The normal content of calcium ensures the formation of bone tissue, the stable operation of the circulatory and nervous systems, muscles. The mineral is involved in the conversion of blood prothrombin to thrombin, which causes natural coagulation. In plasma, the element is contained in several forms: 40% of calcium enters into compounds with proteins, about 15% is associated with minerals (for example, phosphorus), of the total amount of mineral free ionized calcium is about 45%.
The level of free mineral depends on the acidity of the blood. With an increase in the indicator in the alkaline side, its amount increases. The macronutrient in the plasma is filtered by the kidneys. Under the condition of normal mineral metabolism, its main part is absorbed back into the blood.
Cases of increased calcium are characterized by the development of acidosis in the patient. With this pathology, a sharp shift in the acid-base balance occurs, the pH level decreases, and in the biological environments of the body, acidity indicators increase. Also, the reasons for increasing the element may be the following:
In the event of excessive intake of vitamin D, total calcium rises.
Haperparathyroidism develops as a result of endocrinological pathologies that lead to an excess of parathyroid hormones. There is a violation of the exchange of calcium and phosphorus. As a result, the bones become fragile, and the risk of damage and fractures increases.
Malignant formations, since the tumor can secrete secretions that have an effect similar to the work of parathyroid hormones.
Various growths in the parathyroid glands.
Bone metastases can damage bone tissue. As a result of this process, calcium ions can enter the bloodstream.
Impaired renal function and adrenal cortex.
Increased absorption of calcium-containing foods.
If calcium ionized in the blood is below normal, then the basis for this pathology is the following:
A shift in the ac >
If there are signs of calcium deficiency, you must consult a specialist to conduct an examination, determine the diagnosis and method of treatment.
Often the symptoms of hypocalcemia are eliminated through the use of drugs saturated with calcium and vitamin D. It is recommended that foods containing the mineral be easily absorbed. The most useful are cottage cheese and milk. If possible, try to take sunbathing. With calcium deficiency, a decrease in immunity is observed, therefore it is necessary to use a multivitamin complex. It is also prescribed after operations, blood loss, after injuries, during hormonal changes, when the assimilation of the element is impaired.
Only a specialist can prescribe the necessary treatment to remove excess calcium from the body. On his own, the patient has the opportunity to improve his health, thanks to a balanced diet.
The mineral enters the body with food. Therefore, foods containing calcium must be excluded. These are dairy and sour-milk products, rice dishes, sesame, nuts, chocolate, halva, wheat flour bread.
Distilled water helps reduce blood calcium. It has the ability to dissolve trace elements and remove them from the body. Since the distillate is completely devoid of mineral elements, it is necessary to alternate it with boiled water, replacing it every two months. Also, with excess calcium, oxalic acid has a beneficial effect on the body.
It must be remembered that with deviations of calcium metabolism in the body, the final diagnosis, competent treatment and preventive measures can only be established and prescribed by a doctor.
Calcium is involved in the work of all organs and systems of the human body. Most are found in bone and tooth tissues. About 2% contain nerve fibers, blood, and muscle.
For the female body, calcium is the most important substance. The strength of bones, nails, and teeth depends on it. With insufficient calcium, the nervous and cardiovascular systems cannot function normally. Is he:
provides the ability to contract muscles;
participates in blood coagulation and iron metabolism;
normalizes the function of the endocrine system;
supports the strength of the walls of blood vessels.
The necessary amount of calcium in the blood prevents brittle bones and the threat of osteoporosis. This danger for women especially arises in the period after menopause. Calcium deficiency is directly related to negative symptoms in the premenstrual period.
The work of the kidneys and the state of pressure with calcium deficiency may worsen. Pregnant women may experience premature birth or have a dead baby. Calcium helps the heart muscle contract. The risk of cardiovascular disease is reduced. Calcium is involved in the production of hormone by lipid synthesis, thereby affecting the metabolism and weight of women.
The processes of blood formation and metabolism depend on the calcium content. He participates in the formation of bone tissue, fights against inflammatory processes, allergic reactions and radiation.
The negative effect of calcium lies in the fact that it interferes with the absorption of iron and zinc, its excessive amount provokes constipation and contributes to the development of urolithiasis, prostate cancer.
Calcium absorption occurs in the duodenum and small intestine. A normal amount of calcium is absorbed with receptors only in the small intestine. If the norm is exceeded, then the work of the duodenum and intercellular mechanisms are connected.
Calcium plays a huge role in the important currents of the vital functions of human organs. The main macrocell involved in the foundation of many organs, the reduction of muscle mass and heart.
It activates a large number of biologically active substances of an organic nature, appears in the regulation of gastric health, has an anti-inflammatory property, lowers sensitivity to light, and is found in a biological relationship with various elements of NaCa.
The largest part of calcium is in the teeth and skeleton, the need for its quantity depends on the age of the person. Ca is served in two groups. The first is free, and the second is ionized. The accumulation of this substance is a significant norm in metabolic processes, performing an action in the work of nerve conduction to muscles, normalizing the rhythm of the heart and the course of inflammation.
About 55% of all calcium is in the general configuration. About 40% are combinations with proteins, 15% with phosphorus or citrate. As a result, it is divided into general and ionized (Calcium ionized).
It is necessary for the life of minerals arriving from products of plant and animal origin in our organs, which makes up 47-51% of the total amount and freely circulates in the body.
Ca performs the following functions:
impact on the structure of the hormonal concept
takes part in the formation of teeth and bones
in strengthening immunity
enhances the work of enzymes
normalizes blood pressure
Women should know that the concentration of ionized calcium increases significantly during pregnancy and during the period of natural feeding, during the period of taking birth control pills and with the onset of more mature age.
A blood test for Calcium ionized is more accurate than total calcium, and more complex. Not all blood sampling points can do this analysis, and not everyone does it for sure. Ball free group for doctors has the most valuable information
Through laboratory testing, you can detect many diseases, it is important to control the calcium content
Norms mmol / L
It is important to constantly maintain the level of Calcium ionized, because non-compliance with the Ca norm leads to many problems. Blood collection points may vary slightly.
Its amount is checked in patients with renal failure to determine the thyroid hyperfunction syndrome, for example, when the patient is also receiving intravenous drugs and a blood transfusion, this is necessary to monitor the outcome of treatment.
The source of growth of this substance in plasma is:
benign tumors of parathyroid disease
the collapse of the structure of the integrity of the bones with the withdrawal of the substance into the total bloodstream, increased uptake of growth hormone
incorrect metabolic processes
Hypercalcemia leads to the deposition of calcium on the walls of the vascular system, in the kidneys and liver. Overpriced Calcium can be reduced by finding the cause of the deviation.
The root causes of lowering Calcium ionized:
calcium citrate transfusion
plasma magnesium deficiency
vitamin D deficiency
chronic kidney disease
stomach diseases and other ailments
Signs of a reduced amount of substance can be as follows – brittle bones, damage to nails and teeth, dizziness, problems with the vascular system and deterioration of the condition of the hairline. To treat a lack of this substance, you need to find the causes of the changes. From the lack of it, people often dieting for weight loss suffer.
With an increase or decrease in the level of calcium, you need to balance the diet based on the need to add or reduce consumption:
Consequently, only ionized calcium can replenish the deficiency of binding calcium since it does not precipitate and remains in the body. Identification of the causes of excess or deficiency of ionized calcium in the early stages will be the key to successful treatment of the body.
The purpose of the analysis is also when there are suspicions of diseases associated with the musculoskeletal system, various malignancies, as well as diseases associated with the thyroid gland.
The analysis for calcium ionized is performed with blood sampling, which, like many other procedures, should be given on an empty stomach after 8 hours after the last meal. However, you can drink plain drinking water if you really want to eat something.
It is not necessary to take alcoholic beverages, food with high fat content on the eve, and expose your body to increased physical activity. You also need to remember that if you want to know the most reliable result of the analysis for calcium ionized, then you need to take it when you do not take any medications.
Ionized calcium is lowered if a person has:
various renal diseases;
lack of vitamin D;
lack of magnesium;
So, as already mentioned above, if the body lacks calcium, or hypocalcemia, it can be expressed in too nervous behavior and deterioration of the emotional state, a depressed mood.
The reasons for lowering the calcium level will also be such processes as problems with absorption of the substance in the intestine, the formation of calcium stones in the kidneys, as well as excessive urinary excretion and constant high blood pressure.
Disruption of mineral metabolism is a dangerous disorder, against the background of which diseases of the heart, blood vessels, bone tissue, and tumors develop, problems arise with nervous regulation and muscle condition. An important indicator is the level of ionized calcium in the blood.
If there are signs of a tumor process and mineral imbalance, the patient must pass an analysis to determine the concentration of free (active) Ca. According to the results of the study, the doctor corrects the diet, prescribes hormone therapy, or recommends surgical treatment if a tumor process is detected.
A study allows you to determine whether calcium metabolism is normal in the body. To clarify the nature of the process, one analysis (a common indicator) is enough to understand whether there are deviations in the level of free calcium.
The study of the level of ionized Ca is more complicated, not all laboratories have equipment for determining accurate indicators. Diagnostic errors can adversely affect the patient’s condition: an increased level of the mineral indicates problems with the parathyroid gland, the development of the tumor process in the body.
Often, high Ca values are a consequence of hormonal imbalance in the formation of active malignancy. Problems with mineral metabolism adversely affect bone density, transmission of nerve impulses, metabolic processes, blood coagulation, muscle contraction.
The refinement of ionized calcium is prescribed in the following cases:
before prescribing drugs that affect the level of Ca. The study is carried out before taking barbiturates, calcium, magnesia, heparin;
revealed severe kidney damage or extensive intoxication of the body, hemodialysis is required;
in the process of complex diagnosis of oncopathologies and hyperthyroidism (excessive secretion of thyroid hormones);
in the postoperative period, during the treatment of extensive burns, severe injuries, after transferring the patient from intensive care to a standard ward.
during the day do not eat fatty, spicy, heavy food for the stomach, exclude alcohol;
for two or three days you can not change the diet (consume more or less foods with calcium);
before the test, you can eat in the evening, 8-10 hours before the blood test;
you need to take biomaterial from a vein on an empty stomach, in a calm state;
be sure to visit the laboratory to determine the level of calcium in the morning (8-11 hours).
As we noted earlier, elevated calcium is always an occasion for additional examination and consultation of the endocrinologist. In order to make an appointment with the endocrinologist “not empty-handed”, it’s better to pass some additional tests before meeting with the doctor.
This is the minimum with which it is already possible to consult a doctor. It is clear that the doctor can then prescribe additional tests, but the above three blood tests will help him to figure out in which direction he should conduct a diagnostic search.
When consulting patients with endocrinologists of the Northwestern Endocrinology Center, we almost insist on performing blood tests in the laboratory of our center – this is the only way we can be sure of the absence of laboratory errors and the correctness of our reasoning about the possible causes of high blood calcium.
The ionic composition of blood in the laboratory of our center is examined using the Olympus AU-680 analyzer (Japan) already mentioned above, and a blood test for such important indicators as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin is performed by the 3rd generation automatic immunochemiluminescent analyzer DiaSorin Liaison XL (Italy) – some of the best blood test machines for hormones and tumor markers in the world.
Immunochemiluminescent 3rd generation analyzer allows you to identify situations when high calcium combined with high parathyroid hormone
Endocrinologists and endocrinologist surgeons of the Northwestern Endocrinology Center independently perform ultrasound of the thyroid gland and neck – this is important for finding possible parathyroid tumors, which we simply must suspect in the patient with an increased level of calcium in the blood. The second important instrumental study that needs to be done to patients with high blood calcium levels is the determination of bone density, densitometry
Calcium in the blood does not rise by itself – it is “taken” from bone tissue, which gives calcium to the blood and as a result reduces its density, which can lead to fractures. Densitometry, as well as ultrasound of the thyroid gland, is performed independently by endocrinologists of the Northwest Endocrinology Center. This is also an important argument in favor of examination and treatment in a specialized center.
The third important argument to contact a specialized center in any case, if your blood calcium is elevated, is the opportunity to undergo any treatment procedures within the walls of the same institution. Even during the examination, you will not only have high blood calcium, but it will also become clear that the parathyroid hormone is elevated, and parathyroid adenoma will be detected on the neck – its removal can also be effectively performed at the Northwest Endocrinology Center.
Currently, our center is the undisputed leader in the treatment of patients with high blood calcium in Russia – annually, the center’s endocrinologists surgeons remove parathyroid adenomas in more than 300 patients. By the number of operations on the parathyroid glands, our center is now in third place in Europe.
Of course, the decoding of a blood test is the prerogative of the attending endocrinologist, and an independent study of his blood test can lead the patient to diagnostic errors, but in this article we will give some information about the possible results of a laboratory examination with high blood calcium
Use the data with caution and remember that they will not replace the advice of a specialist doctor. So, there are possible options for laboratory results and their interpretation.
So, possible options for laboratory results and their interpretation.
Blood calcium is elevated, parathyroid hormone is elevated, phosphorus is decreased, calcitonin is normal, calcium in daily urine is elevated — most likely, this is primary hyperparathyroidism and the presence of parathyroid adenoma. Further examination is required using ultrasound of the thyroid gland and neck, scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands with technetril, and in some cases, computed tomography of the neck. It is treated surgically (in a specialized center, endoscopic surgery through an incision about 2 cm long is possible).
Parathyroid hormone is elevated, calcium is normal, phosphorus is normal, calcitonin is normal – with a high degree of probability we are talking about secondary hyperparathyroidism due to the banal deficiency of vitamin D in the blood. Treated with Vitamin D and Calcium
It is important to exclude laboratory error associated with an underestimation of the level of ionized calcium in the blood (it is better to retake the analysis for ionized calcium in a specialized laboratory of the endocrinology center).
Blood calcium is elevated, parathyroid hormone is normal, phosphorus is normal, calcitonin is normal – a neuroendocrine tumor producing PTH-like peptides or forming lytic bone metastases should be suspected. Examination and treatment depends on the type of tumor detected.
High blood calcium (usually slightly elevated calcium is noted), parathyroid hormone is moderately elevated, phosphorus is normal, calcitonin is normal, calcium concentration is reduced in daily urine – we can talk about a rare family disease, the so-called familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.
This disease is accompanied by a change in the sensitivity of cellular receptors to parathyroid hormone and a violation of the excretion of calcium in the urine. It does not require treatment and is not dangerous. Often, inexperienced doctors diagnose primary hyperparathyroidism in such cases and direct the patient to an unnecessary operation to remove a non-existent parathyroid adenoma.
Ionized calcium is elevated, total calcium is normal, parathyroid hormone is elevated – usually we are talking about parathyroid adenoma.
The role of calcium in the body
The rate of ionizing calcium in the blood changes with age:
after birth, the level of Ca is in the range from 1,03 to 1,37 mmol / l;
during the period of active growth and the formation of the skeleton, the body needs more mineral, indicators increase. For children and adolescents under 16 years of age, acceptable values are from 1,29 to 1,31 mmol / l;
in adults, optimal calcium levels are from 1,17 to 1,29 mmol / l.
A significant deviation from the norm indicates pathological processes or a violation of calcium metabolism due to malnutrition with excess Ca intake or a significant deficiency of trace elements.
Deciphering biochemical analysis shows lower or higher values of free calcium? Be sure to contact an endocrinologist to determine the range of possible diseases. Most often, deviations in the analysis are a consequence of the tumor process and hyperparathyroidism.
For more information about the next dose, the patient can immediately pass the biomaterial to determine the concentration of the hormone calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and phosphorus level. With a minimum list of finished results, you can schedule an appointment. Next, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, a blood test for tumor markers and other types of diagnostics.
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Ionized calcium also takes part in blood coagulation. In addition, it regulates the numerous processes of cell activity: their secretion of hormones, muscle contraction, the release of very important substances – neurotransmitters, without which it would be impossible to transmit an impulse from neurons to various tissues. Also, ionized calcium reduces the permeability of the cell walls of blood vessels and increases its resistance to viruses and allergens.
For the human body, it is more important that calcium goes into the blood, so if there is a lack of calcium, then a clear signal will be the problems with teeth and bones that have begun. It is also important to note that along with magnesium, sodium and potassium, ionized ion plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. Also, like many other mineral substances, it strengthens the body’s immune system, triggers the action of many hormones and enzymes.
Ionized calcium in the blood can be increased in cases when there are:
an excess of vitamin D;
enteritis in the chronic stage;
various malignant formations, among which myeloma and leukemia are particularly prominent.
Before the analysis of hypercalcemia, these changes in the state of the organism will be spoken, like:
a constant feeling of nausea or vomiting;
feeling of thirst;
Among the causes of elevated calcium levels can be: excessive consumption of this substance or metabolic disorders.
Low calcium in the body without an additional examination does not provide a basis for an accurate diagnosis. But the fact that serious diseases can occur in the body cannot be ruled out. There may be several reasons for lowering calcium levels:
Improper nutrition. If the diet does not have dairy products or too many carbonated drinks, strict diets, foods containing a large amount of phosphorus.
Bad habits. Frequent use of alcoholic beverages, coffee, strong tea, smoking.
Bad ecology and toxic substances.
A lack of calcium leads to big problems and diseases:
Bone integrity is impaired. Bones become soft, osteoporosis and other diseases develop.
Pathologies of the cardiovascular system occur.
The limbs and face may go numb.
The immune system fails, so frequent inflammatory processes.
Excess calcium can occur due to thyroid disease, cancer, a large amount of prolactin, prolonged use in high doses of calcium. In this case, diseases arise:
the digestive system;
Deviations of calcium in one direction or another complicates the work of the whole organism.
With excess calcium, cystitis occurs, diseases of the respiratory system, the central nervous system and sense of smell suffer.
An increased indicator is calcium in excess of 2,5 mmol / L. Hypercalcemia occurs. The reason for the increase is hyperparathyroidism or cancer. Hyperparathyroidism promotes the production of a large number of parathyroid hormones by the glands, which affect the persistent increase in calcium in the blood.
In cancer, under the influence of metastases, bones are destroyed, thereby increasing calcium in the blood. Some cancers emit a substance similar to parathyroid hormone.
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Calcium deficiency causes rapid fatigue, allergies, cramps, distracted attention, respiratory and gum disease, and early gray hair.
Calcium is considered reduced if its level is less than 2 mmol / L. This condition is called hypocalcemia. In this case, parathyroid hormone production decreases. This disease hypoparathyroidism can develop as a result of a congenital pathology, after an operation to remove the thyroid gland.
A decrease in calcium may occur with:
lack of vitamin D, magnesium;
chronic diseases of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract;
An increase in the amount of free calcium is called hypercalcemia.
This disease develops for several reasons:
If the body has increased acidity.
The newborn has Williams syndrome, which is characterized by increased production of calcium.
Elevated Vitamin D.
Malignant neoplasms and metastases that affect bone tissue.
If hereditary hypercalcemia occurs.
Increased hormone production, which is produced by the parathyroid glands.
Blood diseases, such as leukemia.
Neoplasms appeared on the parathyroid glands.
Inability of the adrenal glands to fully perform their functions.
Using excessive amounts of foods that contain calcium.
There are several main symptoms of hypercalcemia:
fatigue, constant weakness and unwillingness to do anything;
nausea and vomiting;
cramps in the legs and arms;
tachycardia or bradycardia.
If treatment is not started, the mineral will be deposited in the blood vessels, kidneys and liver. Over time, heart failure may appear.
The treatment of the disease depends on what stage it has developed.
It is very important to find the cause of hypercalcemia and eliminate it.
If a person has no kidney problems, a special drinking regimen will help ease the condition.
Drink as much fluid as possible. It will help free the kidneys from calcium, while protecting the body from dehydration. In some cases, additional fluid is administered intravenously.
If these methods do not give the desired effect, the doctor may prescribe a dialysis procedure. It is carried out only in extreme cases.
Basically, treatment methods depend on the cause of the development of the disease:
Hypercalcemia, which appeared due to neoplasms, cannot be treated. The patient can only control the state of the tumor. Otherwise, the disease will progress.
If the reason lies in the increased production of hormones of the parathyroid glands, an operation to remove one of them may be necessary.
If treatment fails, the doctor will prescribe hormone-based medications. They will slow down the process of removing calcium from bone tissue.
The number of element ions is not related to the content of blood proteins, which is why when examining pathologies of mineral metabolism, an indicator such as calcium ionized is taken into account. The rate of presence of an element depends on the age of the person. In a newborn child, the value of the indicator is 1,03 – 1,37 (mol / l), in children over one year of age and up to 16 years of age – 1,29 – 1,31. The norm for an adult is set in the range 1,17 – 1,29.
The test is carried out both for total calcium and for ionized. The first is more affordable, it can be done in almost any laboratory. But the second has the most information. Indicators of total calcium increased or decreased are not always characteristic of the pathology of mineral metabolism. A correct diagnosis can be made by analyzing ionized calcium and determining the level of free ions in the plasma.
Signs of an increase in the mineral in the body are similar to its deficiency. Therefore, even with the pronounced symptoms of hypercalcemia, the most accurate way to make sure that ionized calcium is increased is to conduct an analysis.
Symptoms of excess element:
nausea and accompanying vomiting, constipation, loss of appetite;
arrhythmia and interruptions in cardiac activity;
disorders of mental activity, up to hallucinations;
fatigue and weakness.
Excess calcium is a rare occurrence. If the patient has the symptoms listed above, then to clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary to examine the blood for ionized calcium, since there is a likelihood of developing other pathologies.
The lack of calcium in the body has a pronounced symptomatology:
pain and bone fragility;
muscle weakness and pain, cramps;
change in the nail plate;
destruction of tooth enamel, the development of caries;
problems with hair, manifested in excessive hair loss, slow growth, loss of shine, in premature gray hair;
hypotension and fatigue;
with a lack of mineral, a sharp weakening of the protective functions of the body is observed.
Indications for a lab test
The proportional value of total and free calcium normally has a constant value, but various pathologies can lead to its imbalance. A study on the content of total calcium is uninformative if it is necessary to check the mineral metabolism.
An important diagnostic study is an analysis of ionized calcium in the blood. Normal blood calcium levels depend on the person’s age (they have been described above).
The main indications for free calcium analysis are as follows:
The procedure is usually carried out simultaneously with a test for the content of parathyroid hormones, which allows you to detect the presence of hyperthyroidism.
Signs of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia.
During treatment, in which blood substitute fluids are injected into the body.
In preparation for surgery, injuries and burns.
For the diagnosis of oncology and osteoporosis.
By examining a patient’s venous blood sample, a pathology is detected or the rate of ionized calcium is calculated. The analysis is performed in the morning on an empty stomach. For a reliable result, it is necessary to take preparatory measures before collecting the material: the day before the procedure, it is forbidden to drink alcohol, fatty and spicy foods, only clean water is allowed in the morning.
Increased rate. Hypercalcemia
Intensive kidney function
Frequent urges and as a result dehydration.
Polyuria (intense urine output);
Nausea and vomiting;
Increased blood pressure;
Chronic hypercalcemia is characterized by less pronounced symptoms, and in some cases it may not manifest itself at all. With its development, the probability of formation of kidney stones is high.
Acute renal failure;
Hyperparathyroidism against the background of active secretion of the parathyroid glands;
Circulatory system diseases. For example, leukemia or lymphoma;
Improper functioning of the adrenal cortex.
Excessive content of vitamins of group D in the body;
Eating large quantities of calcium-rich foods.
Read more in the article Increased blood calcium – hypercalcemia.
The method of treatment of the disease depends on the stage of development. First of all, the specialist will try to identify and eliminate the cause of the increase in the content of calcium ions. If the patient has healthy kidneys, then his condition can be alleviated by using a properly selected drinking regimen. This measure helps to wash out limescale from the kidneys and prevent the threat of dehydration.
When there is a need to determine concentrations
Analysis for calcium is a generalized concept, which means two types of analysis: analysis for ionized calcium and total calcium.
The determination of separately concentrations of the ionized type is sometimes a necessity, since total blood calcium is normal, but the rate of the active mineral is increased.
However, deviation from the norm of just one indicator is a rarity. Often the concentration of that total blood calcium that is ionized is disturbed.
The need for a calcium test arises with the following symptomatic manifestations and pathological conditions:
diagnosis of osteoporosis;
gastrointestinal tract disorders;
muscle tissue pathology;
on the eve of surgical procedures.
The effectiveness and reliability of the test largely depends on preliminary preparation. The patient, before taking the material for a study of calcium blood concentrations, must fulfill the following conditions:
Before passing the calcium test, you need to refuse food no earlier than 8 hours before the test. It is allowed to drink exclusively pure non-carbonated water, without mineral impurities.
1 day before the passage of the sample it is required to abandon fatty foods and fried foods, exclude alcohol-containing drinks. Refrain from foods rich in minerals.
Physical exercises must be limited 1.5 days before blood sampling.
7 days before the expected date of analysis, it is required to abandon medications that may affect the final results.
The list of drugs that affect the concentration of a mineral in the blood is quite extensive:
Vitamin-mineral complexes, including Vit.A and Vit.D., calcium and magnesium salts.
Hormonal drugs that can affect parathyroid hormone, progesterone, androgens and estrogens.
When it is not possible to completely cancel these medicines, you should inform your doctor about them and provide their exact dosages.
The average cost of analysis for the general indicator in Moscow is 120 rubles, the minimum cost of the test is about 100 rubles. Analysis of an ionized mineral costs 400 rubles on average. Its minimum cost is 120 rubles.
Ionized calcium in women should be contained in the blood at a concentration of approximately 1.15-1.27 mmol / l.
However, the analysis of calcium in the blood is quite complicated from the point of view of technical performance and determining the concentration that free calcium ions have.
Due to the complexity, the content of all three forms of the mineral in the blood is often determined, such a norm of calcium in the blood in women is 1.5-2.15. The maximum value that the level of the mineral in the blood can correspond to is 2.5 mmol / L.
When a blood test for calcium shows lower values, this may indicate a deficiency in vit.D. In addition to the lack of this vitamin, hypocalcemia can be triggered by the following factors:
A number of medications that inhibit calcium ions or prevent the body from absorbing the mineral.
Deviations of the ratio of acids and alkalis of the body from the norm.
Pathological changes in the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands.
Unbalanced diet, the use of a large number of caffeinated foods and drinks.
The condition when the content of the mineral in the blood exceeds the reference values is also not considered acceptable. The following factors can make a high concentration of a mineral:
Excessive Vitamin D.
Calcium process failures.
Tumor formations of a benign and malignant nature.
Excessive consumption of a certain number of medications.
Pathological processes of the nervous system.
A certain genetic predisposition.
For women who bear a child, it is necessary to try to maintain calcium levels of blood. Otherwise, either the fetus will not be able to form normally, or the woman will begin hypocalcemia. For a woman during pregnancy, hypocalcemia is fraught with the following series of consequences:
To prevent hypocalcemia and preserve female and fetal health, it is necessary to consume foods rich in minerals.
It is also possible to use drugs that increase its rate, but only in case of real need.
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