Hypertension of the 2nd degree is a pathological condition in which there is a persistent increase in blood pressure to the level of 160 millimeters of mercury and higher.
Such pressure is difficult to normalize by standard and popular methods.
Hypertension has recently been diagnosed more and more often, and in people of almost any age.
The number of patients is rapidly increasing every year, especially among residents of industrial cities.
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- Causes of hypertension
- Symptoms of stage 2 GB
- Methods of treatment
- Hypertensive crisis
- Atrial fibrillation: symptoms and treatment
- Types of disease
- Symptoms of the disease
- Post-infarction diagnosis
- Inpatient Duration
- Symptoms of the disease
- Drug therapy at home
- Prescribed Drugs
- First aid
- Traditional medicine and heart attack
- Secondary prevention
Causes of hypertension
That is, grade 2 hypertension, the risk is not for everyone, unlike grade III, in which treatment is more difficult. The heart makes more efforts to pump blood fluid, which explains the increase in blood pressure.
However, there are many more reasons:
- vascular atherosclerosis (loss of natural elasticity of blood vessels);
- genetic predisposition;
- bad habits (smoking, alcoholic beverages);
- overweight (the more extra pounds, the higher the risk of getting sick);
- type 1 diabetes mellitus;
- disruption of the thyroid gland;
- excessive amounts of salt in the diet;
- neoplasms of various nature;
- vascular damage;
- hormone imbalance.
Other factors for the development of grade 2 hypertension will be pathologies of the urinary system, kidneys, prolonged psycho-emotional overload, and sedentary work.
Initially, hypertension develops in a mild form, the pressure with it increases no more than one. If you regularly measure the pressure, you can see that it rises only from time to time. Violations of such a plan do not particularly affect the well-being of a person, he may not notice them at all. During this period, the body adapts to changes. When the pressure is increased stably, it affects the work of many organs and systems.
It is possible that the patient will experience a hypertensive crisis, which can cause:
- heart attack;
- vision loss;
- cerebral edema, lungs.
Doctors divide hypertension according to the degree of risk that it can carry. At the same time, factors that can aggravate the state of health, the probability of damage to target organs, and thinking organs are evaluated.
- the patient is a man and he is more than 50 years old;
- in plasma, cholesterol is 6,5 millimoles per liter;
- history is burdened by poor heredity;
- the patient smokes for a long time;
- he has sedentary work.
The risk of grade 2 hypertension is a diagnosis that can be made in the absence of disorders from the endocrine system, stroke and in the presence of high blood pressure. Excess weight will aggravate the situation.
With a 20-30% probability of risk of regressive changes in the heart – this is a risk of 3 degrees. As a rule, this diagnosis is given to diabetics who have atherosclerotic plaques, lesions of small vessels. Most likely, the condition of the kidneys will be far from normal.
The cause of coronary heart disease will be the rapid deterioration of coronary circulation. Hypertension of the 2nd degree with a risk of 3 is not uncommon even among people.
If a history of hypertension has too many of these diseases, he has a risk of 4 stages. The increase in pressure will be even more aggravated by a violation in all existing internal organs. The risk of grade 4 with hypertension of stage 2 is said when the patient had a heart attack, regardless of the location of the lesion.
The degree of risk of hypertension can only predict the likelihood of complications. But at the same time, such problems can be prevented if you treat your health and the doctor’s instructions with full responsibility (adhering to a healthy lifestyle, be sure to include proper nutrition, a normal working day, a good night’s sleep, and blood pressure monitoring).
Symptoms of stage 2 GB
Stage 2 hypertension is characterized by an increase in pressure to the level/mm. Hg. Art. Typical symptoms of the disease are:
- swelling of the face, and especially the eyelids;
- dizziness and pain in the head;
- redness of the skin of the face (hyperemia);
- feeling of fatigue, fatigue even after sleep and rest;
- bouts of flickering “midges” before the eyes;
- swelling of the hands;
- heart palpitations;
- noise, ringing in the ears.
In addition, symptoms are not excluded: memory impairment, mental instability, problems with urination, vasodilation of the eye proteins, thickening of the walls of the left ventricle.
It happens that hypertensive patients complain of complete or partial loss of sensation in the phalanges of the fingers and toes, sometimes a lot of blood rushes to the face, and visual impairment begins. In the absence of timely adequate therapy, the result will be heart failure, rapid progression of atherosclerosis, impaired renal function.
Symptoms of hypertension will cause a lot of trouble during pregnancy, but this will not prevent a woman from making and giving birth to an absolutely healthy baby. But with stage III hypertension, it is forbidden to become pregnant and give birth, since there is an extremely high risk of mother’s death in childbirth. If a hypertensive crisis does not overtake a woman with stage 2 hypertension, she will be able to give birth naturally.
Another thing is when the woman’s history is burdened. During the entire pregnancy and delivery, such a woman must always be under the constant supervision of the attending physician. It is also important to monitor the condition of the fetus, its heartbeat. You may need to take pills that:
- well affect the health of women;
- will not affect the unborn baby.
In medical practice, there were cases when, in the first trimester, blood pressure indicators fell to normal or vice versa, the pressure increased significantly.
When a woman has hypertensive symptoms, her blood pressure is persistent, she can suffer from toxicosis in late pregnancy. This negatively affects the condition of the mother and child. Other symptoms may begin, for example, problems with the eyes, eyesight, increased headaches, nausea, vomiting that does not bring relief.
Among the most dangerous and serious complications of this condition, retinal detachment and cerebral hemorrhage should be noted.
The diagnosis of grade 2 hypertension, the doctor will determine the risk of complications after an instrumental and physical examination of the patient. Initially, the doctor will collect an anamnesis, including all complaints and symptoms. After that, blood pressure is monitored, taking measurements in the morning and evening for 14 days.
When the patient has already been diagnosed with hypertension earlier, it will not be difficult to identify its transition to the III degree, since more severe symptoms are characteristic of this process.
The following diagnostic methods are practiced:
- study of the condition of peripheral vessels;
- assessment of the skin, puffiness;
- percussion of the vascular bundle;
- percussion determination of heart parameters;
- systematic pressure measurement with a tonometer.
To confirm the diagnosis of grade 2 arterial hypertension, ultrasound of the thyroid gland, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and ultrasound of the heart cannot be dispensed with. In addition, the doctor will prescribe an ECG to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart, echocardiography to detect left ventricular hypertrophy, and assess cardiac decompensation (with ventricular distension).
Hypertensive patients will need to donate blood and urine for a general analysis, undergo dopplerography, which can help identify stenosis of the arterial walls. AH of the 2nd degree is the result of malfunctioning of the endocrine glands, kidneys, functional, morphological disorders in target organs.
Methods of treatment
Hypertension should be treated regardless of degree, however, if mild hypertension can be corrected only by changing the diet and giving up bad habits, the 2nd degree of pathology requires the use of tablets. Treatment is usually prescribed by a local therapist or cardiologist, sometimes a neurologist’s consultation is required.
Antihypertensive tablets to lower blood pressure and drugs in other dosage forms will help treat the disease: Hartil, Physiotens, Bisoprolol, Lisinopril. With regular use, they will prevent a hypertensive crisis, complications.
A patient with hypertension will be prescribed drugs that lower the level of bad blood cholesterol: Atorvastatin, Zovastikor. Blood thinning is carried out by means of Cardiomagnyl, Aspicard. It is important to take such pills strictly on time, the only way they will give a positive result, prevent hypertensive crisis.
Developing a comprehensive treatment, the doctor will select drugs that can be combined with each other or activate the properties of each other. If this combination is not chosen correctly, there is a risk of complications.
During the development of a treatment regimen for a disease, the following factors are always taken into account:
- age of the patient;
- degree of physical activity;
- the presence of disorders of the endocrine system;
- heart disease, target organs;
- blood cholesterol level.
Taking pills, blood pressure monitoring is indicated to assess the body’s response to treatment. If necessary, other drugs are used for treatment, giving a similar effect in hypertension.
Hypertensive crisis is a pathological condition in which the level of pressure rises sharply. If urgent treatment is not taken, the patient can earn dangerous health problems, even death.
If a crisis occurs, the patient needs to take a half-sitting position, call an ambulance team. Before her arrival, it is necessary to take sedative tablets, try not to panic, take an additional dose of the medicine for pressure prescribed by the doctor.
Hypertensive crisis can begin smoothly or rapidly. In some cases, you can not do without treatment in a hospital and a course of hypertensive drugs intravenously. Uncomplicated crisis can be treated at home, usually after a few days the patient’s condition is completely normal.
If the patient exactly follows the doctor’s instructions, a diagnosis of grade 2 hypertension will not become a sentence. People with this disease can live long and without dangerous complications. The fact that the 2nd degree of hypertension is, and what its consequences are, will be described in the video in this article by a specialist.
Atrial fibrillation: symptoms and treatment
Atrial fibrillation is a disease in which normal heart rhythm is disturbed. Normally, the heart contracts at regular intervals to effectively expel blood. The correct rhythm is set thanks to the sinus node, after which the atria and ventricles begin to contract in the same rhythm – sinus.
Types of disease
There are several types of atrial dysfunction:
- Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is a more frequent form in which acute attacks are observed against a background of normal heart rhythm. Such episodes with timely assistance are stopped in a day, sometimes the attack goes away on its own.
- The persistent type is characterized by a longer duration – 7-10 days and the attack cannot be stopped on its own. With this form, medication or even surgical treatment is necessary (when the disease is delayed for 5-7 months).
- The constant form is called normal heart rhythm, alternating with arrhythmia. The duration of the disease is from 1 year to several years. Since it is impossible to completely restore the normal rhythm, this form is often considered chronic.
According to the clinical course, atrial fibrillation can be overt and asymptomatic.
Symptoms of the disease
The main symptoms of atrial fibrillation:
- weakness in the body, increased fatigue;
- heart palpitations;
- autonomic disorders (hyperhidrosis of the palms and feet, cystalgia, chills or fever, pain or short tingling in the sternum, pallor of the skin);
- dizziness, up to loss of consciousness;
- pulse deficiency, which manifests itself in a mismatch in the number of pulse waves and strokes of the heart contractions;
- panic attacks.
The danger of the disease is that the patient alone can not determine the symptoms of atrial fibrillation and treatment in this case will be delayed and not very effective. In the absence of timely diagnostic procedures, the disease becomes chronic, which is practically not subject to therapy.
Treatment of atrial fibrillation includes several basic methods. Below we will talk about the most popular.
Despite the discharge from the clinic, the patient will have to be observed by a cardiologist:
- the first 30 days – 1 time in 7 days;
- from 1 to 6 month – 1 time in 2 weeks;
- from 6 to 12 months – 1 time per month;
- from 1 to 2 years – 1 time in 3 months.
Based on their results, the doctor can adjust the treatment regimen. Other diagnostic methods are carried out according to individual indications.
The question of what is done with a heart attack in a hospital worries, perhaps, everyone who has come across this disease in one way or another.
Typically, inpatient treatment occurs as follows: first, the patient is placed in intensive care, and after specialists note the stabilization of his condition, they are transferred to a general ward. The attending doctor gives him recommendations that he must adhere to strictly for a successful recovery. The main condition for a speedy and effective cure is that in the first 2 days it is strictly forbidden to sit down, you can only turn over.
Depending on the condition of the patient, he can sit down on 3-4 days of hospitalization. You need to do this very carefully, first dangling your legs from the bed, then slowly lifting your body, lean on your hands. You can not deviate in the back direction, so as not to provoke tension of the abdominal muscles, they should always be relaxed. After a couple of days, the patient will be able to begin to move slowly, and later, with the help of a specialist in physiotherapy, climb the stairs.
Eating occurs no earlier than 12 hours after the impact. Nutrition should be light, low-calorie and, most importantly, moderate. You can not overeat, consume a lot of salt (it is limited to a minimum), fats and water. The patient should take food often in small portions. His diet includes cereals, lean fish and meat, boiled vegetables and soups on their broth, fruit purees, compotes, fruit drinks, weak tea.
At first, food should be eaten only in pureed form, after a couple of weeks the diet should remain the same, but it will not be necessary to grind the food. Relatives, after their relatives feel better, are interested in what can be transferred to a hospital with a heart attack. You don’t need to convey anything special, just soaked dried fruits (for example, dried apricots, raisins) and peeled oranges.
It is necessary to ensure that the products are not stale, but certainly fresh. Relatives can also transfer kefir and water without gas on the basis that he is allowed to drink fluids up to half a liter per day. The programs should still have a symbolic character, since the State Clinical Hospital has the entire grocery set for diet food.
While on treatment, a person who has a heart attack is advised to analyze the lifestyle and factors that led to this disease in order to prevent a possible recurrence of this dangerous situation. It is necessary to reduce psychological overstrain, take up light physical exertion, eliminate alcohol and cigarettes, lose weight, regularly check blood sugar and cholesterol and bring pressure back to normal.
With myocardial infarction (especially with extensive), the clinic performs operations such as artery stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting. They can be carried out on an emergency or scheduled basis.
Initially, the doctor through coronarography finds out which of the arteries are affected. A special substance is introduced into them and the zones of narrowing or their complete blockage are displayed on the monitor. The video recording is analyzed by a cardiac surgeon, evaluating the appropriateness of the operation and deciding which way to choose – bypass surgery or skin surgery.
The intervention through the skin (balloon angioplasty) is carried out by introducing into the vessel a balloon, which is inflated in the narrowing zone, then the deflated structure is removed. After this fairly simple and safe procedure, the lumen expands and blood flow resumes. The patient is discharged from the hospital after a couple of days, there is no point in keeping him under observation for longer.
To reduce the possibility of repeated narrowing, a so-called stent is installed in the lumen of the artery in a narrow zone – a metal or plastic device in the form of a spring, which prevents its compression in the future.
After stenting the coronary artery, the patient soon begins to feel relief. Further, drugs that reduce blood coagulation are prescribed for a long time.
In coronary bypass surgery, the resumption of blood flow occurs bypassing the narrowed zone of the vessel and implanting the shunt. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia. If it is done on a working heart without the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient is more likely to recover, much less time is spent in the hospital, and the risk of possible deterioration is much lower.
Before any operation, any patient is concerned with the question of which is preferable: stenting or bypass surgery. The first procedure is best done when only one stent is sufficient for the patient to install. But atherosclerosis is considered a systemic disease and often affects many arteries at the same time.
Therefore, it is extremely rare that you need to install only one stent. If there is a need for a large number of such pacemakers, then a simple and safe stenting procedure turns into a rather dangerous one, with the risk of complications increasing. In this case, shunting will be preferable.
The periods of stay for rehabilitation in a stationary institution are individual. How long patients stay in the hospital after a heart attack depends on the presence of any complications and well-being that the attending physician observes at the time of the intended discharge.
It is believed that it is best for a person who has had an attack of myocardial infarction to be under constant medical supervision during the first month, since deterioration often does not immediately appear, which is why they are dangerous.
An attack of a heart attack can provoke such consequences:
- re-strike is the most common type of complication;
- heart failure;
- cardiogenic shock.
All these complications must be ruled out before the patient is discharged home. People under seventy years of age after the strike can be discharged from stationary control for 7-10 days in the event that they do not show any deterioration.
Recently, there has been a tendency to not detain patients in the hospital for a long time. This can be explained by the fact that modern methods and effective drugs are used in the treatment.
And yet, if the attending physician suspects any complications in a person who has had a myocardial infarction, he will be sent for additional examination and the duration of his treatment in the hospital will continue, despite the number of days he has already spent in the hospital.
So, the speed and success of recovery, as well as the likelihood of avoiding deterioration, depend on the competent behavior of the patient in the hospital and his compliance with all the recommendations of the treating specialist. You just need to listen to your doctor, observe bed rest for the first few days, thereby allowing the heart to restore its functions. The success of rehabilitation after myocardial infarction lies, first of all, in self-discipline.
Symptoms of the disease
- The acute stage. It develops from the onset of the first symptoms and lasts for two weeks. If a person’s condition is critical, then cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be used. If necessary, artificial oxygen supply is also used.
- Subacute stage. Its duration is 3-4 weeks. To normalize the condition, a person needs to stay in the hospital all this time and undergo a course of drug therapy.
After this comes the rehabilitation period, which lasts no longer than a year. At this time, it is advisable to follow all medical recommendations, as well as undergo a regular examination with a doctor.
Inpatient treatment for a heart attack is carried out in the cardiology department. If this is the first attack in a person, then the standard course of treatment is 28 days. During this period, you need to be under the supervision of doctors.
In the event that the heart muscle can normally contract, and the patient is less than 50 years old, then they can write it out after two weeks. Already at home, a person will take the prescribed drugs.
The longest treatment is for those patients who have complications (thrombus formation, severe heart failure, pulmonary edema, etc.). In this condition, they may require not only drug therapy, but also surgical intervention.
For complete recovery after a heart attack, patients are advised to undergo treatment in sanatoriums. Before this, it is important to determine what degree of damage is observed in a person.
The following severity levels of patients after a heart attack are distinguished:
- Grade 1, which includes patients who do not have complications and attacks of tachycardia;
- Grade 2 – the average lesion in which the patient has an initial type of heart failure;
- Grade 3 – a serious condition of a person, which is accompanied by arrhythmia and hypertension;
- Grade 4 – an extensive heart attack, after which there is a high risk of hospital mortality.
A visit to the sanatorium is recommended for patients with a 1-3 degree severity of the condition. Such institutions provide physical therapy, classes in the gym, massage and physiotherapy.
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The condition of many human organs depends on the work of the heart muscle. Therefore, it is important that it is constantly supplied with sufficient blood. But there are factors in which the lumen of the coronary vessels is noticeably reduced (this process in medicine is called obturation). Then the myocardium cannot function normally due to insufficient blood supply.
Such a pathological condition causes ischemic disease, one of the manifestations of which is myocardial infarction. This is the acute stage of the disease, which affects men to a greater extent.
Drug therapy at home
Immediately after the end of the procedure, the patient is taken to a postoperative ward, where medical personnel carefully monitor his condition. If vascular access was through the femoral artery, after surgery, the patient needs to lie in a horizontal position on his back with legs straight for 6-8 hours, and sometimes longer. This is associated with the risk of developing dangerous bleeding from the site of the puncture of the femoral artery.
There are special medical devices to reduce the length of the required horizontal stay in bed. They fill a hole in the vessel and reduce the chance of bleeding. When using them, you have to lie 2-3 hours.
To remove the contrast agent introduced into the body during stenting, the patient is recommended to drink as much water as possible (up to 10 glasses per day) if he does not have contraindications for this (such as severe heart failure).
If the patient has pain at the site of the puncture of the artery or in the chest area, the usual painkillers like paracetamol, ibuprofen or other drugs can help.
If stenting was performed according to planned indications, and not for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction, unstable angina), the patient is usually discharged home on the second day, giving detailed instructions for further recovery.
Medication after stenting is required, regardless of the reason for which it was performed. Most people take drugs that reduce the risk of thrombosis within a year of surgery. This is usually a combination of a low dose of aspirin and one of the following:
It is very important to follow all the doctor’s recommendations for taking these drugs. If you stop using them earlier, this can significantly increase the risk of myocardial infarction caused by stent thrombosis.
The duration of treatment with clopidogrel, prazogrel, or ticagrelor depends on the type of implanted stent, approximately one year. Most patients need low-dose aspirin for the rest of their lives.
While at home, a person still has a long time to follow the drug therapy regimen compiled by a specialist:
- Statins (“Atomax”, “Crestor”) are prescribed to reduce inflammation in the vessels and the concentration of bad cholesterol in the blood. The effect helps to prevent the formation of fatty plaques. It is necessary to take them against the background of a diet.
- Antiplatelet agents (Aspirin, Aklotin) prevent blood coagulation by reducing its viscosity. Their intake significantly reduces the likelihood of blood clots.
- Sartans (“Losartan”, “Valsartan”) and ACE inhibitors (“Captopril”, “Hinapril”) do not allow angiotensin II to exert their effect, due to which it is possible to stabilize blood pressure and heart rate
- Nitrates (“Nitroglycerin”, “Nitrokor”) are used to quickly dilate blood vessels, relieve arterial hypertension and relieve pain. They reduce the load on the heart and improve its nutrition.
- Beta-adrenoreceptor blockers (Anaprilin, Timolol) do not allow adrenaline to exert its effect on the heart muscle. With prolonged use, it is possible to reduce the frequency and severity of heartbeats, reduce blood pressure and reduce myocardial oxygen demand.
- Pills rich in magnesium and potassium (“Orokomag”, “Magnestad”) are necessary to improve regulation of the heart, stabilize neuromuscular transmission and maintain normal vascular tone.
They treat myocardial infarction with different drugs. The course of therapy is selected by the doctor for each individual patient. Most often, for such people, the following groups of drugs are prescribed:
- Antiplatelet agents. Such drugs help reduce platelet aggregation. In other words, some reduce the viscosity of the blood, which protects against the formation of a blood clot.
- Statins They are prescribed for high cholesterol in humans, which leads to the formation of cholesterol plaques that clog vessels.
- Aspirin. This drug is prescribed to most patients after a heart attack. It should be taken longer than a year.
- Anticoagulants. They are used to reduce blood coagulation.
- Beta blockers. These are the main drugs after a heart attack, which should be taken to protect the myocardium from oxygen starvation. You need to take them for years.
- Diuretics. They help to remove fluid from the body, which reduces the load on the heart.
With the right treatment, people are not kept in the hospital for long. Such therapy will normalize the functioning of the heart and will help restore the body.
Tablets will not save you, if consumed daily, it is better to brew 150 g of natural at night.
Remember! It is strictly forbidden to take medicine for a heart attack without a doctor’s prescription or to drink a large dosage. Also, only under the supervision of a specialist it is worth using various folk remedies, since in some cases they can only worsen a person’s condition.
When diagnosing, specialists use the generally accepted classification to establish the clinical form. This is important because the nature of the treatment depends on it.
First aid to such a patient can be provided only by a hospital or ambulance. In any case, no matter where the person is seized by an attack, arrived doctors will do electrocardiography.
Everyone needs the knowledge of the clinical symptoms of a disease such as myocardial infarction, because every family has elderly people at risk. With a heart attack, the patient complains of:
- chest pain;
- shortness of breath (feeling of lack of air);
- that the heart beats violently;
- heart rhythm disturbance;
- general weakness;
- increasing swelling.
In this case, it is better not to self-medicate, but to call an ambulance as soon as possible. Time cannot be missed; it can save a person’s life.
In order to expand the lumen of the coronary arteries and allow the blood to circulate normally, providing the heart with oxygen, doctors suggest placing a stent.
This operation is called stenting and consists in the fact that the patient is placed in a sick vessel a thin wire tube in the shape of a cylinder. A special balloon inflates the stent and it dilates the vascular walls.
If the patient has experienced an extensive heart attack, then they undergo shunting, in which they make an additional route to bypass the diseased vessel.
Immediately after a stroke, the patient is given several tablets of nitrates. And then they begin to treat with drugs for a long time.
To nourish the heart muscle, along with long-term drugs, you should start taking a group of supplements, before agreeing it with your doctor. They have a number of advantages:
Treatment is quite expensive, and the patient, wanting to reduce the cost of it, tries to replace the original drugs with their analogues. This should be done only after consulting with your doctor. Cheaper generics do not always have the same properties as their prototypes. In addition, they can be very harmful to health.
At the first sign of a stroke, when a person complains of severe pain behind the sternum in the form of burning, squeezing and pain in nearby parts of the body, it is necessary to act according to a certain standard. The victim must be seated (not laid) to reduce heart load, give one tablet of Nitroglycerin under the tongue and 30-40 drops of Corvalol.
Then you should call an ambulance. If the patient does not feel better before the doctor arrives, they give him 160-325 mg of Aspirin for chewing, even if the patient has already taken this medicine before. As a rule, a man tolerates pain more stoically than a woman, so you need to call an ambulance for any course of the attack.
On the way to the clinic in an ambulance, an electrocardiogram will be made to the patient, which will reveal the severity of the disease. The specialist will insistently recommend to the victim the treatment of myocardial infarction in the hospital. In order to avoid negative consequences and maximize the quality of life after a stroke, you must always follow the doctor’s advice, do not be afraid of a too long treatment process, especially since the opinion about how many are in a hospital with myocardial infarction is often wrong: this is not such a long process – everything is purely individual.
Traditional medicine and heart attack
The disease is considered life-threatening, therefore, the patient should receive full treatment in a hospital ward, where under the supervision of doctors he will be able to take the necessary medications and undergo surgery.
It is characterized by a two-week duration, when the heart muscle begins to recover gradually, but it is not yet able to take on a full load.
At this time, the person should be completely at rest, under the supervision of doctors and observe bed rest.
The slightest physical exertion is contraindicated for a person, so he is not even able to roll over in bed on his own.
During the acute period:
- the patient is constantly measured in pulse and pressure;
- feed and carry out hygienic procedures in bed;
- all changes in the work of the body are reported to the attending physician.
- during the acute period and during the rehabilitation period at home, most often there are problems with emptying due to the immobility of the patient;
- stress is contraindicated for the patient, therefore, for the timely release of the intestines, the use of laxatives and painkillers is recommended;
- therapy is carried out under the strict supervision of a physician;
- sometimes the patient needs cleansing enemas.
Bed rest and its difficulties
- a stationary state causes thrombosis in the lower extremities;
- even a slight squeezing of a vein can lead to impaired blood flow and the formation of a blood clot;
- starting from the second day, a pillow is placed under the patient’s knees so that the legs are in an elevated state;
- preventive massage and special solutions/ointments will help prevent the formation of pressure sores on the skin;
- at this time, the patient should be as much as possible protected from the outside world;
- any emotional experiences, nervous shocks, loud noises, fear can lead to complications.
If the patient is an elderly person
- older people need special care from the medical staff and relatives, who must ensure that drugs are taken on time;
- the use by older people of drugs that were not prescribed by a doctor is strictly prohibited, their close people are responsible for this.
Myocardial infarction in diabetes is more severe and the likelihood of severe complications is high.
Symptoms of a thigh muscle infarction are indicated in this publication.
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The period of incapacity for work may continue indefinitely. Not only at this time, but also later, for the purpose of prevention, you can periodically refer to the recipes of traditional medicine.
So, how to treat myocardial infarction at home? First of all, you need to adjust the diet. The rules are as follows:
- The first 2 weeks – a strict diet.
- Food should be fractional (up to 7 times a day in small portions).
- The first days of the diet are supervised by a cardiologist.
Liquid soups, cereals from cereals, dairy products are allowed during this period.
The disease cannot be called an unpleasant episode in a person’s life; it becomes for people who have suffered it a trait behind which health problems begin. The most dangerous thing is that ischemia of the heart undergoes accelerated progress.
The first months after a heart attack become crucial for the life of the patient.
Health monitoring should be ongoing, its deterioration can lead to disability, re-infarction or death. At this time, it is necessary to make every effort to recover.
The attending physician helps the patient achieve a high quality of life if he:
- follow a diet;
- take medications in a timely manner;
- independently monitor well-being and report it to the doctor;
- lead a healthy lifestyle ;
- engage in cardiac rehabilitation courses.
The first time after a heart attack is fraught with serious complications, which only specialists can prevent the development of
The development of a heart attack indicates an aggravation of coronary disease. After an experienced attack, problems with pressure and rhythm of the heartbeat rapidly develop, against which signs of heart failure occur. In order to avoid the development of consequences, you will have to follow the rules of secondary prevention:
- attend cardiac rehabilitation classes;
- follow a strict diet;
- follow the treatment regimen drawn up by the doctor;
- control heart rate and pressure;
- comply with the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
Despite the fact that the patient’s sick leave lasts several months, throughout the life of the patient it is recommended to follow certain recommendations that will help to avoid complications and secondary heart attack.
To do this, pick on the following tips:
- follow a diet, not allowing yourself to overeat or eat harmful foods;
- refuse alcohol in any form and quantity;
- quit smoking;
- have a full sleep (sleep at least 8 hours a day);
- take frequent breaks in work, even if it is sedentary;
- take medications prescribed by your doctor;
- control blood pressure and prevent sudden jumps;
- eliminate heavy physical exertion;
- refuse coffee and energy, which are negatively displayed at the heart;
- eliminate stress.
On average, a person needs to stay in the hospital after a heart attack for a month. At the same time, often the therapy after this course does not end, and the patient takes the drugs already at home.
The prognosis is based on the results of the examination and the condition of the patient. A small-focal form of a heart attack rarely leads to serious consequences with timely detection and treatment. Large lesions often cause complications. Without assistance in the first hours from the onset of the attack, the patient may die.
The speed and degree of recovery is affected by the effectiveness of the treatment regimen and lifestyle correction. If the patient will comply with all the recommendations of the attending physician, then the likelihood of the return of disability increases significantly.
After the manifestation of signs of myocardial infarction, the patient should call an ambulance. Doctors will take him to the intensive care unit for the necessary medical measures. In the hospital, a person will have to spend at least 2-3 weeks to get out of a serious condition and avoid possible consequences.
• Salt (not more than 5 g per day).
• Fatty foods, fast food.
• Dairy products (with a low percentage of fat).
• Bread (from coarse flour).
Unsaturated fatty acids help lower bad cholesterol (high density) and increase good (low density). Their number in the diet of a person who has survived a heart attack should be 10 times greater than the limit acids. In total, it is allowed to consume no more than fat per day.
About half of the calories a person should receive from carbohydrates. The remaining amount needs to be replenished by the absorption of proteins and fats. Simple carbohydrates (confectionery, processed cereals, sweet soda) should be excluded from the daily menu. You can replace them with complex carbohydrates containing a large amount of fiber (vegetables, fruits, cereals).
The sick-list provides for the mandatory observance of the diet by patients. Medical nutrition in this case has the following principles:
- A complete rejection of salt and alcohol.
- Limit fats and sweets. It is also worth excluding flour, fatty meat and lard.
- Low-calorie meals should be the basis of the menu.
- Eat 5 times a day in small portions. This will avoid overeating and reduce the burden on the body.
- All fried and pickled is prohibited. It is preferable to boil everything or steam.
- Every day, the patient should eat light soups, cereals, boiled vegetables and grated fruits.