Heart arrhythmia what is it and how to treat it

Cardiac arrhythmia is not a particular illness, however a group of organ dysfunctions in regards to frequency and consistency.

Sometimes the pathology is safe, not posturing a health danger. But there are illness that threaten human life.

What does arrhythmia mean

As specified by the WHO (World Health Organization), it is a heart beat condition that varies from typical sinus rhythm.

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The human heart operates in a particular mode with a frequency of contractions of 60–80 beats per minute. Rhythm disturbances take place at various levels of the myocardial conduction system. It is a collection of afferent neuron in the kind of nodes, packages and fibers situated in the heart muscle.

These tissues produce and send impulses for organ contraction. Damage to the paths at any level leads to a modification in the frequency, rhythm and series of heart beats.

There are kinds of arrhythmias:

  • Sinus tachycardia is an increased rhythm more frequently than 90 beats per minute. It is related to fever, harmful goiter, anemia. It appears with cardiac arrest, myocarditis.
  • Sinus bradycardia implies a decline in the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle less than 60 per minute. It establishes as an outcome of a decline in the function of the thyroid gland. It is likewise a symptom of ill sinus syndrome or neurocirculatory dystonia.
  • Atrial fibrillation is atrial flutter with a frequency of 150 to 300 beats. At the very same time, they do not agreement completely force, however the ventricles operate in a routine rhythm. Atrial fibrillation is observed with thyrotoxicosis, obstructive lung illness, arterial high blood pressure, hereditary heart flaws.

By the method! This kind of arrhythmia is harmful by the development of embolism inside the heart cavity. Tearing off the wall, they are brought with the blood stream into the cerebral vessels, triggering a cardioembolic stroke.

  • Paroxysmal tachycardia. The heart works really typically, from 140 to 240 beats per minute. The attack begins all of a sudden and ends simply as rapidly. Palpitations typically take place after psycho-emotional tension.
  • Sinus arrhythmia. It happens in youth and teenage years and is not considered as a pathology. It can be quickly eliminated by briefly holding the breath.
  • Extrasystole is not related to an offense of the automated function. The most typical reasons for early contractions are illness of the heart muscle, heart valve flaws, along with the reflex results of illness of the stomach and gallbladder.
  • Heart block. Severe damage to the paths at the level of the atrioventricular node situated in between the atrium and the ventricle. The transmission of impulses is disrupted, the pulse drops considerably. In this case, convulsions and loss of awareness might take place – Morgagni-Edems-Stokes syndrome.

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Attention! Complete transverse atrioventricular block typically leads to unexpected death. An unsafe kind of arrhythmia is flutter and fibrillation of the ventricles, which accompanies serious heart damage, after taking specific medications or at the time of an electrical shock.

Signs of arrhythmia

The symptomatology of arrhythmias is differed. Functional failures in the work of the heart in the kind of uncommon extrasystoles are asymptomatic.

People experience considerable heart rhythm disruptions in various methods:

  • disturbances in the kind of stops briefly,
  • freezing or tremblings in the chest,
  • weak point,
  • lightheadedness,
  • shortness of breath, chest tightness,
  • unexpected darkening in the eyes
  • sensation of missed out on contraction
  • disruption of awareness,
  • with total blockade of the AV node, arrhythmia is manifested by convulsions, loss of awareness.

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Some clients suffer short-term heart attack. In any case, an individual will comprehend that the heart is not working appropriately. Any such indications cannot be overlooked. They can lead to bad health, illness development.

Attention! For repeating cardiac arrest, seek advice from a cardiologist.

Why is there arrhythmia

The reason for disturbances are various – from neurogenic illness to natural cardiovascular disease.

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Failures in the work of an organ are triggered by provoking elements:

  • Exercise tension.
  • Endocrine system pathology – diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis.
  • Heart illness – myocardial infarction, valve flaws, angina pectoris. At the heart of conduction disruption is myocardial anemia, which avoids the transmission of impulses. Sometimes the primary pacemaker, the sinus node, is harmed. Postinfarction scar contributes to the development of foci of arrhythmia. In myocarditis triggered by swelling, heart cells are changed by connective tissue, which straight harms the heart conduction system.
  • Obesity.
  • Arterial high blood pressure triggers hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium, which provokes a rhythm disruption.
  • Neurogenic causes are over-activation of the considerate nerve system. This leads to psycho-emotional overstrain, making use of coffee, hot food, alcohol.
  • Diseases of internal organs – stomach ulcer, gallstone illness. They lead to a boost in the tone of the vagus nerve. In this case, arrhythmias take place during the night.
  • Trauma or swellings to the chest, electrical shock.
  • Iatrogenic arrhythmias are in some way associated to treatment. May be triggered by adverse effects of diuretics, heart glycosides and antiarrhythmic drugs.

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If the source of the arrhythmia is not discovered, it is thought about idiopathic. Human security depends upon the reason for the pathology.

Diagnostics

Heart rhythm conditions are studied by the area of cardiology – arrhythmology. There is a European requirement for the medical diagnosis and treatment of this group of illness. The medical professional recognizes the cause, nature of cardiac arrest and recommends antiarrhythmic medications.

When analyzing the client, the pulsation of the arteries, the color of the skin, and the pulse rate are examined.

To figure out the kind of arrhythmia, a crucial assessment is carried out:

  • An electrocardiogram (ECG) is based upon particular indications of specific kinds of arrhythmia.
  • Holter tracking records the body clock utilizing a device connected to the client’s body with a strap. The gadget records a number of lots ECG and high blood pressure records. The technique permits you to catch infractions that cannot be tape-recorded on a cardiograph even for a number of sessions.

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In some centers, an electrophysiological research study is utilized when an intravenous catheter is placed. The minimally intrusive treatment steps electrical impulses in various chambers of the heart. However, the primary kind of diagnostics stays an available and basic electrocardiographic technique.

Medication

Arrhythmia can be dealt with conservatively. For this, groups of drugs with antiarrhythmic action are utilized:

  • calcium channel blockers – Verapamil, Diltiazem decrease the automatism of the sinus and AV nodes,
  • β-blockers – Pindolol, Atenolol, Metaprolol, Bisoprolol tablets decrease the heart rate,
  • potassium channel blockers – Bretilium, Sotogeksal, Cordaron, Dronedaron stabilize the heart beat,
  • blockers of salt channels – Novocainamide, Lidocaine decrease heart output and myocardial contractile function,
  • drugs consisting of magnesium and potassium, heart glycosides, which assist to lower the heart beat.

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In emergency situation cases, with the advancement of bradycardia with loss of awareness, injections of services of Atropine, Dopamine, Adrenaline are utilized. To alleviate an attack of ventricular tachycardia, Cordaron, Lidocaine are administered intravenously. Attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia and atrial fibrillation are eliminated by intravenous administration of Verapamil or ATP.

Surgical techniques

Although the primary treatment for arrhythmia is medication, sometimes, surgical treatments are utilized:

  • Placement of a pacemaker (pacemaker) under the skin in the left subclavian area. A little motor can turn a heart into a continuous movement device. From it to the heart through the vessels, electrodes are approached, which enforce a set rhythm. The pacemaker is set up with bundle branch block, bradyarrhythmias listed below 40 beats per minute, weak point of the atrioventricular node, 2–3 degree AV block. EKS alleviates arrhythmia permanently.
  • Radio frequency ambulation. The pathological impulse of the broken location is obstructed by the catheter by cauterization. Thus, the typical rhythm is brought back.
  • Implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator.

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Before setting up the pacemaker, a research study of the vessels of the heart and the blood circulation of its cavities is needed. Artificial implants not just enforce a rhythm, however likewise obstruct the emerging pathological foci of arrhythmia.

Folk methods

Folk treatments can soothe the heart beat.

For this, organic collections are utilized:

  • Infusion of calendula flowers. For its preparation 2 tsp. dry herbs are put with 2 cups of boiled water, firmly insisted over night. Consume 1 dec. l. 4 times a day.
  • Mix alcoholic casts of hawthorn, valerian and motherwort. You can consume the ready mix for 1 tsp. half an hour prior to meals.
  • Infusion of lumbago is ready for 12 hours from 2 tsp. dry herbs and 300 ml of cold water. The mix is taken after straining, 1/3 cup half an hour prior to meals, two times a day.
  • Hawthorn is likewise utilized for preparation. To do this, put 30 crushed berries with water, boil for 10 minutes. After straining, utilize for taking 1/3 cup prior to meals.

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Folk treatments cannot individually treat arrhythmia, however in complex treatment they assist alleviate stress – the reason for neurocirculatory dystonia.

How to assistance yourself with arrhythmias

With an abrupt beginning of paroxysmal tachycardia, medical emergency treatment methods assist:

  • Take a deep breath and hold your breath. After counting to 7 or 9, breathe out.
  • Artificial induction of throwing up alleviates the attack, however it must not be utilized for a cardiac arrest.
  • Pressing on the eyeballs for a number of seconds.

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These techniques trigger a reflex result on the vagus nerve. If, after a couple of dosages, the attack of arrhythmia of the heart passes, call emergency situation assistance.

Interruptions in the work of the heart cannot be overlooked. If the arrhythmia typically repeats, accompanied by a degeneration in basic health, it is essential to seek advice from a cardiologist. Arrhythmia with fainting is particularly harmful.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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