- Severe pain behind the sternum. A very unpleasant feeling arises unexpectedly, paroxysmally, while pain can “give” between the shoulder blades, to the left shoulder, arm, and part of the neck. It lasts from thirty minutes to two hours.
- Pallor and profuse sweat. A person with a myocardial infarction quickly turns pale, a cold, sticky sweat appears throughout his body.
- Fainting and borderline conditions. Almost always, especially in the first phase of an attack, a person can faint several times. Less often, he has an unreasonable sense of fear, sometimes unclear hallucinations of a sound and visual nature.
- Arrhythmia and heart failure. Almost half of the patients who survived myocardial infarction had vivid signs of heart failure, from shortness of breath and unproductive cough to atrial fibrillation and short-term sudden cardiac arrest.
- Low efficiency of nitroglycerin. A person does not feel significant relief after taking nitroglycerin – drugs of this group, which expand blood vessels, can only be used as an additional tool, along with prescription narcotic analgesics, and only under certain conditions.
Myocardial infarction is easily confused with other diseases, for example:
- Gastritis with abdominal pain, bloating, weakness, low blood pressure, tachycardia. An electrocardiogram will help clarify.
- Asthma, in which a person begins to suffocate. He is given breathing a >
Signs of myocardial infarction in women are slightly different from a male attack. Pain during a heart attack in women is localized in the upper abdomen, jaw, back, neck.
The attack strongly resembles heartburn. In most cases, a woman first appears weakness and nausea, and only then pain. Such symptoms are often ignored by a woman, which often leads to death. Therefore, it is better in such cases to call an emergency in order to save life.
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- In men
- In men
- How to recognize myocardial infarction
- Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction
- In men
- In men
- In men
- Treatment in the clinic
- Importance of Emergency Therapy
- Post First Aid Actions
- Potential risks
- Before the ambulance arrives
- First aid for a heart attack at home
- First aid for complications of myocardial infarction
- Preventive measures
- Nutrition of a patient with myocardial infarction
Unlike the female half, in men the symptoms of myocardial infarction are as follows:
- chest pain;
- frequent breathing with interruptions;
- heart palpitations without a clear rhythm;
- weakness of the pulse;
- loss of consciousness, fainting;
- cold, clammy sweat;
- nausea, vomiting;
- pallor of the skin of the face.
Myocardial infarction with atypical symptoms can cause difficulty for the doctor to make a diagnosis. It is especially dangerous for human life when the manifestation of a heart attack is accompanied by a wide variety of variants of various diseases. Such cases are unfavorable and usually end with the death of the patient.
Next, we will talk about what to do with a heart attack (first aid at home).
The following symptoms signal the onset of an attack of myocardial infarction:
- sudden or paroxysmal severe pain behind the sternum, lasting more than half an hour (up to 2 hours);
- pain is burning, tearing, dagger in nature, usually occurs after physical exertion (sometimes immediately after sleep) and does not become less pronounced even after a state of rest;
- the pain is not eliminated (as with an attack of angina pectoris) by taking Nitroglycerin and after taking the pill (and even a repeated dose), a person can feel only a slight decrease in pain;
- severe weakness (up to a pre- or fainting state);
- pain is given to the left (sometimes to the right) arm, neck, interscapular region, teeth, scapula, lower jaw;
- sharp pallor;
- the appearance of cold and clammy sweat on the skin;
- severe anxiety and fear of death.
Approximately half of patients with myocardial infarction show signs of heart failure: shortness of breath, shortness of breath, unproductive cough, arrhythmic pulse, atrial fibrillation, sudden short-term cardiac arrest.
Myocardial infarction is the death of a portion of the myocardium, which occurs as a result of complete or partial cessation of blood supply to a certain area of the heart muscle. The main symptoms of this disease should be known to every adult, since it is very important to respond in time and help the patient. So, the following symptoms indicate an acute heart attack:
- The appearance of intense pain behind the sternum, in the left half of the chest, left arm, left shoulder blade, left half of the neck and lower jaw. These painful sensations have certain features: they can occur during exertion, and in complete peace of mind; last dozens of minutes; poorly removed by nitroglycerin; have a wave-like character (it intensifies, then decreases).
- Anxiety and fear of death. The patient may rush about the room and not find a place for himself.
- Severe weakness. Sometimes this symptom comes first if the heart attack develops without intense pain. This happens rarely and mainly in patients with diabetes.
- Cold sweat, pallor.
Signs of a heart attack can be atypical and resemble an asthmatic attack or acute pancreatitis, in which there is intense abdominal pain, vomiting, flatulence. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate all the described symptoms in a complex, always taking into account the presence of heart attacks in the patient in the past. If you become a stranger, you should definitely find out if he has heart problems.
How to recognize myocardial infarction
Symptoms of a future attack are unambiguous and can identify the problem in 70% of all cases.
Table number 1. Harbingers of the onset of an attack
|Appears sharply and unexpectedly, can “give” to the back, shoulder or arm, and sometimes even to the neck. It can last from half an hour to two hours.|
|With a heart attack, a person suddenly turns pale, the whole body is covered with sticky cold sweat.|
|In almost all cases, during attacks, people lose consciousness. Sometimes a feeling of fear, visual or auditory hallucinations may appear.|
|Approximately 50% of people who survived a heart attack had obvious symptoms of insufficiency: from dry cough and shortness of breath to sudden cardiac arrest.|
If a person has one or more of the above symptoms, then he should immediately receive first aid.
|Symptom||Short description||Appears sharply and unexpectedly, can “give” to the back, shoulder or arm, and sometimes even to the neck. It can last from half an hour to two hours.|
|With a heart attack, a person suddenly turns pale, the whole body is covered with sticky cold sweat.|
|In almost all cases, during attacks, people lose consciousness. Sometimes a feeling of fear, visual or auditory hallucinations may appear.|
|Approximately 50% of people who survived a heart attack had obvious symptoms of insufficiency: from dry cough and shortness of breath to sudden cardiac arrest.|
Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction
In order for first aid for myocardial infarction to be provided in a timely manner, it is imperative to know the symptoms that precede cardiac arrest due to oxygen starvation and the death of its cells. You need to understand that here time goes by minutes and seconds, therefore, the sooner the patient receives effective help, the more chances there are to save a person’s life.
How to understand that a person had a myocardial infarction? This question worries many, because this pathology can ruin even a young man, and strangers will not even suspect that he has heart disease.
We are used to thinking that coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and similar pathologies of the cardiovascular system are senile diseases that young people should not worry about. This is fundamentally wrong. Therefore, if the symptoms described below are observed in young people and middle-aged patients, it is necessary not to come up with a logical reason, but to urgently provide emergency care before the doctors arrive.
So, what are the symptoms that may indicate an acute myocardial infarction, requiring the adoption of urgent measures to save the patient’s life:
- Severe heart compressive pain behind the sternum, which lasts more than 15 minutes (sometimes even for 2 hours). With myocardial infarction, pain is felt not only in the region of the heart, it is typical for it to be given to the interscapular region, in the neck, shoulder or arm on the left side, which is a bit confusing for a person who is not knowledgeable about medical issues.
This mandatory symptom of myocardial infarction, however, is also characteristic of such a pathology as angina pectoris. A distinctive feature of heart attack pain is that it cannot be completely stopped with the help of a strong cardiac analgesic that enhances blood circulation, which is considered nitroglycerin, which helps with acute pain in the heart.
Nitroglycerin can only reduce pain, which will alleviate the patient’s condition, so you should not completely refuse to take it.
- Pallor of the skin. You may notice that the face and other exposed parts of the human body during an infarction acquire an unhealthy whitish or yellowish tint. This is understandable, because we are talking about a violation of the blood supply not only to the heart muscle, but also to the whole organism. Therefore, such a symptom must necessarily alert people from the side. At the same time, such phenomena as dizziness, chills, difficulty breathing, especially with inhalation, and nausea can be observed.
- Hyperhidrosis. During an attack of myocardial infarction, cold sweat appears in the forehead, face and back of the patient, which against the background of increased pallor may indicate the possibility of fainting. In many cases, this is what happens. The patient may lose consciousness several times for a short time and recover, so it will be quite difficult to communicate with him.
- Quite often, patients with myocardial infarction begin to experience a sudden fear of death, begin to panic, showing physical activity inadequate to the situation. Some of them even have auditory and visual hallucinations. A person can carry nonsense, try to get up and run somewhere, it is difficult to keep it in place, which is vital in such a situation.
- In more than half of patients with myocardial infarction, obvious symptoms of arrhythmia and heart failure can be observed: shortness of breath, shortness of breath, cough without sputum production (heart cough), heart rhythm disturbance detected by palpation of the pulse. Blood pressure is not indicative of myocardial infarction: in some patients there is an increased blood pressure, in others – severe hypotension.
- Some patients may complain of rather strange pain symptoms. Some talk about incomprehensible pain in the fingers, others complain of sudden pain in the teeth and jaw, while others complain of pain in the abdomen.
All of the above symptoms are the first clear signs of a heart attack, which indicate necrotic changes within the patient’s body. First aid for the first signs of a heart attack consists not only in calling an ambulance, but also in taking care of the patient until the arrival of the ambulance.
Of particular danger are atypical forms of myocardial infarction, the symptoms of which are largely reminiscent of other pathologies that do not indicate no heart problems. For example, for an abdominal (gastralgic) form of heart attack, symptoms of gastrointestinal upset are characteristic. In such patients, complaints are reduced mainly to weakness, nausea, often accompanied by vomiting, severe pain in the epigastric region, bloating, and digestive disorders. In parallel with these symptoms, a drop in blood pressure and signs of tachocardia can be diagnosed.
Symptoms of an asthmatic form are generally similar to an attack of bronchial asthma. Patients may complain of shortness of breath, sudden onset of severe shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air. They become restless and look for a position of the body in which it will be easier to breathe. At the same time, the patient’s respiratory rate is 2-2,5 times higher than normal.
There are no severe heart pains with this form, so the idea of a heart attack arises mainly only when medications that make breathing easier do not give an effect. The danger of this condition is that in the absence of medical care, congestion in the lungs is observed, which causes swelling of the organ, which is no less dangerous than myocardial infarction itself.
A rather rare, but most insidious state is considered to be a painless (mute) form of a known pathology. With this form, there is not even a mandatory specific symptom – pain. Patients can talk about incomprehensible severe weakness, decreased performance, intolerance to physical activity, deterioration in general condition, which was not previously felt.
An atypical variant of myocardial infarction can also be called angina pectoris, the symptoms of which are detected in 1 out of 10 patients who are diagnosed with a heart attack. Often the only manifestation of this disease is pain behind the sternum from the area of the heart that occurs during walking and active movements.
It is clear that it is difficult for a layman to diagnose myocardial infarction by the symptoms that are unusual for this disease. The only thing that can be done in such a situation, if it still does not seem critical, is to create peace for the patient and seek help from doctors by calling an ambulance.
A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs as a result of an acute violation of the blood supply to the heart muscle. This happens because an atherosclerotic plaque clogs some of the arteries. There is a cessation of blood supply and necrosis of the heart tissue begins. The process develops in 20-30 minutes. If such a stage occurs, and the person is not provided with assistance, this can lead to death.
Most often, a heart attack occurs in people suffering from organic lesions and heart diseases, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors worsen with age. Symptoms of the condition are somewhat different in men and women.
Symptoms of a heart attack can be both typical and atypical when the acute condition is confused with asthma, angina pectoris, and stroke. The correct diagnosis should be established by the doctor. Typical manifestations of a heart attack in men include:
- severe weakness;
- heart palpitations with signs of arrhythmia;
- chest pain that can give to the left shoulder, collarbone, scapula;
- rap >
Even if there are 2-3 signs of a heart attack, urgent medical attention is needed.
In women, the signs of a heart attack are somewhat different, so they are often confused with atypical ones and do not pay due attention. This can lead to death over time.
Female heart attack is characterized by the fact that pain and discomfort are localized mainly in the upper body (jaw, neck, shoulders and upper back). Often the pain occurs in the epigastric region and is accompanied by sensations similar to severe heartburn. The condition is aggravated by weakness, sweating, pressure may drop, if before that it was normal or increased. If you seek help in time, you can prevent the development of a heart attack and its consequences.
Cardiologists call this time the “therapeutic window.” This is the period of time when irreversible processes in the heart muscle have not yet begun. Now, the main thing is to recognize the symptoms of the disease in time, and also call an ambulance.
To be able to properly provide first aid for myocardial infarction, it is necessary, first of all, to suspect this disease. Signs of this heart disease:
- intense pain in the region of the heart or directly behind the sternum, which often appears at rest, at night, in the early morning;
- pain can be given to the arm, shoulder blade or neck;
- the patient feels acute and baking pain;
- prolonged pain. If with angina pectoris, chest pain lasts about 5 minutes, then with a heart attack it can be 10, 20, 30 minutes or more;
- the undulating nature of the pain – a period of subsidence, re-activation;
- a hallmark of myocardial infarction – when the drug “Nitroglycerin” does not relieve pain;
- pain with a heart attack is often accompanied by vegetative manifestations – a sense of anxiety, fear of death, fluctuations in heart rate, blood pressure;
- with a heart attack, shortness of breath appears sharply;
- shortness of breath is felt both on inhalation and on exhalation.
There are so-called painless forms of heart attack. They are usually found in people with diabetes.
Treatment in the clinic
Treatment of acute myocardial infarction is carried out in a hospital under the supervision of medical staff. In this case, both medical methods and non-drug therapy are used.
As emergency medical care for acute myocardial infarction, use:
- “Nitroglycerin” in the form of tablets, capsules or solution for intravenous administration,
- thrombolytics (Streptokinase, Urokinase, Alteplase),
- anticoagulants (Aspirin, Heparin),
- beta-blockers (“Metoprolol”, “Atenopol”,
- antiarrhythmic drugs (mainly Lidocaine),
- analgesics (“Morphine” plus the antipsychotic “Droperidol”, “Promedol”),
- ACE inhibitors (Captopril, Lisinopril, Ramipril).
- calcium antagonists (“Diltiazem”, “Verapamil),
- magnesium preparations (if necessary).
In severe cases, when it is not medically possible to expand the vessels and restore blood flow, they resort to translucent transdermal coronary angioplasty. In case of extensive heart attacks, surgical treatment with coronary artery bypass grafting, intracoronary stenting, transluminal balloon angioplasty, etc. is indicated.
Treatment of myocardial infarction and prevention of its repeated options involves diet, lifestyle changes, moderate physical activity (first under the supervision of a doctor).
The use of all of the above treatment methods allows 80% of patients to return to normal life after a while, however, it does not eliminate the subsequent use of drugs that will last the rest of their lives.
If the patient was hospitalized for 1-2 days, then doctors prescribe an Aktilize injection. This drug reduces mortality in the first month after the onset of an attack. Emergency medical care involves an electrocardiogram. Based on the data and the clinical picture, doctors evaluate the patient’s condition and take appropriate measures.
With heart attacks, bloodless surgery is considered effective:
- coronary stenting.
Surgery is aimed at the mechanical restoration of impaired blood flow. An important role in the treatment is played by nursing care. The algorithm for the actions of a nurse in case of a heart attack is regulated by the protocols for the provision of emergency services and the rules for patient care. The nurse eliminates physical and psycho-emotional factors, prescribes nitroglycerin and acetylsalicylic acid. In addition, the nurse can carry out oxygen therapy, and if possible, record ECG data.
Emergency medical care for myocardial infarction begins with the relief of acute pain. For this, various analgesics (Analgin) and drugs (Promedol, Morphine, Omnopon) can be used in combination with Atropine and antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, Pipolfen, etc.). For the onset of a faster effect, painkillers are administered intravenously. Also, Seduxen or Relanium is used to eliminate the patient’s excitement.
Then, to assess the severity of a heart attack, an electrocardiogram is performed on the patient. If hospitalization is possible within half an hour, then the patient is immediately transported to a medical institution. If it is impossible to deliver the patient to the hospital for 30 minutes, thrombolytics (Alteplaza, Purolaza, Tenecteplase) are administered to restore coronary blood flow.
A stretcher is used to transfer the patient to the ambulance, and during transportation to the intensive care unit, humidified oxygen is inhaled. All these measures are aimed at reducing the load on the heart muscle and preventing complications.
After arriving at the intensive care unit to eliminate a pain attack and excitement, the patient is administered neuroleptanalgesia with Talamonal or a mixture of Fentanyl and Droperidol. In case of a prolonged religious attack, the patient may be inhaled anesthetized with a gaseous mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen.
Next, the following drugs are prescribed to the patient:
- Nitroglycerin, Isosorbide dinitrate, Isoket – in the acute period of myocardial infarction, these drugs are used to reduce myocardial oxygen demand, first they are administered intravenously, and after stabilization of the patient’s condition, they are administered orally and sublingually.
- Beta-blockers (Anaprilin, Inderal, Obzidan, Propranolol) – help to reduce heart rate and reduce the load on the heart.
- Antiplatelet agents (Aspirin) – thin the blood and prevent the development of a new heart attack.
- Anticoagulants (Heparin) – used to prevent re-infarction and reduce blood coagulation.
- ACE inhibitors (Ramipril, Captopril, Enalapril, etc.) – are used to reduce blood pressure and reduce the load on the heart.
- Sedative and sleeping pills (Diazepam, Oxazepam, Triazolam, Temazepam, etc.) – are used if necessary to limit the patient’s activity and sleep disorders.
- Antiarrhythmic drugs (Novocainamide, Rhythmylene, Lidocaine, Difenin, Amiodarone, etc.) – are used for heart rhythm disturbances to stabilize cardiac activity and reduce the load on the myocardium.
Other pharmacological preparations can also be used to treat myocardial infarction, because the tactics of drug treatment of a patient depend on the general condition of the patient and the presence of other pathologies (diseases of the kidneys, blood vessels, liver, etc.).
Also, for the treatment of myocardial infarction, modern medicine uses various instrumental highly effective methods for restoring coronary blood flow:
- balloon angioplasty;
- coronary artery bypass grafting.
Such surgical techniques allow patients with severe forms of myocardial infarction to avoid serious complications and prevent a high risk of mortality from this cardiac pathology.
Importance of Emergency Therapy
Adequate emergency care for a heart attack is so important that its value can hardly be overestimated. The sooner a person receives help, the more chances are that he will survive. Despite the fact that in the field it is difficult to diagnose the condition of the patient, everyone is able to help the victim survive until the ambulance arrives.
With a heart attack, part of the myocardium dies. This is due to the fact that the blood supply to the heart is disturbed, and the arteries become clogged. The heart does not receive the necessary amount of oxygen. These changes lead to irreversible consequences. A person feels severe pressing and burning chest pain on the left side.
Heart pain, shortness of breath and cold sweat – a heart attack clinic. Timely rendered therapy avoids death. How to provide first aid for a heart attack? Pre-treatment therapy is based on the characteristics of the course of the attack and requires a person who is next to the patient to have simple knowledge of the pathology.
First aid for myocardial infarction saves the patient’s life. Successful overcoming of an attack directly depends on the speed and correctness of the therapy given. A slight delay may lead to the development of:
- pulmonary stagnation;
- cardiac asthma.
Pre-treatment therapy should be carried out in a certain sequence. A person with a suspected heart attack should remain calm, so you need to pull yourself together and not panic. If you suspect a heart attack, you must call the first aid team with possible further hospitalization.
Post First Aid Actions
- Set the person on a chair with a back or in a reclining state so that the upper body is located as high as possible – in this way, the load on the heart will be reduced.
- Calm the patient emotionally or with the help of Valocordin, in order to reduce the heart rate.
- Unfasten too tight and tight clothes, loosen all the knots, tie, scarf, especially if signs of imminent suffocation began to appear.
- Be sure to check your blood pressure and heart rate – if they are normal, then nitroglycerin/aminophylline can be given (with a sharp decrease, this procedure can lead to cardiac arrest).
- Several aspirin tablets actively dilute blood – give them without fail (if a person has no allergies) with a maximum dose of up to 300 milligrams. A faster effect of the drug is given by chewing it in the oral cavity.
- Has your heart stopped? Is breathing agonal or absent? Does a person not regain consciousness for a long time? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be started immediately. In the absence of a defibrillator, perform artificial respiration, indirect heart massage or, in an emergency, a precardial short, strong punch to the sternum. The basic scheme is 15 strokes, two inspirations/exits, one start-up, all this for a maximum of 10 minutes.
First aid for myocardial infarction can save a person from further complications, and in some cases – save a life! Timely and adequate actions taken in the first 30 minutes after the onset of an attack significantly increase the chance of a positive outcome for general treatment, as well as reduce the risks of irreversible changes in the cardiovascular system.
The above condition can lead to a number of complications, moreover, both in the early stages of development and progression of myocardial infarction, and after its treatment in the hospital.
- Primary – shock, pulmonary edema, ventricular fibrillation, pericarditis, hypotension of various etiologies, myocardial rupture.
- Secondary – heart aneurysms, thromboembolic complications, chronic heart failure, Dressler’s syndrome.
There is a clear sequence of necessary actions to be followed. The first step should be a call to the hospital to call a doctor (preferably a cardiologist).
At the same time, it is important that as little time as possible passes from the moment the attack is detected to the doctor’s manipulations, so it is advisable that someone close to you meet the brigade. If help is provided correctly, it may save a person’s life.
Nitroglycerin copes well with the elimination of pain, a tablet of which must be placed under the tongue so that the agent quickly enters the bloodstream. Arteries are located under the tongue, through which the active substances penetrate the circulatory system almost instantly and enter their destination. For this reason, the pain stops quickly enough.
Sometimes only a stopped heart indicates an attack: there is no breathing and pulse, the patient loses consciousness. In such cases, resuscitation measures must be taken as early as possible, even before the arrival of the ambulance. To start the heart, a precardial beat should be performed (a sharp and strong blow to the chest area).
If this does not produce any results, then you need to resort to an indirect heart massage.
The scheme of this procedure is as follows:
- thirty clicks on the chest (possible at random intervals, but about a hundred clicks per minute);
- ventilation of the lungs (“mouth to mouth”).
Both stages are performed alternately. The patient’s head should be thrown back slightly, while the body should lie on some solid surface. If signs of life do not appear, then resuscitation should be carried out before the arrival of doctors.
If cardiac asthma developed during an attack, then the person looks scattered and restless, is forced to sit down and relies on something to enhance respiratory movements.
Suddenly, the respiratory rate rises (up to 45-50 per minute), the face looks exhausted, the skin turns pale, the lips turn blue, sweat appears on the body. In the absence of timely assistance, pulmonary congestion will continue to develop, and asthma will develop into pulmonary edema. The patient will breathe noisily and hoarsely, cough (red sputum will be released during coughing). This is an extremely serious complication that must be avoided.
As we see, the symptoms of a typical myocardial infarction are many, so that it is possible to more or less accurately diagnose the pathology before the arrival of the doctors and provide first aid to the patient. It is clear that, first of all, you need to take care to call an ambulance or help the patient get to the hospital as soon as possible by stopping a passing vehicle.
When calling an ambulance, you must definitely clarify that there are all suspicions of myocardial infarction. In this case, a special team from cardiology or a resuscitation team usually leaves. If the patient is on the street, you need to indicate his exact location and wait for the car with the patient.
However, we recall that with a deadly pathology, which is myocardial infarction, time does not go by hours, but by minutes and seconds, which means that a patient may not wait for a car without our help. It is urgent to take all measures to save a person’s life that are available to anyone.
First you need to give a person a comfortable position. It should be conveniently seated or laid on the back, placing something under the head so that the upper part of the body rises noticeably above the lower. The head should be thrown back a little, and the legs should be raised and bent at the knees. It is desirable that the surface on which the patient will lie was smooth and solid. This position of a patient with myocardial infarction reduces the load on the heart and allows you to win valuable time.
As already mentioned, a specific symptom of myocardial infarction is the fear of death, which causes incredible anxiety in patients, which is why it is difficult to lay them down and make them stay in this position until the ambulance arrives. To cope with excessive anxiety, it is recommended to reassure the patient with words or give him a sedative.
Since frequent symptoms of myocardial infarction are shortness of breath due to oxygen starvation, measures must be taken to facilitate the access of oxygen to the patient. If a crowd of curious people has gathered, you need to make her part. And in the event that a person’s heart attack occurred in the room, it is necessary to turn on the air conditioner or fan, open the windows wide and not impede the access of air to the patient’s bed.
You must try to free the patient’s neck and chest from compressing clothes by unbuttoning the buttons or untying the laces on the clothes.
Nitroglycerin can be used to dilate blood vessels and relieve severe pain, which even in itself sometimes causes premature death. The tablet must be placed under the patient’s tongue, holding the lower jaw if necessary, so that the medicine does not fall out of the mouth.
But we should not rely solely on Nitroglycerin and analgesics in case of myocardial infarction. In addition, it is recommended to give the patient “Acetylsalicylic acid” (a little more than half the tablet) or a tablet of 325 g “Aspirin”. This drug is a blood thinner and promotes easier movement of blood through the vessels, preventing thrombosis.
With the help of “Nitroglycerin” and “Aspirin” in most cases, it is possible to slightly improve blood circulation and slow down the process of necrotization of heart tissue. However, the patient will still need the help of a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon.
If the process develops too quickly and the measures taken do not give the expected result, you need to carefully monitor the patient’s condition before the ambulance arrives, checking the pulse, breathing, and heartbeat. If possible, blood pressure should also be checked, which drops markedly when the heart is weakened.
If a person faints, his pulse becomes weak and intermittent, like breathing, and his heartbeat is not heard, there is a high probability that, despite all the efforts, the patient’s heart stopped. This is the most crucial moment during first aid for myocardial infarction. Here, in no case should one get lost, panic or fall into a stupor, because a person’s life is now hanging by a thread.
The first thing to do is to perform a pericardial stroke. This procedure, despite the apparent cruelty and the possibility of causing injury in the form of a fracture of the ribs, in many cases helps to start the heart and save a person’s life. The blow is applied once to the sternum closer to the heart. You need to beat with your fist quickly and quite hard.
If such a procedure has not brought effect, it is time to start artificial respiration and perform indirect heart massage. Usually, these manipulations are taught to children from school and student days, but information without practice is quickly forgotten, and not everyone in a state of excitement is able to quickly navigate and carry out the necessary manipulations, which in fact are not particularly difficult.
Indications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation are the absence of 2 out of 3 vital indicators: respiration, pulse, consciousness. In the absence of all 3 signs of life, biological death occurs, and resuscitation is meaningless.
To perform an indirect heart massage, the hands are brought together, fingers crossed, and palms begin to be applied rhythmically and quickly with pressure to the patient’s chest in the area between the mammary glands. The frequency of pressure is approximately 2 times per second. Hands during massage from the chest should not be torn off to prevent a shift to the side.
Before the ambulance arrives
First aid for a heart attack at home
Let’s talk about situations when a heart attack finds a person at home. It’s good if caring friends or relatives who are calling “ambulance” appear nearby, meet her, give medicine and carry out all the necessary manipulations to save the person they love. Alas, this does not always happen. An elderly person may be lonely, which means there is usually no one to help him. And there are situations that at the right time, none of the relatives is simply at home, and the patient has to rely only on himself.
Of course, you can always turn to neighbors for help, but where is the guarantee that they will be in place. It is most reliable to learn to rely not on someone, but on yourself.
If a heart attack found you alone at home, the main thing is to try not to panic. Immediately you need to call the ambulance (and if possible call your relatives) at your address, making sure that the ambulance doctors can enter the room even if you lose consciousness and cannot open the door.
Next, you need to open the windows and or use the air conditioning, loosen the collar of clothes, drink the necessary medicines, which we wrote about in the previous paragraph. After this, it is most reasonable to lie on an elastic surface with a pillow or a twisted blanket under your head, throw your head back and wait for the doctors to arrive. Active movements in this state can only do harm.
As for the first-aid kit, it should always have a supply of necessary medicines: heart preparations, analgesics, sedatives, etc. In addition, the first-aid kit itself should be in a place from where it can easily be obtained if necessary.
During walks on the street, trips to work and back, shopping and other establishments, it is advisable to carry the most necessary medicines needed for first aid to yourself, relatives or even strangers (in your bag, in your pocket, in a cosmetic bag, etc.) .d.). They won’t take up much space, but they can very well save lives and health.
What to do with a heart attack? The algorithm of pre-treatment therapy is to perform simple actions. First aid for a heart attack at home prevents the development of complications, and in some cases saves life! If actions were performed in the first 20-30 minutes, then the chances of a positive outcome increase. First aid before the ambulance arrives is as follows:
- Lay the person on the bed.
- Give him a drink of nitroglycerin and aspirin.
- Measure your blood pressure.
First aid for acute heart attack consists in taking aspirin. It dilutes the blood and prevents blood clots in the vessels. A quick effect occurs if you chew an aspirin tablet. In the presence of an allergic reaction, aspirin is prohibited. If the patient experiences heartburn, then let him take a gastrointestinal drug or soda solution.
A person with an acute form of the disease is forbidden to give laxatives. Taking a laxative can cause the so-called “rupture” of the heart. It is especially dangerous to take a laxative to people suffering from constipation. It is also strictly forbidden for a patient with acute myocardial infarction to apply a heating pad to the chest.
First aid for complications of myocardial infarction
Type of complications of myocardial infarction
In the first hours or days (in the first 3-4 days) after an acute attack
- rhythm and conduction disturbances (90%), up to ventricular fibrillation and complete AV block;
- sudden cardiac arrest;
- internal, external, simultaneous or slow-flowing heart ruptures;
- mitral regurgitation;
- acute insufficiency of the pumping function of the organ;
- early epistenocardial pericarditis.
Occur against the background of the expansion of the patient’s motor activity 14 to 21 days after an acute attack
- Dressler’s post-infarction syndrome;
- chronic heart failure;
- parietal thromboendocarditis;
- front chest wall syndrome or shoulder syndrome.
|occur in almost 90% of patients and are manifested by different types of arrhythmias.|
The most serious complications of myocardial infarction include:
- recurrent or prolonged course;
- pulmonary edema;
- reactive or true cardiogenic shock;
- clinical death;
- acute right ventricular failure;
- atrioventricular block in any localization of the necrosis zone;
- acute aneurysm of the heart;
- thrombosis and thromboembolism in different organs;
- circulatory failure II B and III degree;
- ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia;
- gastrointestinal bleeding;
- a combination of two or more complications.
In the absence of breathing, pulse on the vessels of the neck and graying of the skin, it is necessary to call emergency medical care, if this has not been done before, and immediately begin resuscitation. In accordance with the new recommendations of the American Association of Cardiology, they should be carried out in the following sequence:
- Indirect cardiac massage. Lay the patient on a flat and hard surface (floor, asphalt, etc.). Place the base of one palm in the place where the ribs converge on the chest, put the second palm on top and perform rhythmic pressure on the body weight. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the sternum drops deep enough (preferably 5 cm). Such movements should be performed 100 per minute. After 30 pressures, you should switch to artificial respiration.
- Artificial respiration. All measures must be done promptly: the patient tilts his head back, extends his jaw, opens his mouth and closes his nose, then completely embrace the patient’s lips with his lips and blow air into his mouth (preferably with a handkerchief, mask to protect against infections). In this case, the chest of the resuscitated should rise. There are 2 such artificial breaths, and then return to heart massage.
- Resuscitation should be continued until the doctors arrive, without decreasing the rhythm and observing the ratio of pressure on the sternum and breaths – 30 to 2.
The criteria for the effectiveness of the described measures is to improve the patient’s skin color, the appearance of spontaneous breaths, pulse. You can stop resuscitation only when a person begins to breathe on his own.
Resuscitators also recommend that if it is impossible to carry out artificial respiration (lack of skills and protective items such as a headscarf, mask), do only a rhythmically and intensively artificial heart massage before the arrival of the medical team. It is worth noting that the first aid provided for a heart attack correctly and without delay, especially cardiopulmonary resuscitation, can significantly increase the patient’s chances of survival.
The main negative factors causing relapses of the problem are high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and high blood coagulation. The main prevention in these cases is a carefully selected comprehensive drug therapy that prevents the appearance of fatty plaques, adds the necessary enzymes to the body, normalizes blood pressure, etc. At the same time, it is strictly forbidden to change the dosage or introduce new drugs without the consent of the attending physician!
Most often, the following scheme is assigned:
- Antithrombotic therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin.
- Reception of beta-blockers (carvedilol, bisopropol) and statins.
- Eating omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins.
- Therapy with non-fractional heparin and ACE inhibitors.
In addition to drugs, an important role in prevention is played by a diet with a minimum of salt, semi-finished products, sausages, sausages and other products containing both cholesterol and milk fat (cheese, cottage cheese, butter, sour cream, milk). In addition, you will have to give up smoking and alcohol – an exception is made only for a glass of red wine.
As a supplement, the doctor prescribes physical therapy and moderate exercise in the form of cycling, dancing and swimming, as well as daily walking – all in moderation and no more than 40 minutes several times a week.
The first heart attack in all cases appears unexpectedly. As for prevention, it in this case consists in preventing repeated attacks and controlling the body.
The main negative factors that trigger relapse include:
- high blood pressure;
- increased blood clotting;
- violation of carbohydrate metabolism.
The essence of prevention in such cases is the competently developed comprehensive drug therapy aimed at providing the body with the necessary enzymes, preventing the formation of fatty plaques, normalizing blood pressure and so on. The dosage should be determined by the doctor, and independently change it, as well as introduce new drugs, is strictly prohibited.
As a rule, in general terms, the scheme looks like this:
aspirin and clop >
But not only drugs are important, but also a special diet, which provides for a minimum amount of salt, sausages, sausages, convenience foods, milk, sour cream, butter and other products that contain milk fat and cholesterol. You should also abandon alcohol (except a glass of red wine) and cigarettes.
In addition, physiotherapy exercises can be prescribed, as well as other loads (walking, cycling, swimming – no longer than forty minutes, no more than several times a week).
Everything in our life happens for the first time. If these are pleasant moments, we long for their repetition, and if they are painful, we want to forget about them forever. Those who survive a heart attack, of course, will not want to go through the pain again. But where it’s subtle, it breaks, so if you do not follow the caution, you can incite a repeated heart attack (and not even one).
Judging by the high mortality of myocardial infarction, this condition is easier to prevent than to treat. First you need to reconsider your lifestyle and diet. Quitting bad habits, physical activity, walking in the fresh air, weight control and limiting the use of foods high in bad cholesterol have already helped many people prevent the development of cardiovascular pathologies, among which it is worth highlighting atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, which are becoming the most common causes of myocardial infarction.
If problems with the heart could not be avoided, you must strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations for their treatment. The doctor prescribes drugs from the group of statins that prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels, it is not necessary to ignore this appointment just because these drugs are not cardiac. If the patient has high blood pressure, it is necessary to take drugs that contribute to its reduction (ACE inhibitors).
It is necessary to fight with increased blood viscosity, taking anticoagulants and thrombolytics that prevent the formation of blood clots inside the vessels. If there is an increased heartbeat and nervousness, beta-blockers will help. Well, of course, do not forget about the diet.
All of the above measures will help prevent repeated myocardial infarctions, which usually occur much harder than the first.
First aid for myocardial infarction is urgent measures that help save the life and health of a sick person. But if you take care of your health in time and take preventive measures, such help may never be needed. And we can only wish our readers health and longevity.
According to the observations of cardiologists, the first heart attack occurs unexpectedly! That is why the prevention of this health and life-threatening condition should be aimed at preventing the occurrence of heart and vascular diseases and repeated angina attacks.
The main causes of myocardial necrosis are the following factors:
- arterial hypertension;
- blood clotting;
- disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
In connection with the above risk factors, the prevention of myocardial infarction consists in the appointment of complex drug therapy and diets aimed at preventing atherosclerotic deposits in the lumen of the arteries and lowering blood pressure.
The choice of drugs in such cases, their dosage and duration of administration is always determined only by the doctor, who is guided by the data of laboratory and instrumental studies!
Typically, the following drugs are included in a preventive drug therapy plan:
- antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants;
- beta blockers;
- Supplements based on Omega-3 and vitamins;
- non-fractional heparin;
- ACE inhibitors.
A diet with a high risk of developing myocardial infarction should include a reduction in the amount of salt consumed, foods with high cholesterol, milk and animal fats. All those at risk are recommended to quit smoking, consume alcoholic beverages (in agreement with the doctor, only a glass of red wine is acceptable), and fight against predisposition to stress and emotional stress.
Of great importance in the prevention of heart attack is the observance of the doctor’s recommendations on physical activity. Such patients are shown:
- appointment of exercise therapy;
- moderate exercise (e.g. dancing, walking, cycling, etc.).
The desire to engage in some kind of sport should always be discussed with your doctor. The amount of physical activity is determined only individually!
For many decades, cardiovascular diseases have held a strong leading position in the list of deadly ailments, and it is myocardial infarction that is one of the most common causes of death. Specialists also noted a significant increase in the number of young patients with this dangerous disease.
In this regard, each of us should know how to properly provide first aid in such a dangerous condition for health and life. Strong and prolonged pains in the region of the heart that cannot be eliminated by taking Nitroglycerin, pallor, cold sweat, fear of death – all these manifestations should become the reason for calling the ambulance team and the beginning of decisive and correct actions aimed at saving the patient.
Nutrition of a patient with myocardial infarction
In the first week after myocardial infarction, the patient is recommended a low-calorie diet with a restriction of salt, animal fats, fluids, products with nitrogenous substances, excessively coarse fiber and cholesterol. The diet should include foods that are rich in lipotropic substances, vitamin C and potassium salts.
In the first 7-8 days, all dishes should be mashed. Food is taken in small portions 6-7 times a day.
The diet may include such foods and dishes:
- wheat bread crackers;
- semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat and rice groats;
- low-fat veal;
- low-fat fish;
- chicken meat;
- protein steam omelet;
- low-fat cheese;
- sour-milk drinks;
- salad of freshly grated carrots and apples;
- vegetable soups;
- boiled beets and cauliflower;
- mashed fruits;
- fruit drinks and fruit drinks;
- broth of dogrose;
- weak tea;
During this period, the use of such foods and dishes is prohibited:
- dough products (pancakes, donuts, pastries, pies);
- smoked and pickled dishes;
- fried foods;
- fatty dairy products;
- salted and hot cheeses;
- fat meat;
- boiled and fried eggs;
- broths of fish and mushrooms;
- cooking oil;
- tomato juice;
- natural coffe.
2-3 weeks after a heart attack, the patient is recommended the same set of products and a list of restrictions, but the food may already not be mashed, prepared without adding salt and taken about 5 times a day. Subsequently, the patient’s diet expands.
Remember! Myocardial infarction is a serious and dangerous pathology that can cause many serious complications and even death of the patient. Be sure to adhere to all the rules of first aid at the onset of this acute condition, call an ambulance in a timely manner and follow all the doctor’s recommendations during treatment in a hospital.
Emergency care for suspected heart attack (myocardial infarction) – Ministry of Health of Ukraine