Inpatient death due to recurrent heart attack6-9
Moderate or severe heart failureLess than 1
Arrhythmia FrequencyLow
The incidence of post-infarction angina pectoris during the yearMore than 60%
Repeated heart attack within 3 months10

Compared to severe transmural infarction, patients tolerate the acute period more easily (the first month after an attack), but later on they often have repeated heart damage and develop angina pectoris.

  • A healthy diet is important to prevent a microinfarction. You should eat more whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and low-fat protein. It is recommended to refuse sugar, saturated fats and hydrogenated oils.
  • Regular physical training helps to improve the condition of the heart and blood vessels. If the man already had a microinfarction, the intensity of the classes will help him choose a cardiologist.
  • It is necessary to abandon active and passive smoking.
  • Blood sugar and blood pressure should be monitored.

Implementation of these recommendations greatly reduces the likelihood of a microinfarction in men.

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The approach of irreversible disturbances in the heart can not always be recognized. Especially atypical are the symptoms and first signs of myocardial microinfarction in women. But most often a person is able to suspect something with an attentive attitude. Knowing that a formidable disease is often disguised as a common cold, the patient will not risk in vain and, just in case, will hurry to see a doctor in time.

Representatives of the stronger sex of 40-50 years old, in whose lives there are risk factors, must visit the medical institution annually for a routine examination. Often, in this way, it is possible to establish that a person survived a microinfarction, transferred it “on its feet”.

So, possible harbingers of the beginning necrosis of the heart tissue:

  • discomfort in the chest, as if there was something extra;
  • muscles, joints, pain in the body, weakness, severe weakness;
  • dizzy and sore head, nausea is felt, pressure rises;
  • temperature may rise slightly;
  • legs and arms become chilled, especially fingers;
  • discomfort and pressing feeling on the left in the stomach;
  • there is nervous tension, fear, panic;
  • swollen legs in the morning;
  • sweat stands out strongly.

Without emphasizing mild ailment, you can put yourself in mortal danger.

With timely diagnosis and proper treatment, the prognosis is relatively favorable. After treatment and rehabilitation, a person may return to work and normal life. Patients who have suffered any form of heart attack need regular examination by a cardiologist. We offer to watch a video on the topic of the article.

First aid for microinfarction

Treatment at home with a microinfarction is not carried out, since this disease is deadly. If you suspect this pathology, you must call an ambulance, and in the meantime do the following:

  • give the patient a half-sitting position;
  • give him a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue and chew a quarter of the aspirin tablet, after 5 minutes you can repeat nitroglycerin, and after another 5 minutes take another tablet;
  • unfasten a tight belt, collar, open the window;
  • reassure the patient, say that help is already close, do not leave him alone;
  • to collect some things – linen, pajamas or a bathrobe, slippers, socks, personal hygiene items, passport, medical policy and SNILS card;
  • organize an ambulance meeting, open the door to the entrance, take the dog (if there is one) to the neighbors, or at least to another room, if the patient needs to be moved – think about who can help (there may be no orderlies in the brigade) , find out if access to the porch is free.

If there are signs that resemble symptoms of a microinfarction in men, it is necessary to perform the following actions:

  • call an ambulance;
  • give the patient a half-sitting position;
  • untie the tie, unfasten the tight collar, belt;
  • open a window for fresh air;
  • reassure the patient;
  • give half a tablet of aspirin, and also put 5 tablets of nitroglycerin under the tongue with an interval of 3 minutes or make 3 corresponding inhalations of Nitrospray.

If the attack happened at home or on the street, you need to urgently call the doctors. But they can go for a long time, because of which a person will become much worse, and treatment will not give the desired result. Predicting an attack is almost impossible, since heart attacks happen unexpectedly. The main thing is that someone should be near the victim and know how to provide first aid before the doctors arrive.

There are a number of actions that need to be performed to help a person:

  1. Put the victim on a flat surface and disperse onlookers who crowded around. Nearby should be only those who are capable of real help. If you are on the street, do not let the patient be surrounded on all sides so as not to interfere with the flow of oxygen. At home, you should open all the windows.
  2. If a person can take the medicine, give him an Aspirin pill, which dilutes the blood and helps normalize blood flow. Additionally, 1 or 2 tablets of Nitroglycerin are placed under the tongue. But before that check the pressure. With hypotension, Nitroglycerin should not be given. If the pressure measuring device is not nearby, then give no more than 1 tablet.
  3. Unfasten your clothes, take off anything that can squeeze and interfere with normal breathing. That is, unbutton a shirt, belt, sleeves, remove a watch, etc.
  4. When calling an ambulance, try to clearly explain that the victim has a suspicion of a microinfarction or an extensive attack. This is important, since the dispatcher will send you a specialized team that deals with cardiac cases.

Remember responsibility to people. No one can guarantee that this will not happen to you or your loved ones. A person nearby can save a life. Do not be afraid to make decisions. How often people have seizures, and those around them just watch it from the side, not daring to approach and conduct first aid measures. Because of this, a person dies without waiting for an ambulance, or is faced with very serious consequences.

Having done simple manipulations before the doctors arrived, all this can be avoided. But with microinfarctions, a qualified specialist should confirm the symptoms and prescribe treatment. Yes, sometimes suspicions of an attack turn out to be erroneous. In order not to harm yourself, first confirm the diagnosis, and only then begin treatment.

It is impossible to determine the diagnosis accurately at home, therefore, if you suspect a heart attack, you should immediately call an ambulance. In anticipation of her arrival, the patient should be laid or seated, and fresh air should be provided. If the patient is observed by a cardiologist and takes heart medications, you can give him to drink such a medicine (for example, Nitroglycerin).

At the first symptoms of a microinfarction, an ambulance must be called. According to statistics, 30% of patients who did not receive timely treatment die within a year of a heart attack. Rapid therapy helps reduce mortality by 80%. Prior to the arrival of an ambulance, you must:

  • open the windows, open the collar;
  • move less;
  • take a half-sitting position;
  • put a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. Taking the medicine can be repeated after 5 minutes, but no more than three times;
  • take an aspirin tablet.

Some men try to relieve smoking anxiety. It is absolutely impossible to do this. Tobacco smoke causes an increase in heart rate, an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, smoking will only aggravate the patient’s condition.

Diagnostics

The main method for diagnosing a heart attack is electrocardiography (ECG). To clarify the localization of the focus of necrosis and its size, an ultrasound examination of the heart (echocardiography) is performed. A general, biochemical blood test is prescribed (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, troponin, a lipid profile, etc. are examined.) A heart attack transferred on the legs is often detected after a long time during electrocardiography during the diagnosis for another reason.

The signs of a microinfarction cannot be distinguished from a preinfarction state (unstable angina), extensive myocardial infarction. After all, all three diseases have the same development mechanism. The only difference between unstable angina and myocardial infarction is that it is not accompanied by tissue necrosis, the signs of which appear much later and are determined only in the laboratory.

Diagnosis of a microinfarction is aimed at identifying markers of differences between the three diseases, assessing the patient’s health status, and determining tactics for further treatment.

Suspected heart attack patients are shown the following studies:

  • Electrocardiogram (12 leads). Helps assess the work of the heart, determine the type of heart attack. The characteristic symptoms of a microinfarction are deformations of the ST interval, inversion / absence of a T-wave. In some patients with microinfarction, the ECG has an absolutely normal appearance (3). Therefore, the absence of changes in the cardiogram is not a reason to exclude a heart attack.
  • General analysis, blood biochemistry. They allow you to assess the state of human health, the likelihood of some complications.
  • A blood test for biomarkers of a heart attack. An increase in the concentration of troponin, troponin-1, activity of CPK, AST, and LDH are characteristic signs of cardiac muscle necrosis. In most patients, an increase in biomarkers is observed 6 hours after the onset of a pain attack. However, with a negative test, the analysis is repeated after 8-12 hours. Since sometimes a change in concentration, enzyme activity occurs later.
  • Echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart). Allows the doctor to evaluate the structure of the heart, its chambers, the state of the valves, >

On average, the developmental period of a microinfarction is about an hour; it is extremely difficult to diagnose the process of dying of heart cells in this period even with the help of special equipment. Especially if the phenomenon is accompanied by uncharacteristic signs. Usually, the doctor after examining the patient ascertains the fact of already formed necrotic foci, and determines the severity of the developed complications.

What helps the doctor to recognize the transferred microinfarction?

  1. Complaints of a person, comparing them with a medical history.
  2. Laboratory blood tests for the presence of special markers confirming myocardial tissue damage. The lower their number, the smaller the foci of necrosis.
  3. Ultrasound of the heart muscle allows the doctor to see the size and location of the damaged area.
  4. ECG is a mandatory diagnostic method. Symptoms such as a reduced ST area and the appearance of a negative T wave may indicate the development of a “small” heart attack.
  5. There is no enlarged Q-wave that is characteristic of extensive myocardial damage.

Case study

A 54-year-old woman came to the clinic with complaints of weakness and nausea. The problem was associated with malnutrition. During the survey, it turned out that she had had angina pectoris for 10 years, seizures occur several times a month and are stopped by Nitroglycerin.

On the ECG, there are signs of acute ischemia along the lower wall of the left ventricle, without the formation of a Q wave. Diagnosis: Small focal infarction.

The woman underwent a full course of treatment in a hospital, her condition improved, she was discharged under the supervision of a local cardiologist. Recommended: diet, aspirin cardio, metoprolol, atrovastatin.

Rehabilitation after a microinfarction

The transferred microinfarction has a different effect on the further quality, life expectancy of a person. With a good general state of health, a person quickly returns to his usual life. However, for many people this heart attack may not be the first, or the patient has other chronic diseases that inhibit recovery. Such patients complain of rapid fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance.

Rehabilitation treatment involves:

  • the purpose of the diet;
  • lifestyle correction;
  • patient education.

A diet with a microinfarction involves a decrease in the consumption of fatty foods of animal origin, including dairy products, salts, and a limitation of the daily amount of calories. Patients are advised to eat often, but in small portions. The basis of a healthy diet is vegetables, fruits, cereals, legumes, low-fat dairy products. Fish should be eaten 2-3 times / week. During the day you need to drink 1,5-2 liters of water.

From their diet exclude or reduce consumption:

  • smoked meats, pickles, pickles;
  • foods rich in salt;
  • sweets;
  • sweet drinks;
  • alcohol;
  • sausages, sausages;
  • fast food.

Positive changes in recovery after a microinfarction, prevention of relapse of the disease are affected by lifestyle changes:

  • achieving a healthy weight;
  • daily physical activity (from aerobic exercise to regular walks, physiotherapy exercises);
  • to give up smoking;
  • gaining stress management skills (meditation, good rest, working with a psychologist).

Post-infarction rehabilitation includes supportive drug therapy, physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy exercises, lifestyle correction and diet. The basis of the diet should be foods rich in fiber, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids: vegetables and fruits, fish, lean meat, seafood, dairy products, vegetable oils. Limit the use of fatty meats, animal fats, salt, confectionery. Overweight patients need to bring it back to normal.

Harbingers of the microinfarction

  • Shortness of breath after walking;
  • high blood pressure;
  • fatigue;
  • freezing of hands and feet (limbs are constantly cold, even when warm);
  • periodic occurrence of “goose bumps” in the legs and arms.

Even with the appearance of these signs, it is recommended to contact a cardiologist for preventive diagnostics. We will analyze these signs in more detail.

    The main harbinger is shortness of breath even after minor physical exertion and fatigue. They often appear in obese people, as well as those who smoke. These signs suggest that the heart cannot quickly deliver enough blood to the body’s tissues. You can get rid of these symptoms yourself by quitting bad habits, adjusting your diet and losing weight. In this case, a microinfarction can be avoided without consulting a doctor.
  • Then there are constant headaches, hypertension. Constantly elevated pressure significantly increases the risk of myocardial necrosis. When these signs appear, it is already necessary to undergo a routine examination at the cardiologist once every six months.
  • The constant feeling of coldness in the arms and legs, as well as the occurrence of “goose bumps” indicate that a person already has circulatory disturbances in the coronary vessels, and the heart cannot fully work. With such manifestations, you need to undergo a detailed examination by a cardiologist, which includes an ECG, a blood test and an ultrasound of the heart. Sometimes duplex scanning of arteries may also be indicated.

    If symptoms of a microinfarction appear, a cardiologist needs to be examined. With the symptoms described above, a mild microinfarction is diagnosed in only 5% of cases. Much more often, at this stage, other diseases of the cardiovascular system can be detected, which, if ignored, lead to a microinfarction or extensive myocardial infarction.

    Symptoms and clinical manifestations

    In rarer cases, a microinfarction can cause:

    • coronary artery embolism – blockage by an external formation, for example, with mitral or aortic stenosis, infectious endocarditis;
    • coronary vessel spasm under the influence of psychoactive substances or, for example, severe stress.

    Later, there are already basic signs that are similar to the symptoms of an extensive heart attack, but are less pronounced:

    • chest pain,
    • low pressure,
    • shortness of breath,
    • blue lips
    • dizziness,
    • numbness of the limbs
    • arrhythmia.

    These are the symptoms that already in 99% of cases indicate a microinfarction or even a massive heart attack. Men are more difficult to tolerate both a microinfarction and an extensive heart attack. How symptoms appear:

    • First of all, there is a sharp pain in the chest, which can give to the shoulder, jaw, shoulder blade.
    • Further, a person sharply decreases blood pressure.
    • Due to insufficient blood supply to the brain, dizziness occurs, which in a severe case can result in fainting.

    Fainting is one of the symptoms of a microinfarction.

  • Since the supply of blood to the limbs decreases sharply, the patient feels their numbness.
  • Due to the fact that all body tissues begin to receive less oxygen, a person feels a lack of air and begins to breathe often and quickly.
  • Also, due to a sharp violation of blood circulation, cyanosis of the lips and nasal mucous membranes may appear.
  • Arrhythmia is the most dangerous sign of a microinfarction. It occurs due to a violation of the conduction of a nerve impulse inside the heart muscle. This can be tachycardia (frequent heart contractions – a pulse of more than 90 beats per minute), extrasystole (untimely heart contractions), atrial fibrillation (chaotic rapid atrial contraction). Often, arrhythmia persists after a microinfarction.
  • In people previously not prone to heart disease, all these symptoms may be accompanied by feelings of anxiety and fear of death, which is understandable. But those who often have heart pains may not give proper attention to the symptoms. If you are one of those who are often bothered by chest pain and dizziness, then note that with a microinfarction, nitroglycerin and other nitrates do not help. And if you drank the pill, but it did not bring the expected effect – within 3-5 minutes, immediately call an ambulance.

    Symptoms of a microinfarction, myocardial infarction, unstable angina are very similar, since all three conditions are accompanied by insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle. However, the principles of first aid for microinfarction, preinfarction condition, heart attack are the same. Therefore, ordinary people do not need to distinguish between forms of acute coronary insufficiency.

    A classic sign of a microinfarction is pain, which is manifested by a feeling of squeezing of the chest, can be given to the arm, stomach, shoulder, neck, and jaw. Usually, pain with small focal infarction is less pronounced than with extensive MI. Forms of a microinfarction occurring without pain or with non-standard symptoms are called atypical.

    Angina pain during a heart attack has a number of features that can distinguish acute coronary insufficiency from angina pectoris:

    • A pain attack lasts longer than usual, over 20 minutes. The pain is intense, can disappear and reappear.
    • An attack does not necessarily develop after physical stress, excitement, stress. He can catch a person during rest, sleep. Often, cases of microinfarction are recorded early in the morning.
    • Taking a nitroglycerin tablet does not completely relieve pain.

    Women, elderly people, patients with diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and dementia are more likely to develop atypical forms of the disease (2). In total, there are 5 forms of microinfarction:

    • Abdominal. The symptom resembles acute pancreatitis. A person complains of stomach pains, hiccups, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. It is quite rare.
    • Arrhythmic. It is manifested by cardiac arrhythmias. The prognosis for this form is unfavorable.
    • Asthmatic. May not be accompanied by pain. The main complaint of the patient is shortness of breath, reminiscent of bronchial asthma, which develops due to pulmonary edema. The asthmatic form is more common among older people, as well as patients who have a long history of developing coronary heart disease or have already survived myocardial infarction.
    • Asymptomatic. May occur without pain. A person feels lightheadedness, sudden weakness, begins to sweat heavily. Often found in patients with diabetes.
    • Cerebral It resembles a stroke in appearance. Be sure to faint. Other possible symptoms are impaired coordination, incoherence or confusion of speech, fuzzy thinking, memory problems. The cerebral form develops in patients with atherosclerotic lesions of the brain vessels. Usually these are older people suffering from dementia, impaired memory.

    Literature

    1. Aravdeep Jhand, MBBS, Harish C. Devineni, MD, Gene Pershwitz, MD. Acute Coronary Syndromes: NSTE-ACS (Unstable Angina and NSTEMI)
    2. Galyavich A.S., Kamalov G.M. Galeeva Z.M., Baleeva L.V. Myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, 2017
    3. Syrkin A.L. , Dobrovolsky A.V. Acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation on ECG, 2011
    4. Natalie Olsen NSTEMI: What You Need to Know, 2017
    5. Gilles Montalescot Jean Dallongeville Eric Van Belle Stephanie Rouanet Cathrine Baulac Alexia Degrandsart Eric Vicaut for the OPERA Investigators.
    6. STEMI and NSTEMI: are they so different? 1 year outcomes in acute myocardial infarction as defined by the ESC / ACC definition (the OPERA registry), 2007

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    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

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