How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

In the human body there are 2 types of blood circulation: venous and arterial. Blood vessels and the heart participate in the functioning of the vascular system. By the first, blood moves through the human body, and thanks to the second, its injection occurs. There are such types:

  • the main artery is the aorta;
  • large: arteries and veins (through them oxygen moves to the heart and large organs);
  • medium and small: capillaries, venules, arterioles (oxygen is transferred to small tissues and cells of the whole organism).

If at least one begins to work poorly, there is a decrease in blood inflow and outflow, their walls are clogged. Vascular examination is a very important point for the timely identification of a possible problem.

There are no characteristic symptoms of a disease of the circulatory system, since each of its components directly interact with a specific organ. Therefore, if irregularities occur in her work, then first of all symptoms appear in that organ for which the affected vessel is responsible. This all makes it difficult to pinpoint the problem and delays its treatment.

Learn from this article how to clean your blood vessels at home.

So, let’s start with the name of the vascular examination? It all depends on the area that will be examined. For example, with dopplerography, the cardiac aorta is examined; with magnetic resonance imaging, an examination of the whole organism can be carried out.

Key indicators for the study:

  • injuries to the skull and head;
  • blood pressure surges;
  • putative oncology of the brain;
  • persistent headaches of an indefinite nature;
  • cardiac ischemia;
  • phlebeurysm;
  • swelling of the lower extremities;
  • smoking abuse, heavy weight gain, chronic diseases, etc.

It includes blood vessels and the heart. The function of the former is to move the blood, the latter to pump it.

Vessels are divided as follows:

  • aorta – the main arterial trunk that carries blood from the ventricle;
  • arteries – large vessels that betray oxygen-rich blood to internal organs;
  • arterioles – medium and small arteries that supply blood to tissues;
  • capillaries – the smallest vessels serving literally every cell;
  • venules – small veins that divert blood from tissues;
  • veins – large vessels that move blood back to the heart, the walls of the veins are much thinner.

Single damage to capillaries or larger vessels usually does not have a noticeable effect on health. Much more dangerous is the constant disruption of work, since with a decrease in the lumen of blood vessels, the flow or outflow of blood decreases. Both that, and another phenomenon are equally destructive.

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The complex allows you to assess the state of blood vessels even before patients notice any abnormalities in their work. The device is intended for non-invasive diagnosis, which is well tolerated by patients. The advantage of the examination is the ability to assess the condition of even the microvasculature.

To study the structure and patency of blood vessels, methods are used that allow you to see their structure.

Such hardware studies include the following:

  • rheoencephalography;
  • dopplerography;
  • (on the picture);
  • magnetic resonance angiography;

Rheoencephography, abbreviated REG – during the study, the electrical resistance of tissues and pulse oscillations is recorded. This technique provides an opportunity to determine the degree of vascular functionality.

This type of hardware research is prescribed to patients who have the following pathological conditions:

  • cerebral blood flow insufficiency;
  • migraines of unknown origin;
  • after injuries;
  • with epilepsy.

The technique does not require specific preparation, but there are limitations for patients with tremor of the limbs and head.

Ultrasound of blood vessels is based on the ability of tissues to reflect directed ultrasonic waves in various ways. Vascular walls can be determined and checked.

The technique makes it possible to determine the following parameters and conditions of the circulatory system:

  1. Consider the location and direction of the vessel.
  2. Assess the development of a collateral network.
  3. Detect any deformation along the inner and outer contour, aneurysmal disorders, stratification.
  4. To identify.
  5. Check the tissues that surround the vessel.

Dopplerography is one of the options for using ultrasound in diagnostics. The difference from the general ultrasound of blood vessels is the Doppler effect, which allows an assessment of blood flow in motion and on its basis to determine the patency of arteries. The method is suitable for the study of both large blood channels and small intracerebral arteries, their connection and patency.

The technique of magnetic resonance imaging is based on the physical phenomena of nuclear magnetic signals that resonate. During exposure to the patient’s body in a magnetic field by radio-frequency pulsed waves, reflected vibrations of internal organs and their structures are displayed on the screen. The research process lasts up to half an hour.

In the diagnosis of pathologies, MRI allows you to obtain such information:

  • location and structure of the entire network;
  • structure and location of individual vessels;
  • the presence of aneurysmal expansion;
  • the presence of thrombosis;
  • examine hematomas.

Magnetic resonance angiography does not require the use of a contrast medium and is an expensive diagnostic technique. It allows you to get a 3D image of the entire network of vessels. At the same time, they are projected onto the structures of the brain and it becomes possible to study the hotel areas of ischemia.

Computed tomography scans brain tissue using a scanning device for the flow of x-rays. The sensor rotates around the patient’s head.

This makes it possible to image horizontal slices in a given area. Everything is fully automated – calculations and measurements are made by a computer, and the result is displayed immediately. The technique provides information about the blood supply to the brain.

These diagnostic methods enable specialized specialists to make the most accurate diagnosis and prescribe the right solution for the revealed vascular pathology.

To prevent illness and early death, you need to know how to check blood vessels for atherosclerosis. A degenerative disease occurs under the influence of harmful factors and habits. Age-related changes, an unhealthy lifestyle contribute to the deposition of cholesterol. Sclerotic vascular lesion leads the list of causes of death among the inhabitants of the planet.

A metabolic disorder causes an increase in blood cholesterol. Settling on the inner walls, its cells form plaques that interfere with the normal passage of blood along the channel. Arterial nutrition is disrupted, their walls lose elasticity. Pathology leads to severe pathologies of the heart, brain, internal organs and limbs. The disease can develop slowly from childhood or adolescence.

Fluid constantly circulates in two vicious circles. Small supplies the vascular tubes of the brain, neck, upper torso. Large – vessels of the lower body, legs. In addition, the placental (present during the development of the fetus) and coronary circles of blood circulation are isolated.

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Heart structure

The heart is a hollow cone consisting of muscle tissue. In all people, the organ is slightly different in shape, sometimes in structure.
. It has 4 sections – the right ventricle (RV), the left ventricle (LV), the right atrium (PP) and the left atrium (LP), which communicate with each other through openings.

The holes are blocked by valves. Between the left departments – the mitral valve, between the right – tricuspid.

The pancreas pushes fluid into the pulmonary circulation – through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary trunk. The LV has more dense walls, as it pushes blood to a large circle of blood circulation through the aortic valve, that is, it must create sufficient pressure.

Arterial function

Blood enriched with oxygen enters the arteries. According to them, it is transported to all tissues and internal organs. The walls of the vessels are thick and highly elastic. The fluid is ejected into the artery under high pressure – 110 mm RT. Art., and elasticity is a vital quality that keeps the vascular tubes intact.

The artery has three membranes, which provide its ability to perform its functions. The middle shell consists of smooth muscle tissue, which allows the walls to change the lumen depending on body temperature, the needs of individual tissues or under high pressure. Penetrating into the tissue, the arteries narrow, passing into the capillaries.

Capillary function

Capillaries penetrate all body tissues, except the cornea and epidermis, carry oxygen and nutrients to them. Exchange is possible due to the very thin wall of the vessels. Their diameter does not exceed the thickness of the hair. Gradually, the arterial capillaries pass into the venous.

Vein function

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Veins carry blood to the heart. They are larger than arteries and contain about 70% of the total blood volume. In the course of the venous system, there are valves that operate on the principle of cardiac. They pass blood and close behind it to prevent its outflow. Veins are divided into superficial, located directly under the skin, and deep – passing in the muscles.

The main task of veins is to transport blood to the heart, in which there is no more oxygen and decay products are present. Only pulmonary veins carry blood with oxygen to the heart. There is a movement from the bottom up. In the event of a malfunction of the valves, the blood stagnates in the vessels, stretching them and deforming the walls.

What are the causes of blood movement in the vessels:

  • myocardial contraction;
  • contraction of the smooth muscle layer of blood vessels;
  • difference in blood pressure in arteries and veins.

Above is just a brief description of the human circulatory system. The body contains a huge number of vessels. The movement of blood in a large circle passes throughout the body, providing blood to each organ
.

Personal blood circulation

The overall well-being of the body and the well-being of a person largely depend on the state of the vessels of the heart. If there are the slightest pathologies, they will certainly manifest in one way or another and affect health.

The patient may complain of chest pain, heaviness and numbness in the left hand, rapid or irregular heartbeat, worsening of general well-being and decreased performance, shortness of breath and a feeling of heaviness. All these symptoms are the basis for an immediate comprehensive examination of the heart and blood vessels.

The blood vessels of the heart are checked by the following methods:

  • Coronography This is a variant of angiography, that is, an X-ray contrast method for examining the large arteries and veins of the heart. It gives a lot of useful information, but relates to traumatic procedures and has a wide range of contraindications. Use it only in those cases when it is vitally necessary and at the same time does not threaten the normal functioning and life of the patient.
  • Doppler ultrasound. This method is most often used to diagnose the condition of the heart vessels. With its help, it is possible to identify violations in the state of the vascular walls, to check the quality of blood flow in the largest vessels, such as the aorta, pulmonary artery, vena cava – the upper and lower.
  • Ultrasound examination inside the vessels. It is used to obtain more accurate information about the condition and functioning of the arteries, in particular, in the presence of dangerous aneurysms.
  • SKT – spiral computed tomography. It shows a complex picture of the state of the vessels of the heart and allows you to evaluate blood flow.

The importance of diagnostic measures is that the doctor can get a comprehensive picture of the patient’s heart condition and the functioning of his blood vessels. And this is extremely important for assessing the risk of coronary heart disease, pathology of blood vessels and valves, as well as for early detection of the threat of the most dangerous disease – heart attack.

Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common causes of serious illness, disability and mortality worldwide. These diseases are especially common in civilized countries. There are many reasons for this. Basically, strange as it may seem, illnesses are caused by a full life, the availability of heavy, fatty and sugary foods, as well as a sedentary lifestyle and excessive stress.

For people who live in big cities and have sedentary work, do not eat well and do not move much, regular check-ups of blood vessels should become a kind of healthy ritual. This action helps not only to monitor the state of blood vessels, but also quickly reveals the very first violations of their functioning. As a result, it will be possible to take effective measures long before the disease will threaten the entire body or individual organs.

If you do not pass the examination, the problem may develop hidden or with minimal symptoms, and then manifest itself in a sudden attack. In most cases, the disease threatens with dire consequences that will necessarily affect the quality of life. A very significant percentage of extensive heart attacks results in death or severe, extensive disability of the patient.

There are techniques that are not available to study the structure of cerebral arteries, but they are mandatory for patients with impaired brain activity – to determine the severity.

Such studies are prescribed for the following negative conditions of the patient:

  • birth trauma;
  • head injuries and intracranial;
  • with violations of physical development;
  • with convulsive syndrome of unclear etiology;
  • after a stroke.

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Based on the results of such hardware studies, the specialist has the opportunity to determine the likely area of ​​damage to nerve tissues and, subsequently, perform a targeted study of the allegedly damaged areas.

How to check brain vessels
MethodWhat provides
EchoencephalographyEcho EEG is an ultrasound technique. All received signals are displayed on the screen and recorded. The method is sensitive to pathological changes in nerve structures and tumor processes provoked by craniocerebral injuries.
ElectroencephalographyEEG allows you to track and record pathological changes in the electrical potential of neurons and various brain nuclei. The Encephalograph is fixed on the head and registers all changes on the tape, which are decrypted at the end of the study.
ElectroneuromyographyIt takes into account and records the biocurrents of muscle contractions and is a confirmation of the presence of paralysis and paresis.
CraniographyThe X-ray of the skull in 2 projections (profile and full face) is an ultrasound technique that makes it possible to detect the effects of craniocerebral injuries and birth defects. With the development of an aneurysm, which is capable of provoking pathological changes in bone sites, is the optimal diagnostic method.
NeurosonographyUltrasonic research methodology, which is intended for examinations of children of a younger age group (in whom a large fontanel has not yet been infected). Allows you to explore the structure of the brain and determine the general parameters of blood circulation.

During radiography, a tomography can be assigned, which is carried out as a clarifying study to identify the depth of defects, its contours and possible contact with the functional areas of the brain.

Depending on the symptoms, the diagnosis is made by the therapist, neuropathologist, specialist in vascular surgery (angiologist), cardiologist. A set of studies gives reason to judge whether there are cholesterol plaques in the arteries of the patient. A prolonged atherosclerotic process leaves traces in the blood and urine, changing their composition, a series of tests are assigned to the patient.

  • general and biochemical analysis of blood composition;
  • identification of liver enzymes;
  • blood protein analysis;
  • coagulogram;
  • general urine analysis.

A blood test for sulfur-containing acid homocysteine ​​makes it possible to assess the risk of premature death. The indicator of total cholesterol, the level of low density cholesterol, the content of triglycerides, apoliproteins, free fatty acids is of diagnostic value. Based on laboratory tests, it is calculated, allowing to conclude that the disease is globalized.

Experienced doctors know how to find out by external signs about atherosclerosis. Nonspecific criteria are the growth of hair in the ears, skin wen, cholesterol nodules on the eyelids. In patients with atherosclerosis, hair loss and deformation of the nail plates are noted. Upon examination, the doctor draws attention to the rapid weight loss, swelling, redness of the skin, increased sweating. From the psyche there is anxiety, a sharp change in mood.

The heart is the “autonomous republic” of the body. It has its own system of innervation, which drives the muscles of the organ. And its own circle of blood circulation, which make up the coronary arteries with veins. The coronary arteries independently regulate the blood supply to the heart tissues, which is important for the continuous operation of the organ.

The structure of the vascular tubes is not identical
. Most people have two coronary arteries, but there is a third. Heart nutrition can come from the right or left coronary artery. Because of this, it is difficult to establish cardiac circulation rates. depends on the load, physical fitness, age of the person.

The heart is the “autonomous republic” of the body. It has its own system of innervation, which drives the muscles of the organ. And its own circle of blood circulation, which make up the coronary arteries with veins. The coronary arteries independently regulate the blood supply to the heart tissues, which is important for the continuous operation of the organ.

The structure of the vascular tubes is not identical. Most people have two coronary arteries, but there is a third. Heart nutrition can come from the right or left coronary artery. Because of this, it is difficult to establish cardiac circulation rates. The intensity of blood flow depends on the load, physical fitness, age of the person.

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and adolescent gynecology

and health worker

Blood circulation is a continuous movement of blood through a closed cardiovascular system, providing gas exchange in the lungs and body tissues.

In addition to providing tissues and organs with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from them, blood circulation delivers nutrients, water, salts, vitamins, hormones to the cells and removes end metabolic products, and also maintains constant body temperature, provides humoral regulation and the interconnection of organs and organ systems in the body.

The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels that penetrate all organs and tissues of the body.

Blood circulation begins in the tissues where metabolism occurs through the walls of the capillaries. Blood, which gave oxygen to organs and tissues, enters the right half of the heart and is directed to the small (pulmonary) circle of blood circulation, where the blood is saturated with oxygen, returns to the heart, entering its left half, and again spreads throughout the body (large circle of blood circulation) .

The heart is the main organ of the circulatory system. It is a hollow muscular organ consisting of four chambers: two atria (right and left), separated by an interatrial septum, and two ventricles (right and left), separated by an interventricular septum. The right atrium communicates with the right ventricle through the tricuspid, and the left atrium with the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve.

  • Today, the most popular method is dopplerography. The aorta and venous trunk belong to large vessels, and ultrasound scanning makes it possible to accurately assess their condition. Dopplerography is completely safe for the heart and allows you to get instant results.
  • Computed tomography is no less popular and very informative. With such a study of the heart, the introduction of a contrast medium, iodine, for example, is quite often used. Using CT, you can assess the condition of the walls of the artery, detect tumors and other disorders.
  • Coronarography – refers to surgical methods and is performed in extreme cases when the patient is on the operating table. The contrast medium is injected directly into the artery, and the scanning device is an angiograph, and the result is recorded. The undoubted advantage of the method is the ability to immediately compensate for the narrowing of the heart vessel.

Vessels of the head

Why venous blood is darker than arterial, and how to determine the type of bleeding

Blood moves through the vessels continuously. Somewhere faster, somewhere slower, it depends on the diameter of the vessel and the pressure under which the blood is ejected from the heart. The speed of movement through the capillaries is very low, due to which metabolic processes are possible.

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Blood moves in a whirlwind, bringing oxygen along the entire diameter of the vessel wall. Due to such movements, oxygen bubbles seem to be pushed beyond the boundaries of the vascular tube.

The blood of a healthy person flows in one direction, the volume of the outflow is always equal to the volume of the inflow. The reason for the continuous movement is due to the elasticity of the vascular tubes and the resistance that liquids have to overcome. When blood flows, the aorta with the artery stretch, then narrow, gradually passing the fluid further. Thus, she does not move jerkily, as her heart contracts.

This is due to the high concentration in it of hemoglobin (in humans) and hemocyanin (in arthropods and mollusks), enriched with various nutrients.

Venous blood has a dark red tint. This is due to oxidized and reduced hemoglobin.

At the very least, it is unreasonable to believe the theory that the biological fluid circulating through the vessels is bluish, and when wounded and comes into contact with air as a result of a chemical reaction, it immediately turns red. It is a myth.

Veins can only appear bluish, due to the simple laws of physics
. When light enters the body, the skin repels part of all the waves and therefore looks light, well, or dark (this depends on the concentration of the coloring pigment).

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What color is venous blood, you know, now let’s talk about the composition. You can distinguish arterial blood from venous using laboratory tests. The oxygen tension is 38-40 mm Hg. (in venous), and in arterial – 90. The content of carbon dioxide in venous blood is 60 millimeters of mercury, and in arterial – about 30. The pH level in venous blood is 7.35, and in arterial – 7.4.

The outflow of blood that carries away carbon dioxide and products that were formed during metabolism is produced through veins. It is enriched with useful substances that are absorbed into the walls of the gastrointestinal tract and produced by the vital substance.

Now you know what color of blood is in the veins, familiar with its composition and functions.

Blood flowing through the veins during movement overcomes the “difficulties” which include pressure and gravity. That is why, in case of damage, the biological fluid flows in a slow trickle. But in case of injury to the arteries, blood sprays a fountain.

The speed with which venous blood moves is significantly less than the speed with which arterial blood moves. The heart pushes blood under high pressure. After it passes through the capillaries and turns into venous, a decrease in pressure to ten millimeters of mercury is noted.

You already know why venous blood is darker than arterial. Arterial blood is lighter and is due to the presence of oxyhemoglobin in it. As for the venous, it is dark (due to the content of both oxidized and reduced hemoglobin).

You probably noticed that blood was taken from a vein for analysis, and you probably wondered, “why from a vein?” This is due to the following. The composition of venous blood includes substances that are formed during metabolism. In pathologies, it is enriched with substances, which ideally should not be in the body. Thanks to their presence, a pathological process can be detected.

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Now you know not only why the blood in the veins is darker than arterial, but also why the blood is taken from the vein.

Everyone can determine the type of bleeding, there is nothing complicated in this. The main thing is to know the characteristics of the biological fluid. Venous blood has a darker shade (why venous blood is darker than arterial blood indicated above), and also it is much thicker. When cut, it flows out with a slow stream or drops. But as for the arterial, it is liquid and bright. When injured, it sprays a fountain.

It is easier to stop venous bleeding, sometimes it stops itself. As a rule, to stop bleeding, use a tight bandage (it is applied below the wound).

As for arterial bleeding, then everything is much more complicated. It is dangerous, because it does not stop by itself. In addition, blood loss can be so widespread that literally an hour later death can occur.

Capillary bleeding can open even with minimal injury. Blood flows quietly, in a small stream. Such damage is handled by brilliant green. Next, a bandage is applied to them, which helps to stop bleeding and prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the wound.

As for the venous, when damaged, blood flows out somewhat faster. In order to stop the bleeding, a tight bandage is applied, as already mentioned, below the wound, that is, further from the heart. Next, the wound is treated with 3% peroxide or vodka and bandaged.

With regards to arterial, it is the most dangerous. If a wound has happened and you see that there is bleeding from an artery, you must immediately raise the limb as high as possible. Next, you need to bend it, hold the wounded artery with your finger.

Then a rubber tourniquet is applied (a rope or bandage is suitable) above the site of injury, after which it is tightened tightly. The tourniquet must be removed no later than two hours after application. During the application of the dressing, a note is attached, which indicates the time of application of the tourniquet.

Bleeding is dangerous and fraught with severe loss of blood and even death. That is why in case of injury it is necessary to call an ambulance or take the patient to the hospital on his own.

Now you know why the blood in the veins is darker than arterial. Blood circulation is a closed system, which is why the blood in it is either arterial or venous.

Fluid constantly circulates in two vicious circles. Small supplies the vascular tubes of the brain, neck, upper torso. Large – vessels of the lower body, legs. In addition, the placental (present during the development of the fetus) and coronary circles of blood circulation are isolated.

Heart structure

The heart is a hollow cone consisting of muscle tissue. In all people, the organ is slightly different in shape, sometimes in structure. It has 4 sections – the right ventricle (RV), the left ventricle (LV), the right atrium (PP) and the left atrium (LP), which communicate with each other through openings.

The holes are blocked by valves. Between the left departments – the mitral valve, between the right – tricuspid.

The pancreas pushes fluid into the pulmonary circulation – through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary trunk. The LV has more dense walls, as it pushes blood to a large circle of blood circulation through the aortic valve, that is, it must create sufficient pressure.

Arterial function

Blood enriched with oxygen enters the arteries. According to them, it is transported to all tissues and internal organs. The walls of the vessels are thick and highly elastic. The fluid is ejected into the artery under high pressure – 110 mm RT. Art., and elasticity is a vital quality that keeps the vascular tubes intact.

Vein function

Veins carry blood to the heart. They are larger than arteries and contain about 70% of the total blood volume. In the course of the venous system, there are valves that operate on the principle of cardiac. They pass blood and close behind it to prevent its outflow. Veins are divided into superficial, located directly under the skin, and deep – passing in the muscles.

The main task of veins is to transport blood to the heart, in which there is no more oxygen and decay products are present. Only pulmonary veins carry blood with oxygen to the heart. There is a movement from the bottom up. In the event of a malfunction of the valves, the blood stagnates in the vessels, stretching them and deforming the walls.

The function of the heart is to rhythmically pump in the artery the blood that comes to it through the veins. The heart contracts for about a minute at a state of rest (1 time in 0,8 s). For more than half of this time it rests – it relaxes. Continuous activity of the heart consists of cycles, each of which consists of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).

There are three phases of cardiac activity:

  • atrial contraction – atrial systole – takes 0,1 s
  • ventricular contraction – ventricular systole – takes 0,3 s
  • general pause – diastole (simultaneous relaxation of the atria and ventricles) – takes 0,4 s

Thus, during the entire cycle of the atria, they work for 0,1 s and rest for 0,7 s, the ventricles work for 0,3 s and rest for 0,5 s. This explains the ability of the heart muscle to work without fatigue throughout life. High efficiency of the heart muscle is due to increased blood supply to the heart. Approximately 10% of the blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta enters the arteries that feed from it, which feed the heart.

Arteries – blood vessels carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to organs and tissues (only the pulmonary artery carries venous blood).

The wall of the artery is represented by three layers: the outer connective tissue membrane; middle, consisting of elastic fibers and smooth muscles; internal formed by endothelium and connective tissue.

Capillaries (from lat. “Capillus” – hair) are the smallest vessels (the average diameter does not exceed 0,005 mm, or 5 microns), penetrating the organs and tissues of animals and humans having a closed circulatory system. They connect small arteries – arterioles with small veins – venules. Through the walls of the capillaries, consisting of endothelial cells, there is an exchange of gases and other substances between the blood and various tissues.

Veins are blood vessels carrying blood saturated with carbon dioxide, metabolic products, hormones and other substances from tissues and organs to the heart (with the exception of pulmonary veins carrying arterial blood). The vein wall is much thinner and more elastic than the artery wall. Small and medium veins are equipped with valves that prevent the return flow of blood in these vessels. In humans, the average blood volume in the venous system is 3200 ml.

Which specialist should I contact?

Most often, an assumption of the presence of atherosclerosis in a patient may occur at the local GP or family doctor. The process of changing the walls of blood vessels develops in almost all people after 45 years.

But its manifestations and severity are different. After the doctor finds out the complaints, he gives a referral to biochemical blood tests to confirm elevated cholesterol, low density lipids and ECG.

Following the initial diagnosis, as a rule, it is recommended to undergo a consultation of such specialists for a more in-depth examination:

  • cardiologist – examines damage to the heart and large arteries;
  • vascular surgeon – reveals circulatory disorders in the lower extremities;
  • neuropathologist – determines the degree of blood flow in the vessels of the brain;
  • endocrinologist – examines the thyroid gland, hormones, etc. (and atherosclerosis is often a sign of diabetes);
  • Optometrist – explores changes in vision.

The diagnosis of atherosclerosis can take place in several stages. First, the lipid composition of the blood is examined, and then instrumental diagnosis of the vascular network is performed.

A general blood test is not very informative, sugar can be increased, which requires an in-depth study of carbohydrate metabolism.

To determine the risk of cardiovascular disease, an indicator is used, which is called the atherogenic index. This is the ratio of the concentration of total blood cholesterol to low density lipoproteins.
If it is below 2,9, then the patient has a low probability of developing atherosclerosis, the average risk is up to 4,9, and higher rates indicate 100% atherosclerotic vascular damage.

Arterial patency is determined, blood flow disturbance, signs of thrombosis, or clogging of an atherosclerotic plaque are assessed. The method is used for reduced pulsation in the feet, popliteal and femoral arteries, as well as a difference in the filling of the pulse on the lower extremities. An indirect symptom is the slow healing of wounds at the site of impaired blood supply.

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Allows you to establish signs of atherosclerosis of the heart (coronary arteries), aorta, pulmonary artery:

  • heart sizes are increased, mainly due to the left ventricle;
  • there may be symptoms – a bulging area, most often on the left;
  • aortic lengthening, pathological bending, increased contrast of the shadow, patches;
  • with damage to the pulmonary artery, the pulmonary pattern is strengthened, there are aneurysmal changes in the branches.

X-ray (direct projection): penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer with false aneurysm (shown by arrow).

In coronary heart disease, as the main manifestation of atherosclerosis, the symptoms on the ECG in a routine study are not very specific, especially in the initial stages:, arrhythmia, conduction disturbances. Therefore, more complete information can be obtained during tests with a load.

Use several options for physical activity to determine its tolerance:

  • climb to the step platform (sample of the Master);
  • – riding a special bike;
  • – walking on a treadmill.
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In case of joint diseases or thrombophlebitis, as well as general detraining, they are replaced by pharmacological tests with Isadrin or Ergometrin.

These studies are considered positive (the diagnosis is confirmed) if the patient experiences pain behind the sternum, typical for angina pectoris, greater than normal, increased heart rate, decreased pressure by 25% or lower, and a change in the location of the ST segment relative to the isoline.

The pressure on the shoulder is measured in a standard way in the supine position, and then the cuff is set 5 cm above the ankle. It is calculated by dividing the systolic pressure indicators – ankle to shoulder. Normal at rest from 1 to 1,3.

With changes in the coefficient, one can suspect such a pathology:

  • less than 0,4 – severe blockage of arteries, the risk of trophic ulcers and gangrene;
  • from 0,41 to 0,9 – moderate or mild degree of circulatory disturbance, angiographic examination is necessary;
  • from 0,9 to 1 – the upper limit of the norm, with physical exertion, pain may occur;
  • more than 1,3 – the vascular wall is dense, rigid, a symptom of diabetes or renal failure.

Dopplerography

Using dopplerometry, the blood flow velocity in the vessels of the neck, brain and lower extremities is determined. Most often, a duplex or triplex study is prescribed, in which ultrasound scanning is performed and visualization of blood supply disturbances, the location of atherosclerotic plaques on the screen is performed.

Ultrasound of the vessels of the neck: stenosis of the external carotid artery due to atherosclerosis

By filling the vasculature with a contrast agent, narrowing of the lumen, obliteration (blockage), the area of ​​the lesion and the state of regional blood flow, the development of bypasses – collaterals can be detected.

The following types of diagnostics are used:

  • aortography
  • peripheral angiography,
  • coronarography.

With this technique, a contrast agent is injected intravenously, and then with the help of a tomograph an image of the vascular arterial network is obtained. Using the apparatus, violations of the structure, location and operation of large and peripheral vessels are detected. For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis is used:

  • MRI of the vessels of the limbs;
  • CT of the aorta;
  • peripheral tomographic arteriography;
  • multispiral CT of the aorta, coronary vessels, arteries of the kidneys and limbs.

MRI of the vessels of the lower extremities

These methods are among the most informative, they are used to determine the volume of surgical intervention and in complex diagnostic cases.

To identify atherosclerosis, complaints and examination data of the patient are taken into account, but in order to confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to analyze the lipid composition of the blood, as well as an ultrasound and angiographic examination of the arterial network. The most informative are tomographic methods.

The physician makes the determination of the technique for examining blood vessels, guided by the symptoms, the results of a visual examination and questioning of the patient.

Usually, in consultation with a doctor to obtain directions for a specific study of arteries and veins, the specialist determines the following points:

  1. Did the patient experience headaches, dizziness, or migraines?
  2. Collects information regarding probable history of head and cervical spine injuries.
  3. Was there a sudden deterioration in visual function or hearing, were there noises in the ears.
  4. Whether nasal bleeding of unknown origin occurred.
  5. Have there been cases of fainting characterized by short-term loss of consciousness.
  6. Whether tremor of limbs or head is present as a manifestation of parkinsonism.
  7. Checks for suspicion of a tumor or aneurysm by methods available when examining a patient.

Based on the results of admission, the patient receives a preliminary diagnosis and he needs to undergo the recommended examinations to confirm or deny it. Nevertheless, it is necessary to correctly identify the doctor for which consultation is required to make an appointment in the event of any subjective manifestations and suspicions of the patient. Be sure to read this article to the end to learn how to check blood vessels and prevent an exacerbation of the disease.

Sometimes, when certain symptoms occur, a person can’t determine what specialization he needs to make an appointment with.

If it is impossible to independently determine the necessary doctor, you need to contact the therapist – he will give a referral to the doctor of the desired profile. How can you check the vessels of the whole organism – the best methods are determined in each particular case.

You need to contact a neurologist, otherwise a neurologist, for such health problems:

  • subdural, subarachnoid, intracerebral hemorrhages;
  • head injuries;
  • sleep disorders
  • osteochondrosis;
  • impaired coordination.

The neuropathologist is responsible for all pathological processes of a vascular nature associated with the nervous system. In order to establish the correct diagnosis, it can give direction to the examination of the brain with modern hardware methods.

Assess the condition of arteries/veins in the lower extremities by a specialist in vascular surgery – an angiologist or an angiosurgeon.

He performs the treatment of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.

Also, his professional duties include treating patients with the following pathological conditions:

  • trophic ulcers;
  • strokes
  • renal failure;
  • impaired potency, provoked by vascular disorders.

Such an extensive list of pathologies, the treatment of which belongs to this doctor, is due to the fact that he has a sufficient qualification level to resolve almost all issues related to pathologies of arteries, veins and lymphatic ducts. However, when it is required to check exclusively the condition of the venous blood channels, it is better to turn to a narrow-field specialist – a phlebologist.

To check the blood vessels of the heart, you need to contact a cardiologist who is able to solve many problems associated with their lesions, which were provoked by impaired functioning of the heart muscle. The video in this article will tell about the features of the professional activities of a cardiologist, phlebologist, angiologist.

Instructions for determining the appropriate examination method are known to those skilled in the art. The doctor, after studying the patient’s history, will be able to determine the optimal examination procedure.

Often examine the state of blood vessels located in the spine and neck, as these areas are the main branches of the arteries that supply the central nervous system. They belong to the category of extracranial, which means extracerebral.

The external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries for the most part determine the quality of cerebral circulation, filling the small vessels of the base of the skull. Branches diverge from them to the middle, anterior and posterior parts of the brain.

Diagnostic measures aimed at determining the condition of the arteries of the cervical part and head should include a check of each of the variants of blood flow disturbance.

Circulatory system

The small circle diagram is shown below. Where, RV is the right ventricle, LS is the pulmonary trunk, PLA is the right pulmonary artery, LLA is the left pulmonary artery, PH is the pulmonary vein, PL is the left atrium.

The circuit of the body circle of blood circulation, where: 1. Lying – the left ventricle.

3. Art – arteries of the trunk and limbs.

5. PV – vena cava (right and left).

6. PP – the right atrium.

The body circle is aimed at the distribution of a fluid full of oxygen bubbles throughout the body. It carries O 2, nutrients to the tissues, collecting decay products and CO 2 along the way. After that, there is movement along the route: ПЖ – ЛП. And then it starts again through the pulmonary circulation.

Placental circulation is inherent in every person at the stage of fetal development. The fetus receives blood from the mother through the placenta, which forms after conception. From the placenta, it moves to the umbilical vein of the baby, from where it goes to the liver. This explains the large size of the latter.

Arterial fluid enters the vena cava, where it mixes with the venous, then goes to the left atrium. From it, blood flows to the left ventricle through a special hole, after which it goes directly to the aorta.

The movement of blood in the human body in a small circle begins only after birth. With the first breath, expansion of the vessels of the lungs occurs, and a couple of days they develop. The oval hole in the heart can persist for a year.

The small circle diagram is shown below. Where, RV is the right ventricle, LS is the pulmonary trunk, PLA is the right pulmonary artery, LLA is the left pulmonary artery, PH is the pulmonary vein, PL is the left atrium.

The circuit of the body circle of blood circulation, where: 1. Lying – the left ventricle.

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3. Art – arteries of the trunk and limbs.

5. PV – vena cava (right and left).

6. PP – the right atrium.

The body circle is aimed at the distribution of a fluid full of oxygen bubbles throughout the body. It carries O 2, nutrients to the tissues, collecting decay products and CO 2 along the way. After that, there is movement along the route: ПЖ – ЛП. And then it starts again through the pulmonary circulation.

Arterial fluid enters the vena cava, where it mixes with the venous, then goes to the left atrium. From it, blood flows to the left ventricle through a special hole, after which it goes directly to the aorta.

Conclusion

However, one must also remember that timely verification will help to establish not only the general condition, but also to identify possible tumor formations. Therefore, you should not drastically delay the implementation of this procedure, since with a late visit to a specialist, conservative treatment will be ineffective.

To check the vessels of the head and neck of all the above methods, they often use:

In 90–95% of cases, this is enough to establish a diagnosis or to monitor any pathological process.

Advantages of sonography and magnetic tomography:

  1. An opportunity to examine an adult and children’s contingent of patients.
  2. No exposure.
  3. Non-invasive procedures.
  4. No hospitalization needed.
  5. Research price.

Radioisotope examination methods can identify pathologies that are “not visible” in other studies, but have several disadvantages:

  • high dose of radiation;
  • the impossibility of holding outside major cities;
  • Great price for the procedure.

The decision on the need to use any checks of the vessels of the head and neck is made by the attending physician individually.

Which vessels flow blood from the heart?

  • Ultrasonography.
  • Reovasography.
  • Ultrasonic methods.
  • Computed tomography – allows you to determine the degree of damage and pathological narrowing of the blood vessels of the heart without heavy manipulations. When using a contrast medium, the doctor receives a three-dimensional image of the heart with colored blood vessels and adjacent tissues.
  • Coronagraphy – the method is carried out only in a hospital, requires special equipment and relates to surgical methods. A contrast connection is inserted into the arterial system using a catheter, and an installation called an angiograph displays what is happening on the monitor. Using this procedure, not only diagnostics is carried out, but also the narrowed section of the vessel is expanded by introducing a can of air filled into this zone.

Any, even ultramodern and safe, diagnostic method has its side effects and contraindications. Therefore, only a doctor can prescribe this or that examination, after an initial examination and finding out the area where the vessels are most likely damaged and which must be examined.

Harvey William () – an English physician and naturalist. He created and introduced the practice of scientific research into the first experimental method – vivisection (vivisection).

In 1628 he published the book “Anatomical studies on the movement of the heart and blood in animals”, in which he described the large and small circles of blood circulation, formulated the basic principles of blood movement. The publication date of this work is considered the birth year of physiology as an independent science.

In humans and mammals, blood moves in a closed cardiovascular system, consisting of large and small circles of blood circulation (Fig.).

The large circle starts from the left ventricle, carries blood throughout the body through the aorta, gives oxygen to the tissues in the capillaries, takes carbon dioxide, turns from arterial into venous and returns to the right atrium along the upper and lower vena cava.

The pulmonary circulation begins from the right ventricle, carries blood through the pulmonary artery to the pulmonary capillaries. Here, the blood gives off carbon dioxide, is saturated with oxygen and flows through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. From the left atrium, through the left ventricle, blood again enters the great circle of blood circulation.

Circulatory system
– pulmonary circle – serves to enrich the blood with oxygen in the lungs. It starts from the right ventricle and ends with the left atrium.

From the right ventricle of the heart, venous blood enters the pulmonary trunk (common pulmonary artery), which soon divides into two branches, which carry blood to the right and left lung.

In the lungs, arteries branch into capillaries. In the capillary networks surrounding the pulmonary vesicles, the blood gives up carbon dioxide and in exchange receives a new supply of oxygen (pulmonary respiration). Blood saturated with oxygen acquires a scarlet color, becomes arterial and enters from the capillaries into veins, which, having merged into four pulmonary veins (two on each side), flow into the left atrium of the heart.

In the left atrium, the small (pulmonary) circle of blood circulation ends, and the arterial blood entering the atrium passes through the left atrioventricular opening into the left ventricle, where the large circle of blood circulation begins. Consequently, venous blood flows in the arteries of the pulmonary circulation, and arterial blood flows in its veins.

Great Circle of Blood Circulation
– bodily – collects venous blood from the upper and lower half of the trunk and similarly distributes arterial; starts from the left ventricle and ends with the right atrium.

From the left ventricle of the heart, blood enters the largest arterial vessel – the aorta. Arterial blood contains nutrients and oxygen necessary for the life of the body and has a bright scarlet color.

The aorta branches into arteries, which go to all organs and tissues of the body and pass into their thicknesses into arterioles and further into the capillaries. The capillaries in turn assemble into venules and further into the veins. Through the capillary wall, there is a metabolism and gas exchange between the blood and body tissues. Arterial blood flowing in the capillaries gives away nutrients and oxygen and in return receives metabolic products and carbon dioxide (tissue respiration).

As a result, the blood entering the venous bed is poor in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide and therefore has a dark color – venous blood; with bleeding, the color of the blood can determine which vessel is damaged – an artery or vein. The veins merge into two large trunks – the superior and inferior vena cava, which flow into the right atrium of the heart. This section of the heart ends with a large (body) circle of blood circulation.

In a large circle of blood circulation, arterial blood flows through the arteries, venous blood flows through the veins.

In a small circle, on the contrary, venous blood flows through the arteries from the heart, and arterial blood returns through the veins to the heart.

In addition to the great circle is the third (heart) circle of blood circulation
serving the heart itself. It begins with the coronary arteries of the heart leaving the aorta and ends with the veins of the heart. The latter merge into the coronary sinus, which flows into the right atrium, and the remaining veins open directly into the cavity of the atrium.

Any fluid flows from a place where the pressure is higher, to where it is lower. The greater the pressure difference, the higher the flow velocity. Blood in the vessels of the large and small circle of blood circulation also moves due to the pressure difference that the heart creates with its contractions.

In the left ventricle and aorta, blood pressure is higher than in the vena cava (negative pressure) and in the right atrium. The pressure difference in these areas provides the movement of blood in a large circle of blood circulation. High pressure in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery and low in the pulmonary veins and left atrium provide blood movement in the pulmonary circulation.

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The highest pressure in the aorta and large arteries (blood pressure). Arterial blood pressure is not constant [show]

Blood pressure
– this is blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels and chambers of the heart, resulting from the contraction of the heart, which pumps blood into the vascular system, and the resistance of blood vessels. The most important medical and physiological indicator of the state of the circulatory system is the pressure in the aorta and large arteries – blood pressure.

Arterial blood pressure is not a constant. In healthy people at rest, the maximum, or systolic, blood pressure is distinguished – the level of pressure in the arteries during a heart systole of about 120 mm Hg, and the minimum, or diastolic, is the pressure level in the arteries during a heart diastole about 80 mm Hg. Those.

Pulse
– periodic jerky expansion of the walls of the arteries, synchronous with the contraction of the heart. The pulse rate determines the number of contractions of the heart per minute. In an adult, the average heart rate is beats per minute. During physical exertion, the pulse rate may increase in shock. In places where arteries are located on the bone and lie directly under the skin (radiation, temporal), the pulse is easily palpated. The velocity of the pulse wave is about 10 m/s.

The value of blood pressure is affected by:

  1. heart function and heart rate;
  2. the size of the lumen of the vessels and the tone of their walls;
  3. the amount of blood circulating in the vessels;
  4. blood viscosity.

Blood pressure in a person is measured in the brachial artery, comparing it with atmospheric. To do this, a rubber cuff connected to a pressure gauge is put on the shoulder. Air is pumped into the cuff until the pulse on the wrists disappears. This means that the brachial artery is compressed by high pressure, and blood does not flow through it.

Then, gradually releasing air from the cuff, they monitor the appearance of a pulse. At this point, the pressure in the artery becomes slightly higher than the pressure in the cuff, and the blood, and with it the pulse wave, begin to reach the wrist. The pressure gauge at this time also characterizes the blood pressure in the brachial artery.

A persistent increase in blood pressure above these figures at rest is called hypertension, and its decrease is called hypotension.

The level of blood pressure is regulated by nervous and humoral factors (see table).

The speed of blood movement depends not only on the pressure difference, but also on the width of the bloodstream. Although the aorta is the widest vessel, it is alone in the body and all the blood that is pushed out by the left ventricle flows through it. Therefore, the maximum speed here is mm/s (see table. 1). As the arteries branch, their diameter decreases, but the total cross-sectional area of ​​all arteries increases and the blood speed decreases, reaching 0,5 mm/s in the capillaries.

The slowing down of the blood flow in the capillaries is explained by their huge amount (about 40 billion) and a large total lumen (800 times the aortic lumen). The movement of blood in the capillaries is due to a change in the lumen of the small arteries supplying them: their expansion increases blood flow in the capillaries, and narrowing reduces it.

The veins on the way from the capillaries enlarge as they approach the heart, merge, their number and the total lumen of the bloodstream decrease, and the speed of blood increases compared with the capillaries. From the table. 1 also shows that 3/4 of all the blood is in the veins. This is due to the fact that the thin walls of the veins can easily stretch, so they can contain significantly more blood than the corresponding arteries.

The main reason for the movement of blood through the veins is the pressure difference at the beginning and end of the venous system, so the movement of blood through the veins occurs towards the heart. This is facilitated by the suction action of the chest (“breathing pump”) and the reduction of skeletal muscle (“muscle pump”). During inspiration, chest pressure decreases.

  • check the elasticity of blood vessels;
  • ECG – electrocardiograms;
  • echocardiography;
  • studies of blood flow in the limbs (rheovasography).

What pathology can be detected on a vascular check

For the diagnosis, the following patient complaints are relevant:

  • headache, dizziness, tinnitus;
  • paroxysmal weakness and numbness in the limbs;
  • with physical exertion there is difficulty breathing, increased heart rate and pain behind the sternum;
  • when walking you need to make stops due to pain in the legs.

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On examination, non-specific signs are revealed:

  • xanthomas – yellow spots on the lower eyelids;
  • xanthelasma – deposits of cholesterol on the outer surface of the elbow joints, calcaneal tendons;
  • clouding of the iris in the form of a half moon;
  • convoluted, dense temporal and brachial arteries;
  • the difference in the filling of the pulse on the limbs.

Often found high blood pressure, systolic murmur in the apex of the heart, accentuated 2 tone above the aorta.

Circulatory pathology

Blood circulation is carried out in a closed system. Changes and pathologies in the capillaries can adversely affect the work of the heart. Gradually, the problem will worsen and develop into a serious illness. Factors affecting the movement of blood:

  1. Pathologies of the heart and large vessels lead to the fact that blood flows to the periphery in an insufficient volume. Toxins stagnate in the tissues, they do not receive proper oxygen supply and gradually begin to break down.
  2. Blood pathologies, such as thrombosis, stasis, embolism, lead to blockage of blood vessels. Movement through arteries and veins becomes difficult, which deforms the walls of blood vessels and slows down the flow of blood.
  3. Vascular deformity. The walls can become thinner, stretch, change their permeability, and lose elasticity.
  4. Hormonal pathology. Hormones can increase blood flow, which leads to a strong filling of blood vessels.
  5. Compression of blood vessels. When the vessels are squeezed, the blood supply to the tissues stops, which leads to the death of cells.
  6. Violations of the innervation of organs and trauma can lead to the destruction of the walls of arterioles and provoke bleeding. Also, a violation of normal innervation leads to a breakdown of the entire circulatory system.
  7. Infectious heart disease. For example, endocarditis, in which heart valves are affected. Valves do not close tightly, which contributes to the reverse outflow of blood.
  8. Damage to the vessels of the brain.
  9. Diseases of the veins in which the valves suffer.

An ordinary person can undergo changes in blood circulation even from a smoked cigarette. With injuries and ruptures of blood vessels, the circulatory system is able to create new anastomoses to provide blood to the “lost” areas.

Blood circulation regulation

Any process in the body is controlled. There is also regulation of blood circulation. The activity of the heart is activated by two pairs of nerves – sympathetic and vagus. The former excite the heart, the latter inhibit, as if controlling each other. Severe irritation of the vagus nerve can stop the heart.

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A change in the diameter of the vessels also occurs due to nerve impulses from the medulla oblongata. The heart rate increases or decreases depending on the signals received by external irritation, such as pain, temperature changes, etc.

In addition, the regulation of cardiac work occurs due to the substances contained in the blood. For example, adrenaline increases the frequency of myocardial contractions and at the same time narrows the vessels. Acetylcholine produces the opposite effect.

All these mechanisms are needed to maintain continuous uninterrupted operation in the body, regardless of environmental changes.

Any process in the body is controlled. There is also regulation of blood circulation. The activity of the heart is activated by two pairs of nerves – sympathetic and vagus. The former excite the heart, the latter inhibit, as if controlling each other. Severe irritation of the vagus nerve can stop the heart.

Examination of the vessels of the head

Checking the state of the vessels of the head and neck is most often done. Firstly, the symptoms of the violation in this case are most pronounced, and secondly – the most painful. A person with pressing, but not severe pain in the chest, for a long time ignores it in the hope that this phenomenon is temporary. Severe headache and dizziness make the patient seek advice much faster.

ateroskleroz i gipertoniya - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

An examination of the neck, as a rule, is prescribed along with a check of the vessels of the brain, since they form a single system. Damage to the arteries of the neck is characterized by the same symptoms.

The most informative and modern research method. Allows you to get a complete picture of the functional and anatomical features of blood circulation.

The method is based on the exposure of the patient with radio signals in a magnetic field. The tomograph registers signals of different power depending on the medium – moving or stationary, as well as on the speed of blood flow. As a result, the specialist receives layered images of the brain and, accordingly, the arteries and veins of the skull and neck in a three-dimensional image. In this way, any pathologies of large and small vessels are detected.

The completeness of the picture to some extent depends on the power of the tomograph.

Rheoencephalography

MRI research is, of course, the most high-quality way to check the vessels of the head and neck, but also the most expensive. Instead of tomography, rheoencephalography may be prescribed.

The essence of the method is to register the electrical conductivity of the bloodstream. The signal from the latter differs from the signals of other tissues due to pulsation. With the help of a rheograph, information is obtained on the blood vessels in the neck and head, the speed of blood flow, the condition of the walls, and so on.

The procedure is much less convenient and takes more time. The working mechanism of the apparatus is electrode plates, which in the process of research must be superimposed on the studied areas of the head.

Dopplerography

Or duplex scanning. It is an ultrasound examination of the head and neck using a specialized sensor. The procedure is completely painless, simple and allows you to get instant results.

This method is universal and has no contraindications. And therefore it is used to check the vessels of the whole body. It is carried out very simply: the patient is placed on the couch, the sensor is applied to the study area, and an image appears on the monitor. Dopplerography is also prescribed for the smallest patients – children 4–5 years old, provided that the latter can lie motionless for 15–20 minutes.

The method is perfect for studying large and small blood flows of the whole body, but the quality of checking capillaries depends on the power of the equipment.

The device registers and records fluctuations in the potentials of the brain. In this case, only arteries and veins of the head are examined. The method is less informative, with its help information is obtained about the violation of normal blood flow and nerve conduction. However, with epilepsy, speech disorders and the like, electroencephalography is indispensable.

The method uses x-rays. With its help, information is obtained on the physical condition of the walls, but blood flow is not evaluated. Thus, the presence or absence of tumors, vascular pathology is established, the state of the walls is assessed – narrowing, expansion, the presence of lesion, and so on.

CT scan is not recommended for frequent use. However, for patients with fixed implants – stimulators, pins, prostheses, computed tomography is ideal.

CT is prescribed both for examining the vessels of the head and neck, and the whole body.

Ultrasonography

The method was developed for examining the vessels of the neck, namely the carotid, intervertebral arteries, as well as the posterior and anterior cerebellar. They are responsible for the full nutrition of the brain with oxygen, and therefore a violation in their work affects its functions.

The working element of the apparatus is an ultrasound scanner. The lying patient is examined by a scanner, and an artery image is obtained on the monitor.

Most often, blood flow is checked in the neck and head. The reason for this is pronounced symptoms, as well as severe pain that worsen the quality of human life. If there is aching and tolerable pain in the left part of the chest, the patient is in no hurry to be examined by a specialist, hoping for a positive outcome. Severe dizziness and intense headache make a person seek qualified help.

Important! When examining the neck in a medical facility, the arteries of the brain that make up a single system are automatically checked. The defeat of certain sections of the bloodstream has similar signs.

So, how to check the vessels? The first step is to visit a specialist narrow profile. At the same time, many, feeling unwell, do not know who to contact with the problem. In small towns, there is always a therapist or medical assistant. Health care providers should refer the patient to the right specialist.

If you live in a large city, then the clinic must be a neurologist or, in a different way, a neurologist. This doctor can help with various hemorrhages in the brain and injuries, with the development of osteochondrosis, as well as with violations of coordination of movement and sleep. In other words, this specialist is able to help in the presence of vascular diseases of the nervous system.

To clarify the diagnosis, the neurologist can refer the patient for an additional examination. After all, in case of circulatory disorders, a person experiences general malaise, which manifests itself as frequent headaches, increasing irritability and dizziness.

Checking the vessels of the head and neck is most often performed using the following methods:

  • Spiral computed tomography.
  • Doppler ultrasound, including duplex scanning.
  • Rheography of cerebral vessels, or rheoencephalography.

A comprehensive examination of the vessels of this part of the body is considered necessary to obtain a more complete picture of their work and condition. Of these methods, the most advanced and informative are spiral computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). But both of these methods are not available in all clinics and are the most expensive of all the listed methods of examination.

The examination allows you to identify violations of the structure of blood vessels, their narrowing or the formation of extensions – aneurysms that threaten to rupture, to reveal thinning of the walls, blockage or impaired blood flow.
Since any disturbances in the hemodynamics and the state of the vessels of the brain and/or neck can lead to particularly serious consequences, it is necessary to conduct such examinations for people with burdened heredity, health complaints or existing problems regularly.

Early detection of pathologies of blood movement or vascular condition will help to select and start treatment in a timely manner, and this can prevent the development of one of the most dangerous diseases – stroke. From him, more people die every year than in road accidents. Every year, strokes “get younger”, there are cases of death at a very young age, high school students and even middle classes.

Ultrasound examination methods

The essence of the study

Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) is one of the most common methods for examining blood vessels of various locations. To obtain images of arteries and veins, as well as assess blood flow, ultra-high frequency sound waves are used.

Using ultrasound, you can examine blood vessels in almost all parts of the body, including arteries and veins of the neck, abdomen, upper and lower extremities. Unlike other imaging methods, ultrasound does not use x-ray or administration of contrast agents.

During ultrasound, sound waves penetrate through the tissues into the examined area. They are reflected from blood cells moving along the vascular bed and return to the sensor. These waves are recorded and displayed on the screen of the ultrasound machine, creating an image of a blood vessel. The speed of their return allows you to determine the speed of blood flow in an artery or vein. If the blood flows too quickly, this indicates a possible narrowing of this vessel.

Ultrasound is a non-invasive and painless procedure that does not have side effects and complications.

Most often carried out:

  • Ultrasound of peripheral arteries – for the diagnosis of obliterating atherosclerosis and endarteritis.
  • Ultrasound of the carot >Carotid ultrasound
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Usually, an ultrasound scan does not require any special preparation:

  • Do not smoke for several hours before the examination, since smoking leads to vasoconstriction, which may affect the results of ultrasound.
  • If a person has to examine the vessels of the abdomen, he can’t eat anything 12 hours before the procedure.
  • In addition to smoking, the results of ultrasound can be affected by obesity, heart rhythm disturbances, cardiovascular diseases.

Before checking the vascular system using ultrasound, a person needs to take off his clothes so that the doctor can gain access to the examined area of ​​the body. Depending on the vessels being studied, the examination can take place in the patient’s lying, sitting or standing position.

A water-soluble gel is applied to the skin in the scan area, which improves the conductivity of ultrasonic waves. The doctor presses a sensor to the examined area, which directs ultrasonic waves to the studied arteries and veins. During the examination, the sensor is moved across the skin to obtain a clearer image.

The entire examination takes 10-30 minutes. After its completion, wipe the gel from the skin, then the patient dresses. After an ultrasound, a person can immediately return to their daily activities.

Normal examination results indicate that the patient has no narrowing or blockage in the vessels. The pathological nature of the blood flow may indicate:

  • The presence of narrowing or overlapping in the arteries, which may be the result of atherosclerotic plaques.
  • The presence of blood clots in the veins or arteries.
  • Poor circulation caused by vascular damage.
  • Occlusion of the veins.
  • Spasm of the arteries.
  • Thrombosis or obstruction of artificial prosthetic vessels.

4 - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

Since it is possible to check the vessels of the brain only with the help of a special apparatus, its errors should be taken into account. Some devices are simply not able to see minor changes. These include the MRI device, the magnetic field of which is from 0,3 to 0,4 TL. This device has a low resolution. It is better to conduct an MRI of the vessels using an aggregate with a magnetic field of 1-1,5 T. The device allows you to notice any changes in the tissues.

In some cases, MRI of the vessels is performed in conjunction with the contrast method. In this case, the patient’s blood is stained using special substances. This allows for a more detailed examination. Thanks to this method, it is possible to detect not only pathological changes, but also a blood clot and plaques.

The examination takes place in the clinic. A device such as a reograf is used to diagnose vascular diseases. This unit is essentially a current source, equipped with metal plate electrodes, which are fixed on the scalp. Fixed fixture with rubber bands. Before the procedure, the skin must be degreased with alcohol. Plates are also processed with contact paste.

How to check vessels with reograf? It’s simple. After the electrodes are fixed, a weak current is passed through them. At this moment, the registration of the state of all vessels begins. In this case, the electrodes can be fixed on the surface of the entire head or in a certain area.

Information about the state of blood vessels is obtained by observing how the processes of electrical conductivity of the body and integument proceed. The difference between the indicators gives the effect of pulsation. This allows to obtain accurate data on the activity of the venous and arterial systems.

The essence of the study

Ultrasound is a non-invasive and painless procedure that does not have side effects and complications.

The choice of an appropriate research method should be based on the availability of indications and contraindications to the study.

Invasive research methods have to be addressed in cases where all other research methods are not informative enough to make the correct diagnosis.

Inspection of blood vessels, both arteries and veins, is easiest and quickest to do using an ultrasound device. It is best if the study is conducted by an angiosurgeon. This is a specialist who deals only with diseases of arteries and veins.

In order to start treatment on time and not miss the appearance of blood clots, it is important to contact an angiosurgeon already in the early stages of problems with the veins, namely when detecting extensions and deformations of the superficial veins of the legs.

Let us consider in more detail, using the example of veins of the lower extremities, how the examination of blood vessels occurs and what changes can be detected.

During this study, ultrasonic waves are reflected from organs and tissues, the apparatus picks up the reflected waves and displays their image on the screen. This study is completely safe and can be done even in pregnant women.

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During normal ultrasound dopplerography, the doctor determines the main indicators of the health of the veins of the lower extremities: the state of the valve apparatus and the patency of the veins.
These data are enough to diagnose varicose veins.

In order to determine the need for surgery and the scope of the upcoming operation, ultrasound angioscanning of the veins of the lower extremities is usually performed with dopplerography and color coding of blood flow. For this, special sensors are used that allow you to assess the degree of venous insufficiency based on the amount of venous blood that returns from the valves back down to the legs.

It is very important not to miss the blood clots during the examination of the veins of the lower extremities, they are very dangerous for their complications, if they detach, this will lead to thromboembolism of vital organs (a stroke or heart attack is possible). Even without separation, they pose a very big threat, because they can completely block the blood flow through the vein. Do you still think that it is completely impossible to RESTORE blood vessels and the ORGANISM !?

Have you ever tried to restore the work of the heart, brain or other organs after suffering pathologies and injuries? Judging by the fact that you are reading this article, you know firsthand what it is:

  • often there are unpleasant sensations in the head area (pain, dizziness)?
  • suddenly you can feel weak and tired .
  • there is constantly increased pressure .
  • about shortness of breath after the slightest physical exertion and nothing to say .

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7 9 - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

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From this article you will learn: how to check the vessels of the brain and neck, when you need to undergo examinations, how they pass and how long they take. Who can recommend such procedures.

Date of publication of the article: 04.05.2017//

Article update date: 29.05.2019//

The presence of symptomsFrequent, persistent, or increasing headache

Disorders and loss of vision, hearing, speech

Broken attention, forgetfulness, memory loss

“Flies” before the eyes, fainting and pre-fainting conditions

Persistent increase or decrease in intracranial and (or) blood pressure

PathologyTraumatic damage to the bones of the skull, brain and neck vessels (immediately after injury and during observation)

All strokes and transient attacks

Inflammatory pathologies of the brain and its membranes (encephalitis, meningitis)

Atherosclerotic vascular disease

Arterial and venous thrombosis

Violation of the development of the vascular system

The need for additional examinationPreoperative examination and follow-up after surgical treatment of the heart and vascular structures

Suspicion of a volumetric process in the brain or neck organs

Observation and treatment of cancer developed in this area

  1. Neurosonography (ultrasound through a large fontanel) – is used only in children of the first year of life.
  2. REG is contraindicated until the age of seven years.
  3. MRI angiography in early childhood is performed under mild anesthesia, as it requires a period of immobility.
  4. classical and CT angiography, as well as radioisotope research methods, are carried out in pediatric practice according to strict, often vital, indications (high dose), and often anesthesia is indicated for a full examination.

The essence of the study

  1. Angiography. This is an X-ray method for examining arteries and veins using a contrast medium. To do this, a contrast agent with iodine is introduced into the vessel. After this, the contrast passes through the vessels of the pulmonary circulation, you can explore the necessary area (for example, digital angiography of the veins of the lower extremities). The received information is processed by a special program on a computer.
  2. Ultrasound Dopplerography of blood vessels. Such a study of blood vessels allows you to assess the direction and speed of blood flow. The principle of the study is based on the emission of ultrasonic waves that are reflected from the moving elements of the bloodstream.
  3. Color duplex scanning of blood vessels. In addition to the indicators that are found with conventional dopplerography, you can also evaluate the density of blood flow.
  4. Intravascular ultrasound. Using special equipment, the condition of the vessels from the inside is assessed. The study is important to determine the size and condition of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries. It is the newest and most modern method for the diagnosis of diseases of the vascular bed, is carried out only in specialized clinics.
  5. Spiral computed tomography. Using this research method, check the state of the vessels, their patency, detect congenital vascular pathologies.
  6. Magnetic resonance imaging. It is used in cases where it is not possible to introduce a contrast medium. It is rarely used to diagnose vascular disease.
  7. Rheography. This study is used for varicose veins of the lower extremities and well shows the presence of thrombosis. A probe is attached to the skin and the reflection of infrared rays in it is evaluated.
  8. Thermography Allows you to assess the condition of the arteries. If patency of the arteries is reduced, the thermal imager will show a significant decrease in body temperature in the area of ​​the affected artery. The study is important for the diagnosis of obliterating atherosclerosis and diabetic angiopathy. It has no contraindications.
  9. Phlebography. While following a person, a contrast agent is injected into a vein. On a series of x-rays, it is possible to assess the patency of both deep and superficial veins, the presence of blood clots and the condition of the valve apparatus.

Reasons to Check

  1. Stroke
  2. VVD – vegetative-vascular dystonia.
  3. Hypertension.
  4. A concussion.
  5. Circulatory disorders.
  6. Encephalopathy.

Also, examination of the brain and neck vessels is required in cases where the patient is concerned with frequent bouts of headache and dizziness. This may indicate a serious medical condition.

Duplex neck scanning provides a wealth of valuable information. This research is relevant to:

  • headaches;
  • loss of consciousness, unsteady gait, and dizziness;
  • hypertension;
  • pulsating formations in the neck;
  • osteochondrosis;
  • impaired memory and vision.

Preparation for the examination and its conduct.

Healthy vessels are the key to good blood supply to all human organs and a necessary condition for their normal functioning. That is why a fairly large number of examination methods have been developed and put into practice, with the help of which you can determine their diameter, detect narrowing points and evaluate blood flow to the organs.

The methods used make it possible to examine all the vessels of the body, but this is not done in clinical practice. It should be understood that any diagnostic method, even the most effective and safe, has its limitations and the cost of carrying out. Therefore, doctors prescribe an examination of only those vessels that are suspected of developing a specific disease. It is the localization of the affected vessel and the type of disease that determines the choice of the diagnostic method used.

Most often, such examinations are used to diagnose peripheral arterial diseases (atherosclerosis obliterans, endarteritis), cerebrovascular diseases (strokes), deep vein thrombosis, chronic venous insufficiency, diseases of the renal and coronary arteries, aortic aneurysms.

8 7 - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

Aortic aneurysm is a pathological expansion of the aortic lumen, which can reach large sizes and ultimately lead to rupture of the vessel

All instrumental examinations of the vascular system can be divided into two groups:

  1. Non-invasive (without violating the integrity of the skin). These are various types of ultrasound diagnostics.
  2. Invasive (with violation of the integrity of the skin). These are various types of angiography, in which a contrast agent is introduced into the vascular bed.

Depending on the method used and localization, the examination is carried out by doctors of functional diagnostics, cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons. A doctor of any specialty can prescribe such an examination.

In the human body there is a huge number of blood vessels. As you know, oxygen is transported through the blood and this function directly depends on the state of the vessels. A lot of diseases develop against the background of poor functioning of the circulatory system. That is why timely diagnosis is very important, since, by identifying violations in time, you can quickly and painlessly get rid of them.

This article will examine in detail the types of diagnosis of blood vessels, their benefits and possible harm, as well as specialists who will help in solving this problem.

There are no characteristic signs of vascular damage. Arteries and veins are associated with various organs, and in case of interruptions in the blood flow, they affect “your” organ. Therefore, the ailment acquires symptoms characteristic of the pathology of this organ, which, of course, complicates the diagnosis.

Most often, the following conditions serve as an indication for the study of blood vessels:

  1. Abnormal blood pressure.
  2. Increased intracranial pressure.
  3. Any traumatic brain injury.
  4. Migraines and headaches, the cause of which is not determined.
  5. Brain tumors.
  6. Preparing for heart surgery.
  7. Any signs of ischemia.
  8. Varicose disease.
  9. Swelling and severity of limbs, chilliness, cramps.
  10. Risk factors: smoking, overweight, diabetes and the like.

MRI angiography is used to check all major and peripheral vessels. The examination is carried out by a magnetic resonance imager without input of a contrast medium. The power of the magnetic field of the apparatus is not less than 1 T.

MR angiography allows you to obtain data on the physical condition of arteries and veins – expansion or narrowing of the walls, the appearance of atheromatous plaques, the formation of aneurysms, and functional – the level of elasticity of the wall, inflammation, and so on.

The study is lengthy. As a rule, sessions are conducted up to 15 minutes, the number of procedures – up to 6. In some cases, a session can take up to 60 minutes. MR angiography is available only in specialized clinics.

Vascular check is an important part of the diagnosis with a very large number of disorders. Sometimes, this procedure becomes the last diagnostic method. There are a lot of indications for the conduct and, if the specialist appoints a check, you should not ignore the recommendation.

And I did not suspect that there are so many methods for examining blood vessels. Recently, I had problems with the vessels of the lower extremities, I wanted to undergo an MRI, but I couldn’t because of the fear of confined space, now I need to look for another method, I will have to try Dopplerography, but I don’t know if each clinic can provide this examination method.

9 6 - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

At one time, the brain vessels were checked, because headaches did not go away within a month, and as a result it turned out that I was doing well. They just said more in the fresh air for a walk, but when she came to the neurologist with a daughter for 6 months, he prescribed an ultrasound of the brain, said that this is a normal procedure and it is prescribed to everyone. But this does not affect the child in any way?

Migraines for 2-3 days. Is it related to the vessels?

Hello! In epilepsy, which MRI is better – with or without vessels? Tell me please.

An index to common diseases of the cardiovascular system will help you quickly find the right material.

Select the part of the body that interests you, the system will show the materials associated with it.

Veins and arteries are inextricably linked to a specific organ, and when a malfunction occurs in the bloodstream, it is a negative effect on this organ. Because of this, vascular disease acquires the symptoms characteristic of a disease of the organ that feeds on it. This factor significantly complicates the diagnosis. There are a number of conditions in which screening is necessary:

  • High rates of intracranial pressure.
  • Unreasonable headache, persistent migraines.
  • Head injury.
  • Upcoming heart surgery.
  • A brain tumor.
  • Symptoms of ischemic heart disease.
  • Swelling and cramps in the limbs, chills.
  • Obesity, smoking, diabetes.

sbor anamneza patsienta - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

Hello! In epilepsy, which MRI is better – with or without vessels? Tell me please.

  1. Stroke
  2. VSD – vegetative-vascular dystonia.
  3. Ischemia of the brain.
  4. Hypertension.
  5. A concussion.
  6. Circulatory disorders.
  7. Encephalopathy.

Since the vessels of the brain can be checked only with the help of a special apparatus, its errors should be taken into account. Some fixtures are simply not able to see minor changes. These include the MRI apparatus, the magnetic field of which ranges from 0,3 to 0,4 TL. This device has a low resolution. It is better to perform MRI of vessels using an aggregate with a magnetic field equal to 1 – 1,5 T. The device allows you to notice any changes in the tissues.

Since not everyone can check vessels of the brain and neck by MRI, there are other methods of examination. The main disadvantage of magnetic resonance imaging is its high cost. In addition, not every clinic has special equipment. And how to check the vessels without the necessary apparatus? The second type of examination is rheoencephalography. It is used much more often. There is another name for this procedure – cerebral rheography.

Examination of the vessels of the neck and brain can be carried out in another way. In this case, we are talking about such a method as duplex scanning. Such a study is relevant in the presence of diseases of the cervical vessels – the brachiocephalic arteries.

So, how to check the vessels with dopplerography? This is a completely painless procedure, which is an ultrasound. Ultrasound examination allows to assess the state of the vessels of the whole body. If the patient suffers from high blood pressure, then specialists carry out a kidney check. Narrowing of the vessels located in these organs can cause severe hypertension.

The simplicity of this survey method attracts many. Indeed, for the procedure does not require training. The patient during the examination should take a horizontal position. The result is displayed on the monitor instantly. The doctor also receives data through special sensors.

The main disadvantage of doppler sonography is that not every medical institution has special equipment. In addition, the accuracy of the results depends on the correct operation of the device and the experience of the doctor.

Where and how to check blood vessels for blood clots? In this case, ultrasonography will help. With this examination, the patient should be in a horizontal position. In this case, the head should be thrown back and turned in the opposite direction from the one that needs to be examined. Sensors are sent up the neck, under the jaw, and then behind the ear.

  • check the elasticity of blood vessels;
  • ECG – electrocardiogram;
  • echocardiography;
  • studies of blood flow in the limbs (rheovasography).

How to check the vessels of the whole body if dopplerography does not produce results? In this case, computed tomography is performed. This method first appeared in the 1972 year. Technology has gradually changed and improved. A tomograph is a table surrounded by a ring-shaped sheath and connected to a scanner. This unit is quite easy to use. The patient is placed on the table inside the ring, which gradually rotates and removes the necessary area.

It is worth noting that computed tomography allows you to explore not only the coronary vessels, but also the vessels of the limbs, abdominal, thoracic and pelvic. This greatly facilitates the diagnosis of many diseases. Such an examination allows to determine the degree of vasoconstriction in the heart, without performing intracardiac manipulations.

Angiography

The essence of the study

Angiography is a visualization technique with which you can get an image of the internal lumen of the blood vessels of various organs. Since blood vessels cannot be seen during an X-ray examination, a special contrast medium is introduced into their lumen.

Types of Angiography

There are 3 types of angiography:

  1. Traditional angiography – visualization of blood vessels after their contrast is carried out using fluoroscopy.
  2. CT angiography – visualization after contrasting is performed using computed tomography.
  3. MRI angiography – image is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging.

To angiography can also include venography – x-ray examination of venous vessels.

Venography of the cranial veins in a child

Angiography is used to identify various problems with arteries or veins, including:

  • Atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries), which may increase the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction.
  • Obliterating diseases of the peripheral arteries, in which blood circulation in the legs worsens.
  • Aneurysms of the brain – protrusions in the wall of the blood vessels of the brain.
  • Pulmonary thromboembolism is a dangerous disease in which blood clots enter the vessels that carry blood to the lungs.
  • Stenosis (narrowing) of the renal arteries.
  • Determine the severity and exact localization of the narrowing or overlapping of blood vessels.
  • Determine the localization of the source of bleeding, and when combined with embolization, stop it.
  • Identify and remove a blood clot in a blocked vessel and restore blood flow.
  • In combination with embolization – treat some types of tumors by stopping their blood supply.
  • Create a blood vessel map before surgery.

By the accuracy of the results obtained, angiography is the gold standard among all diagnostic methods for examining the circulatory system. With its help, you can identify the slightest changes in the structure of arteries and veins, revealing a problem in the initial stages of development.

  1. Before some types of angiography, you can’t eat anything 4-6 hours before the examination.
  2. Bring all the results of previous blood vessel examinations to the procedure so that doctors can compare them with new data.
  3. Before the examination, ask all your questions to the medical staff.
  4. If you have kidney disease or diabetes, you have had an allergic reaction to contrast agents or other drugs, be sure to tell your doctor about it.
  5. If you are taking metformin, aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, or other blood-thinning medication, tell your healthcare provider.
  6. If angiography is performed on an outpatient basis, arrange with a relative or friend to take you home after the examination. Sometimes sedatives are given during angiography, which can make you drowsy.

Before the examination itself, the patient is asked to change into surgical underwear, he is given a mild sedative that helps to relax. Sometimes angiography is performed under general anesthesia.

Angiography of the heart or coronary angiography. In addition to the femoral artery, a catheter can also be inserted into the radial artery on the arm

Examination of the vascular system during fluoroscopy after the administration of a contrast drug (visible in x-ray radiation).

Angiography of cerebral vessels. On the left is the initial accumulation of contrast in the internal carotid artery, on the right is the distribution of contrast along its other branches. Click on photo to enlarge
kak proverit zdorove sosudov - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

X-ray angiography is divided into:

  1. General – the introduction of contrast into the central arteries (aorta and its branches);
  2. Selective – contrasting begins with large vascular trunks (carotid arteries);
  3. Superselective – the introduction of contrast into the small arterial branches of the “zone of interest.”

The higher the contrast selectivity of the vascular tree, the lower the radiation exposure in the study.

Feature of the method: requires hospitalization in a hospital.

  • femoral artery puncture;
  • installation and conduct of a catheter to the study area;
  • administration of a contrast agent and examination of vascular structures.

CT angiography

Obtaining a three-dimensional three-dimensional image of vascular structures by combining multiple images in different projections made on a computer tomograph. Requires the introduction of a contrast agent.

  • insertion of a catheter into the elbow area;
  • Scanning the zone of interest.

MR angiography

A three-dimensional vascular pattern is obtained by recording the response of tissue structures to the action of the electromagnetic field of the tomograph. The main advantage of the method is the absence of radiation. In controversial cases, it requires contrast enhancement.

Technique of the procedure: after fixing the zone of interest in a special coil, a scan is carried out during which it is necessary to lie still.

Results of MR angiography of cerebral vessels

Types of Angiography

Venography of the cranial veins in a child

Comprehensive diagnosis of the state of the vessels of the body

Diseases associated with vascular damage are much greater than it might seem. And the main difficulty in their treatment is just the diagnosis. Symptoms of vascular damage are extremely diverse, and, as a rule, are not identified by themselves, but are associated with an exacerbation of a chronic condition or the emergence of a new pathology.

In the human body a huge number of vessels, it is believed that their length is one hundred thousand kilometers. It depends on how the entire circulatory system functions, whether the body will receive oxygen and necessary substances in time and in full, and how decomposition products, excess fluids and carbon dioxide will be removed from the body.

Most often, people come to study arteries and veins in advanced situations when conservative treatment will no longer help. In this article we will consider when it is necessary to check the vessels, which ones and which research method will best help determine their condition.

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I was not used to trusting any information, but decided to check and ordered packing. I noticed changes within a week: the constant pains in my heart, heaviness, pressure surges that tormented me before that – receded, and after 2 weeks they disappeared completely. Try it and you, and if anyone is interested, then the link to the article below.

All diseases can be conditionally defined in two groups:

  • Diseases of blood vessels of the arterial bed (aorta, artery, arteriole and capillaries);
  • Diseases of the vessels of the venous bed (veins and venules).

In each group there is a large number of diseases, both congenital and acquired. The most common is varicose veins of the lower extremities.

If the arterial bed is affected, then this leads to an insufficient supply of necessary substances and oxygen to all organs and tissues. Violation of the venous bed leads to a slowdown in the outflow of venous blood from organs, carbon dioxide and decay products are not fully evacuated from the body.

v kakih sluchayah neobhodima konsultatsiya spetsia - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

Thus, it can be argued that timely examination is the key to the normal functioning of all organs and systems.

It’s important to know! No more shortness of breath, headaches, pressure surges and other symptoms of HYPERTENSION! Our readers are already using the Leo Boqueria method to treat pressure. Learn the method .

It was estimated that the total length of all the vessels of the human body is more than one hundred thousand kilometers! Arterial vessels are directed from the heart to the periphery, and venous vessels, on the contrary, from organs back to the heart. Large arteries branch out medium and small arterioles, which then pass into the network of capillaries. Capillaries, in turn, assemble into venules, combining into large veins.

Arterial blood is saturated with oxygen and other necessary elements, and venous blood absorbs unwanted compounds secreted by cells. The existence of each cell and organ depends on whether they will be adequately supplied with blood circulating in the vascular network. At the same time, the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products from the body begins with their penetration into the capillaries and absorption into the blood. Thus, it is clear how important it is to maintain vascular health.

For a very long time people knew about the danger of vascular pathologies, about what deadly diseases they lead to. Decades pass, but the situation does not change: if thirty years ago atherosclerosis was called the plague of the th century, now it is the scourge of the st century. To prevent the progression of the disorder and the occurrence of serious complications, timely accurate diagnosis, the correct appointment of a treatment regimen and thorough treatment are necessary.

Only a specialist can find out the reason for the deterioration in well-being and choose effective drugs and medical procedures, but, unfortunately, only a few go to the doctor, noticing the first signs of the disorder. Usually, people try not to pay attention to headaches, dizziness, swelling of hands and feet, and other “nonsense”, believing that it is simply stupid to waste time, which is already missing for anything. As a result, you still have to go to the doctor, but by this time the disease manages to develop to the later stages with all the ensuing consequences.

As a rule, with the symptoms characteristic of vascular diseases, they are referred primarily to a neurologist or local physician. In fact, a doctor of any profile can conduct an examination and, if there is a suspicion of a certain violation, send them to a specialist for that profile. So, if the results of the initial examination, listening to the patient’s complaints and studying his anamnesis indicate the presence of pathology of the cerebral vessels, the neurologist deals with the patient.

As a rule, vessels entering the blood supply system of the brain, heart and limbs are affected. Let’s dwell on the methods that are used to assess their condition.

Structurally, the blood flow system consists of capillaries, arteries, veins, arterioles, venules, aorta. These vessels vary in size and function. If a single damage to the capillary or artery does not pose a serious health hazard, then regular disruption of their work leads to a decrease in the internal lumen, as a result of which the outflow or blood flow to organs and tissues worsens. This factor is detrimental to the state of the body. Treatment should be started as soon as possible.

otsenka riska proyavleniya patologiy serdtsa i sos - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

Pathologies, which are combined with the pathology of the blood circulation of the brain, often lead to manifestations of hypertension and “vascular catastrophes.” In order to prevent dangerous diseases and avoid complications, it is necessary to check the brain and its vessels.

In our time, high blood pressure and brain diseases are diagnosed in many people. Both young people and people aged. This is due to various pathologies, most importantly, of which, this is a burdened heredity.

Sometimes, feeling weak, a person does not know which doctors can be consulted to correctly solve the problem. In any village, there are always therapists and pediatricians who take patients with any pathological processes. The most ordinary therapist will be able to provide first aid and will give direction to narrower specialists if the disease is not in his competence.

In any areas and urban-type settlements, there is a neurologist. This doctor specializes in brain problems and associated disorders.

In order to establish an accurate diagnosis, the neurologist must first examine the patient for any fatal diseases, and then calmly send them to the best instrumental types of diagnostic procedures.

A neurosurgeon can also help check brain vessels. He treats the brain and its blood vessels. Such a doctor will save from the most painful diseases, such as stroke, heart attack, as well as other “vascular catastrophes.” The variety of activities of a neurosurgeon is justified by the fact that he simply must know this.

In order to control the arteries of the heart, you need to contact a cardiologist. It can be difficult to draw a specific line between real heart diseases and other vascular diseases, which exhibit an indirect effect on it. Thus, rheumatism and myocarditis, initially mental illnesses, atherosclerosis and inflammation cause mainly damage to arteries and veins. In the end, pressure exerts a negative effect on the entire cardiovascular system.

Each of the above medical personnel is able to conduct a single study within the framework of their own qualifications.

There are many methods for examining the state of cerebral vessels. Usually for the diagnosis of blood vessels, many diseases, as well as the clinical manifestations of the patient, become indications.

kakie sosudy proveryat neobhodimo - How to check the blood vessels of the body indications for such studies

You need to know that today “vascular catastrophes” are very common in young people and in young children, and they are associated with poor blood circulation. Well, as for grandparents, they should undergo preventive measures related to the study of brain vessels to detect atherosclerosis.

The clinical picture, in which, it is necessary to perform an examination:

  1. Complaints related to acute or chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency.
  2. Planned heart surgery.
  3. Risk factors in the medical history that provoke a painful state of the heart. First of all, it is drug addiction, obesity, intracretory pancreatic insufficiency and the presence of blood clots in the vessels.
  4. Very severe headaches of incomprehensible ethology.
  5. Low pressure.
  6. Malignant neoplasms of the brain.

Modern examination methods help specialists to see in the early stages malignant processes occurring in the brain, as well as to detect any deviations in the vessels. In this regard, a neurologist will help prevent dynamic changes in the vessels of the brain.

At the moment, there is a huge amount of technology, with the help of which, specialists receive almost all comprehensive information about the work of the vessels of the brain.

  1. Encephalography. This learning method is performed with the support of an oscilloscope. Such an examination is based on the principles of ultrasound. The graphic image of ultrasound signals is displayed on the monitor. This method is unique in its own way, as it informs a specialist well of the presence of any abnormalities related to epilepsy.
  2. Ultrasonic duplex scanning – this type of examination is carried out in the presence of support for a special meter that performs an additional ultrasound function. This method helps to see the structure of medium and large vessels. This procedure is done on an outpatient basis, as it does no harm and there is no need for special preparation. With this scan, you can observe the dynamics of blood vessels.
  3. Magnetic resonance imaging is a painless and harmless study that helps to determine the condition of the vessels and parts of the brain. In this case, special signals are obtained from the magnetic field using radiation. As a result, you can get a multilayer picture of the brain in 3D. This examination is very necessary.
  4. MRA – this research is very advanced and informative. Refers to safe research methods. In terms of informativeness and value, it is the best method of obtaining the necessary and truly comprehensive data, as it allows you to check the shells of nerves and the brain. Among other things, there is no need to prepare for this type of examination.

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

Detonic