Fibrinogen is a protein liquefied in the bloodstream that is produced in the liver. Specialists also call this element the “first coagulation factor” or “factor I”. During processes in the hematopoietic system, it is converted to fibrin, which directly affects the ability of blood to coagulate.
With the help of fibrinogen, blood is able to form clots and cover open wounds with a hard crust. Fibrinogen in the body performs the following functions:
- participation in the process of clot formation;
- regulation of the duration of wound healing;
- effect on the duration of blood clots;
- stimulation of vascular and capillary renewal;
- ensuring interaction at the cell level;
- regulation of inflammatory processes;
- the effect on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Without fibrinogen, blood loses its ability to clot. A new protein is produced every 3-5 days. The element is activated under the action of thrombin, forming together with it an insoluble fibrin. Fibrinogen in the blood is examined in the presence of the following indications:
- pregnancy and analysis of the condition of the woman in childbirth after childbirth;
- preparatory measures before surgery and postoperative control;
- pathological conditions of the heart and blood vessels;
- clarification of the diagnosis in the detection of inflammation in the body;
- liver disease;
- low coagulation rate;
- intense spotting of unknown etiology;
- suspicions of pathological changes in the hematopoietic system.
It is this element that serves as the basis for a blood clot – a blood clot. With natural, physiological births, a woman loses about 250-300 ml of blood, with caesarean section – up to 700 ml. If doctors talk about a pathological condition and complicated birth, inability to clot properly or an abnormal level of blood clots developing due to an increased / decreased level of fibrinogen, a fatal outcome of the mother and fetus is possible.
It is this element that serves as the basis for a blood clot – a blood clot. With natural, physiological births, a woman loses about 250-300 ml of blood, with caesarean section – up to 700 ml.
If doctors talk about a pathological condition and complicated birth, inability to clot properly or an abnormal level of blood clots developing due to an increased / decreased level of fibrinogen, a fatal outcome of the mother and fetus is possible.
Assign laboratory analysis in the presence of such indications:
- In preparation for the operation or after it – this will prevent excessive blood loss or the formation of blood clots, leading in the future to blockage of the cardiovascular system.
- In the case of diagnosing diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- With a malfunction in the liver.
- In the course of diagnosis of inflammatory processes.
- When conducting a hemophilia study.
The doctor directs the pregnant woman to take an analysis in the first week of each of the trimesters, which will allow you to track the level of fibrinogen and take measures to correct its indicators. If there are other indications for the appointment of blood donation for analysis, the study can be carried out more often, because it does not have strict restrictions and contraindications for conducting.
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- How to reduce fibrinogen levels during pregnancy
- What to do if fibrinogen is elevated in a pregnant woman in the 3rd trimester?
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- How to bring the indicators back to normal?
- Normal values
- And if lowered?
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- Fibrinogen during pregnancy – the norm in trimesters, increase and decrease in value
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- Fibrinogen test: when prescribed
Laboratory analysis to determine the level of fibrinogen is called by doctors a coalagram. Venous blood is taken from a pregnant woman for the study, but in order for the test results to be as accurate as possible, a number of rules should be observed:
- Blood is donated in the morning, on an empty stomach – the last time a woman should eat no earlier than 12 hours before the test.
- For 1-2 hours, eliminate any stressful situations and physical activity.
- It is forb >
The norm of protein indicators in a pregnant woman is directly determined by the timing of the gestation course – in the first trimester they are closer to normal, in the third reaching their maximum level, and this is not considered a pathology.
In the very first trimester of the term, up to 14 weeks – protein indicators vary at a level of 2.5-5 g / l. If a pregnant woman has a severe form of toxicosis, the indicator can reach 3-4 g / l, gradually increasing.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, normal protein levels in the blood are 3-3.2 g / l. At this stage of pregnancy, it is especially important to conduct accurate measurements of protein in the blood, preventing thrombosis of the placental vessels, which can cause miscarriage, premature birth.
In the third trimester, the level of protein in the blood composition increases to the level of 6 g / l – this increase is due to the active growth and development of the fetus. The mother’s circulatory system is connected through the placenta to the fetal cardiovascular system, which increases blood flow and increases the level of protein produced by the liver.
A high level of fibrinogen protein produced by the liver can indicate the course of a variety of pathological processes in the mother’s body. Therefore, this deviation, as well as a lowered protein level, should not be ignored.
Speaking about the reasons that can trigger a decrease in fibrinogen levels, doctors distinguish the following:
- The course of acute infectious disease. Most often, the protein level rises during the course of the inflammatory process, the focus of which is localized in the FA, damage to the blood or heart.
- In the case of a burn of various origins, in which the release of plasma proteins by the liver rises sharply.
- Malignant neoplasms, which can provoke significant changes in the indicators of blood coagulating substances, disrupting the natural course of pregnancy.
In the case of a slight increase in the level of fibrinogen – the doctor prescribes a course of taking general-action drugs:
- folic acid intake;
- vitamins of group B;
- blood thinners
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- in the case of oncology, a course of anti-cancer therapy.
An important moment of therapy is a review of your own diet. The menu should introduce products that thin the blood – sunflower seeds and corn, chocolate and citrus fruits, sea kale, raspberries and strawberries, as well as green tea. It is also indicated for a pregnant woman to take 1 clove of garlic per day – a natural anticoagulant.
Low fibrinogen counts are less common than elevated ones, but the danger of pathology from this does not decrease. The main thing that a woman should remember is that she should not self-medicate in order not to aggravate her own situation.
For reasons that can reduce fibrinogen levels, doctors include the following factors:
- The course of a woman’s severe form of toxicosis – the stronger the toxicosis, the lower the protein level.
- Lack of vitamins that are actively involved in the process of hemostasis. First of all, such vitamins are vitamins B12 and C.
- Diagnosis in a pregnant woman of stage 2 or 3 of DIC, leading to severe blood thinning, due to congenital / acquired pathologies.
In each individual case, the root cause of the pathological decrease in fibrinogen level is determined by the gynecologist based on the results of laboratory tests and examination of the patient.
In this case, the doctor prescribes treatment depending on the cause of the pathology – it is important to undergo examination and consultation with a gynecologist and a hematologist.
- Anticoagulants – they inhibit the activity of protein coagulability and prevent the development of thrombosis. Most often prescribed drugs such as Heparin or Enoxiparin.
- The course of taking antiplatelet agents – they are prescribed to prevent thrombophlebitis and related complications.
- Vitamins of group P – it strengthens the walls of blood vessels and reduces the activity of fragments that violate the level of blood coagulation.
It is also shown to introduce into your own diet products that increase the level of blood coagulation – potatoes and cereals, fresh vegetables and cabbage, liver and green tomatoes, greens, cereals. It is useful to introduce yarrow decoction into the diet, replacing them with tea, adding nettle or arnica.
With a pathologically high level of fibrinogen, doctors call plasmapheresis the only effective way to reduce its performance. The method allows you to lower the level of protein in the blood in 2-3 hours.
It is also important to follow all the doctor’s recommendations, diversify your diet, making it complete.
In particular, all red foods — grapes and pomegranates, red fish and liver, beets, and so on — should be excluded from the diet.
All preventive measures to normalize the level of protein in the blood – fibrinogen during the period of gestation, a woman should coordinate with her gynecologist.
- First of all, review your diet – it should be complete and varied, including or excluding products that can increase / decrease blood coagulation.
- Always drink plenty of fluids, especially in the summer.
- It is shown in time to pass the tests prescribed by the doctor and pass the diagnosis, perform all the appointments of the gynecologist.
- Refuse before planning pregnancy and during gestation from bad habits.
- Spend more time outdoors.
Systematic monitoring of health, both on the part of the woman and the doctor, will make it easy to undergo pregnancy and make a healthy baby.
With the onset of pregnancy, many systems, internal organs are rebuilt to a new state for themselves and, with the help of the hemostatic system, are prepared for future blood loss during childbirth. Therefore, it is so important to pay special attention to the indicators of fibrinogen in the blood.
A reduced / increased level of protein produced by the liver carries a danger to the health of the mother and fetus, and timely measures will protect the pregnancy and the unborn child from the development of adverse, negative consequences.
If doctors talk about a pathological condition and complicated birth, inability to clot properly or an abnormal level of blood clots developing due to an increased / decreased level of fibrinogen, a fatal outcome of the mother and fetus is possible.
How to reduce fibrinogen levels during pregnancy
Fibrinogen is a specific protein that is synthesized by liver cells. He is directly involved in the construction of fibrin, a component that contributes to thickening and normal blood coagulation. A sufficient amount of fibrin in the body is necessary for every person, and especially for expectant mothers.
It is known that in the process of labor, a woman loses a considerable amount of blood. If fibrinogen is not enough in the body, blood loss may be too profuse.
Also, the growth and development of the unborn child, especially the course of pregnancy, directly depends on the amount of fibrinogen in the body, since the process of blood coagulation has a direct effect on the functional activity of the placenta. If the level of fibrinogen is reduced or increased during pregnancy, the appearance of pathological conditions in the body of a woman and delays in the development of the fetus are not ruled out.
During pregnancy and childbirth, fibrinogen plays a large role, since a change in its quantity affects not only the health of the mother, but also the condition of the fetus. When conducting an analysis for fibrinogen, doctors are guided by the norms defined for a specific period of pregnancy.
Since in the process of carrying the baby the body prepares for the upcoming blood loss in childbirth, the protein level gradually rises. The table shows the norms for women before fertilization of the egg and in different trimesters of pregnancy.
|Period||Lower protein, g / l||The upper indicator of protein, g / l|
|The woman is not pregnant||2||4|
|1 trimester of pregnancy||2,3||5|
As you can see, the fibrinogen content is highest in the last period of pregnancy. This increase in protein concentration from the second trimester is due to the fact that the circulatory system in the body of the expectant mother changes due to the formation of the placenta and the constant growth of the uterus. The body increases the amount of fibrinogen to maintain the balance of the mother-placenta-fetus system.
Inconsistency of the fibrinogen level with the norm is a danger to the health and life of the expectant mother and child. With an increase in protein, the blood becomes thick, the function of the delivery of oxygen and useful elements deteriorates. Low fibrinogen levels make blood thin and incapable of clotting. Especially dangerous is a decrease in protein in the last weeks before childbirth.
The consequences of fibrinogen content above and below the acceptable level are similar in 1, 2, and 3 periods of pregnancy. The table describes what pathologies occur if the protein level is increased or decreased.
|Fibrinogen abnormalities||Consequences depending on the trimester of pregnancy||Regardless of gestational age|
|Lowered||pregnancy fading||placental abruption|
If abnormalities in the protein level are detected, a woman is prescribed an additional examination to determine the cause of the violations. The concentration of fibrinogen allows you to lower or increase the range of measures:
- treatment of the underlying pathology;
- the use of drugs to normalize protein;
- changing dietary and lifestyle principles.
Therapy is carried out both at home and in the hospital. In case of violation of fibrinogen indices, it is impossible to self-medicate and apply alternative methods of treatment. All activities must be carried out under the supervision of a specialist. The table describes how to eliminate deviations.
|Protein level||Treatment direction|
|Drug administration||Eating certain foods||Lifestyle change|
|Tall||Folic acid, B vitamins, Heparin, Fraxiparin, Profanol, Enoxiparin||It is necessary to observe the correct drinking regime and increase the content of blood thinning products in the diet. Need to eat:|
From drinks should be preferred beet and birch juices, green tea. Limit the intake of green leafy vegetables.
|Low||Preparations with calcium, “Dicinon”, “Fibrinogen”, “Vikasol”, vitamin C||Need to increase consumption:|
With a pathologically high level of fibrinogen, doctors call plasmapheresis the only effective way to reduce its performance. The method allows you to lower the level of protein in the blood in 2-3 hours. It is also important to follow all the doctor’s recommendations, diversify your diet, making it complete. In particular, all red foods — grapes and pomegranates, red fish and liver, beets, and so on — should be excluded from the diet.
What to do if fibrinogen is elevated in a pregnant woman in the 3rd trimester?
It should be noted that the level of fibrinogen during pregnancy is always slightly increased compared with the results of analyzes of non-pregnant women. However, the concentration of the substance in the plasma can exceed the upper thresholds of the norm for women “in position”, as well as deviate from them in a smaller direction. And there may be enough reasons for this.
Excess of febrinogen in the blood of a future mother can be caused by toxicosis or an infectious disease, because in these conditions the body loses fluid, becomes dehydrated.
The increase in protein in the blood can result from the transferred flu or SARS, as well as exacerbations of chronic diseases. Thicker blood also becomes due to severe stresses experienced by a woman, as well as if her activity is associated with serious physical exertion.
A high concentration of fibrinogen can indicate problems with the thyroid gland, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, pneumonia and rheumatism, as well as the development of thrombophlebitis in women.
The most alarming is the situation in which fibrinogen in the blood grows in response to malignant tumor processes.
The level of plasma protein in the blood of a future mother may be reduced due to gestosis, as well as due to a pathological deficiency of vitamin B 12 in her body.
Low fibrinogen and a decrease in fibrinolytic activity are characteristic of DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation). This is a dangerous condition that requires qualified medical attention. Fibrinogen reduction also accompanies diseases such as hepatitis.
Plasma protein can be significantly reduced if a woman has recently suffered an injury, received burns, lost blood as a result of surgical interventions, and also suffered poisoning with significant intoxication. As in the case of increased fibrinogen, toxicosis can be the cause of the decrease.
To prescribe competent therapy, one coagulogram is not enough. Doctors need to establish the exact causes that led to deviations of the laboratory analysis from the norm. To do this, additional studies are prescribed – ultrasound, ultrasound, CTG (if the problem was found in the third trimester of pregnancy), as well as other laboratory blood tests. You may have to visit a hematologist or transfusiologist to choose drugs for therapy.
If the increase in plasma protein is insignificant, it is enough to change the lifestyle and approach to nutrition, so that blood coagulation rates normalize.
A woman is prohibited from stress and strong physical exertion. She should sleep a sufficient amount of time (at least 9 hours) and observe the correct drinking regimen. In this case, it is important to work out a tactic with the doctor – how much water can be drunk per day so that there are no swelling and dehydration.
The diet includes fresh tomatoes, sea buckthorn, cranberries, zucchini and cabbage. These products are good at “thinning the blood.” Freshly squeezed juices of red color are useful, including vegetable, for example, beetroot.
Birch sap (obtained from birch, not from the store) helps very well. Vitamin complexes can be additionally prescribed for a woman and separately – B vitamins, folic acid, a small amount of aspirin daily.
Usually, such a treatment is quite enough for blood coagulation to return to normal within a couple of weeks.
As with high levels of fibrinogen protein, a woman is advised to change her lifestyle. Her diet includes foods that have the ability to thicken blood. These are bananas, baked potatoes, buckwheat, chicken and quail eggs, pork liver, oats, walnuts and wheat.
Usually, “liquid” blood becomes on the background of late toxicosis, so a woman should not refuse the hospitalization offered in this case to the hospital, where symptoms and intoxication will be removed with the help of medications.
All drugs for treating blood clotting disorders are undesirable during pregnancy, but if there is no other way out, women can be prescribed coagulants (hemostatics), calcium preparations, since this important mineral is involved in the blood coagulation process.
It is not accepted to treat the problems of hemostasis with folk remedies: if the deviations are significant, medications are needed, not decoctions of herbs, especially since the use of most recipes recommended by non-traditional healers is also contraindicated for pregnant women.
For example, a nettle broth, which has a hemostatic effect, can cause “interruptions” in the utero-placental blood flow, and St. John’s wort decoction is generally contraindicated in women in an “interesting position”.
Forecasts are usually favorable, especially since the current level of medicine allows the woman to provide all the necessary assistance in childbirth and the postpartum period, even if the level of fibrinogen during the period of gestation was not normalized.
See the following video for more information on thrombophilia during pregnancy.
Pregnancy is a special period in a woman’s life when the work of many systems and organs changes in the body.
Doctors constantly monitor their work with the help of various tests in order to monitor the development of the child and respond in time to the appearance of deviations. Fibrinogen is an indicator of the state of the blood, which rises during pregnancy.
A significant increase is a problem because it will affect fetal development. Assess the severity of the situation and determine the next steps should the attending physician.
A protein that is produced in the kidneys and affects blood coagulation is called fibrinogen. Due to its life and activity, it turns into fibrin and becomes the basis of a blood clot.
From the first days of pregnancy, changes occur in the woman’s body, including the functioning of the circulatory system, which in the future will allow controlling bleeding.
Therefore, it is important to monitor the fibrinogen index throughout the entire period of bearing a child.
Checking the amount of fibrinogen in the female body is simple – a coagulogram is used for this. To compare the performance of different examinations, you should donate blood in the same place.
On a note! The frequency of control during pregnancy is determined by the observing gynecologist. Given the features of the course of pregnancy and the indicators of the first examinations carried out during registration, the doctor decides which health parameters should be checked more often and which less often.
With the onset of pregnancy, the amount of fibrinogen increases, this will provide the necessary process of blood coagulation. An increase in the indicator is gradual. In the first trimester, it may not exceed 3 g / l, especially if a pregnant woman suffers from toxicosis.
In the second trimester, the test results should show 3,2–3,6 g / l. And by the end of the third trimester, the amount of fibrinogen will reach 6g / l. Such values are the norm and indicate a normal process inside the circulatory system.
In the normal course of pregnancy, a blood coagulation test is performed 3 times for the entire period of gestation.
The first examination is done when a pregnant woman is registered and must be performed no later than 12 weeks. It is a reference point and will affect the frequency of subsequent checks.
If the tests are normal, the next time you need to make a coagulogram at 25-26 weeks of gestation.
Blood for clotting is taken from a vein on an empty stomach. And although it is often difficult for a future mother to withstand such conditions, especially if there is morning toxicosis, only an analysis on an empty stomach gives a clear and correct picture.
Each pregnant woman during the period of carrying the baby passes a fairly large number of tests that help the doctor in assessing both the health of the future mother and the condition of the fetus.
One important indicator is serum fibrinogen level. This analysis is carried out only three times for the entire period of pregnancy. If there are deviations, the doctor may prescribe additional studies.
Fibrinogen is a protein that produces the liver. It is a precursor to the synthesis of fibrin – a substance that forms a clot during blood coagulation.
The importance of this indicator is that in case of deviations from the normal level, both fetal growth retardation and problems in the mother’s body can occur.
During childbirth, a lot of blood loss occurs, and this important protein helps to avoid heavy bleeding. That is why a woman is prescribed a coagulogram and, if necessary, a hemostasiogram, with which other serum indices are determined.
Normal levels in expectant mothers differ from those in women who do not bear a child, and also vary depending on the trimester.
If in non-pregnant women this indicator averages 3 g / l, then in expectant mothers the norms of fibrinogen during pregnancy by trimester look like this:
- 1 trimester – 2,98 g / l;
- 2 trimester – 3,1 g / l;
- 3 trimester – 6 g / l.
Typically, a vein test is taken for research. Do not forget that this procedure is always performed on an empty stomach, and it is also recommended to exclude physical activity, avoid stressful situations.
The first time a coagulogram is performed immediately after the expectant mother is registered, the second time – at 22 weeks, the third – 34-36 weeks. Sometimes the doctor prescribes a similar analysis before the birth itself.
Exceeding the norm of fibrinogen during pregnancy shows that the woman has thick blood. The danger of this phenomenon is that blood clots can occur in the vessels. This also applies to the vascular system of the placenta, which can lead to insufficient nutrition of the fetus and a delay in its development. A child may develop signs of hypoxia.
How to bring the indicators back to normal?
The level of fibrinogen is increased with a decrease in the volume of fluid in the body and, as a result, in the blood. Also, a slight surge in protein production occurs in stressful situations. However, after stabilization of the emotional state, the indicator returns to normal. Fibrinogen is high with severe cuts, bruises, burns, fractures, during the rehabilitation period after surgery, with the use of hormonal agents.
During pregnancy, protein rises against the background of intense toxicosis in the early stages. Pathologies leading to increased fibrinogen content:
- infectious diseases (SARS, influenza, pneumonia, bronchitis, mononucleosis, meningitis, etc.);
- inflammation of the internal organs (pyelonephritis, ulcer, gastritis);
- tumor formation;
- 1st stage of DIC;
- reproductive system infection;
- diseases of joints and connective tissues (rheumatism, arthritis);
- pathological changes in blood circulation in the meninges;
- pathologies of the heart and blood vessels;
- tissue necrosis;
- endocrine pathologies, including diabetes;
- liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis);
- autoimmune diseases;
- body irradiation;
- internal bleeding.
During pregnancy, the amount of fibrinogen decreases if a woman manifests severe toxicosis in the third trimester. A reduced protein content is also observed with the development of the following pathological conditions:
- impaired hepatic function;
- heart failure;
- malignant tumors with metastases;
- lack of vitamins and minerals;
- 2nd and 3rd stages of DIC;
- gastrointestinal diseases, accompanied by a violation of the absorption of nutrients;
- congenital pathologies of the hematopoietic system;
- poisoning with toxic substances and low-quality products;
- blood cancer;
- bacterial damage to the meninges.
Nature has foreseen possible problems associated with pregnancy and childbirth. To prevent serious bleeding during delivery, the amount of fibrinogen in the blood of the expectant mother increases.
If in women before pregnancy the level of fibrinogen in the blood is considered normal at 2-4 g / l, then after conception this figure rises to 6 g / l, which is also considered normal. Usually, the level of fibrinogen during pregnancy is significantly increased in the 3rd trimester, when the body begins active preparation for the upcoming birth.
If fibrinogen is increased during pregnancy, the treatment includes the appointment of medications selected by a specialist based on the clinical situation, the causes of the pathology and the patient’s condition. The only thing a woman can do is to review her diet and, if necessary, make appropriate adjustments to it.
Of the herbs recommended aloe juice, decoctions based on chestnut and peony root. Quitting smoking and alcohol will also help normalize the amount of fibrinogen in the blood, if the expectant mother has not yet done so.
Serious complications due to deviations in the level of fibrinogen in the body can be prevented if all the recommendations of the attending physician are observed. Modern medicine and advanced methods of treating women during pregnancy guarantee high chances of a safe birth of a healthy baby.
Wise nature has provided everything for the unhindered development in the maternal womb of a new life. Therefore, at the very beginning of pregnancy and throughout the first trimester, fibrinogen in the blood decreases so that the embryo can receive more nutrients, because blood flow increases.
At this time, the placenta is formed – and new vessels, including the vessels of the umbilical cord, need a careful and gentle attitude. For this, maternal blood also becomes more liquid.
In the second trimester, when the vessels of the placenta and umbilical cord become stronger and stronger, and the main organ laying in the child is completed, the maternal body has a new task – to prepare for the upcoming birth. The fact that the risk of blood loss in the process of having a baby is inevitable is not necessary to say, this is obvious. Therefore, the blood begins to “thicken”, the level of febrinogen increases, and as a result, the blood begins to clot faster.
The amount of febrinogen also affects this indicator. Therefore, in the third trimester, the level of this plasma protein is normally always higher.
Table of standards for the concentration of fibrinogen during pregnancy by week:
One of the most important studied indicators is serum fibrinogen. In some cases, it appears that fibrinogen levels are elevated in the third trimester of pregnancy.
What contributes to such deviations, are they dangerous and how to normalize indicators?
We need to take planning very seriously.
Fibrinogen is a protein substance that is produced by the liver. This component precedes fibrin synthesis, that is, it is the progenitor of a substance that forms blood clots during blood clotting.
With cuts, wounds, or other damage to blood vessels, fibrinogen interacts with thrombin to form fibrin monomer. This substance settles in the form of the thinnest strings that bind blood cells and form a clot – a blood clot. He closes the wound and stops the bleeding.
Then this blood clot dissolves and disappears.
Fibrinogen during pregnancy is considered a fairly important indicator, since with its deviations, the risks of delayed fetal development and complications in the pregnant woman increase. During the birth of a baby, mommy loses a lot of blood, and the presence of fibrinogen protein provides a stop to bleeding, preventing heavy blood loss.
The development and growth of the fetus and the course of pregnant processes depend on the fibrinogen level, since the blood-clotting processes directly affect the functional placental activity.
If fluctuations in the fibrinogen norm occur during pregnancy, the gynecologist suspects the patient has tissue necrotization or inflammatory lesions. Assessment of the level of this substance is carried out for the entire pregnancy three times.
Mom is prescribed a coagulogram, if necessary, then a hemostasiogram, which helps to identify other concentrations of serum components.
The rate of fibrinogen during pregnancy changes throughout the gestation period. In non-pregnant patients, this indicator is 2-4 g / l. when conception occurs, the fibrinogen level begins to rise, reaching a maximum concentration in 3 trimesters. Experts in assessing the results are guided by a special table of fibrinogen concentration, according to which:
- In the first trimester, the amount of the protein component practically does not differ from non-pregnant and amounts to 2,3-5 g / l;
- In the second trimester, this blood coagulation factor increases and reaches 5,2-5,5 g / l;
- In the period of the third stage of gestation, an increase in such a protein occurs to 5-6,2 g / l.
Fibrinogen content is considered increased if deviations from generally accepted norms are more than 0,5 units. Often, a pronounced increase in fibrinogen levels begins at the 3rd trimester, reaching a maximum level by the end of gestation.
This feature is explained by the fact that in the female body a new round of blood circulation is forming, where the uterine body and placental structures act as a key organ.
When the girl reaches the 9-month gestation period, the fibrinogen protein in the last trimester of pregnancy reaches its maximum mark. For this period of pregnancy, the norm of the substance is up to 6 g / l. Such a high fibrinogen concentration in pregnant women prevents abundant blood loss during delivery.
And if lowered?
If strange symptoms appear, urgently see a doctor
There are also such conditions in which the fibrinogen concentration is much lower than the generally accepted norm. Such violations lead to excessive dilution of blood and a violation of viscosity, which leads to premature placental exfoliation, fetal malnutrition or hypoxia. With a low content of fibrinogen protein, pathogens such as gestosis or hepatitis, DIC, acute vitamin deficiency of ascorbic acid and vitamin B12 are usually found in pregnant women.
The most common provoking factor for fibrinogen deficiency is gestosis in pregnant women. For this condition, the characteristic signs are elevated blood pressure, headaches and a general deterioration in the well-being of the pregnant woman.
Gestational conditions are dangerous for the baby, they negatively affect the fetal development and gestation.
They may also decrease due to poisoning with severe intoxication, recent blood loss or severe traumatic injuries, as well as with severe toxicosis.
In general, the condition when the fibrinogen protein gradually increases during pregnancy in the trimesters is considered quite common. But even such an increase has certain boundaries, beyond which there is a high probability of the development of any pathology. To identify the causes, patients are usually prescribed a hemostasiogram.
- If an increase in fibrinogen protein occurs in the first trimester, then the reasons lie mainly in inflammatory processes. The patient is usually referred for additional laboratory tests. It is necessary to quickly identify the source of the disease, because in the early stages of gestation, any inflammatory process can adversely affect the development of the fetus.
- An increase in fibrinogen in the 2nd trimester is usually observed against the background of the formation of blood clots in the bloodstream. This condition is extremely dangerous during gestation, since the formed thrombus can block the vessels and disrupt normal nutrition and oxygen supply to the fetal tissues. And this very negatively affects the development and growth of the baby. Also, in the 2nd trimester, an excessively increased fibrinogen concentration can be caused by the presence of tumor processes of any nature, inflammatory pulmonary lesions or pneumonia, functional disorders in the thyroid gland.
- Excessive fibrinogen protein in the third trimester of gestation usually indicates the development of pulmonary pathologies. Such an excessive increase is dangerous by thrombosis of the pulmonary artery or detachment of the placental tissues, premature delivery. Such conditions are dangerous for mom and fetus.
- Thrombophilia can also provoke a pathological increase in fibrinogen, in which patients have an increase in blood coagulation. If pathology is not detected in a timely manner, then dangerous consequences can be skipped. Patients with thrombophilia should be observed by a hematologist throughout the gestation period.
- Burns, injuries, diabetes or tuberculosis, pre-infarction or heart attacks, nephrotic syndrome and rheumatism, hepatitis forms, etc. can also cause a surge in fibrinogen.
Fibrinogen during pregnancy – the norm in trimesters, increase and decrease in value
Even despite the fact that an increase in fibrinogen during pregnancy is the norm, it also has its own limit values, the excess of which indicates the formation of a pathological process. In this situation, the doctor usually prescribes an extended blood test – a hemostasiogram. Read more about hemostasiogram during pregnancy →
Increased fibrinogen during pregnancy in the 1st trimester indicates the presence of a focus of inflammation in the body. To clarify the situation, the doctor writes the patient directions for additional laboratory tests. It is important to do this in a timely manner, since any infectious or inflammatory process that occurs in the body of a pregnant woman negatively affects the development of the fetus.
From about the 13th week of pregnancy, the symptoms of toxicosis recede in many women, their well-being improves markedly, and as a result, the results of blood tests return to normal.
If, despite this, fibrinogen remains elevated, it can be assumed that blood clots are likely to form. This pathology is dangerous during pregnancy, since it interferes with the normal nutrition and supply of the fetus with oxygen, which negatively affects its growth and development.
Additional causes of increased fibrinogen in the 2nd trimester may be:
- violation of the functional activity of the thyroid gland;
- pneumonia, pneumonia;
- the formation in the body of tumors of a benign or malignant nature.
To find out what exactly caused the high level of fibrinogen, tests and a comprehensive examination of a woman will help.
In the case when fibrinogen during pregnancy is increased in the last months of bearing a child, this may indicate a pulmonary pathology in the body of the expectant mother. In the 3rd trimester, the body intensively prepares for childbirth, so there is a physiological increase in fibrinogen to an indicator of 6 g / l.
If the indicator is exceeded, a dangerous complication of this condition is pulmonary thrombosis, which provokes placental abruption and premature labor. All this can threaten a future mother and child with a fatal outcome.
An insufficient level of fibrinogen in the blood contributes to its thinning and violation of viscosity due to the deterioration of coagulability. This is fraught with premature placental abruption, a violation of its functional significance, hypoxia and fetal malnutrition.
In women with low fibrinogen levels, the following diseases and conditions can be detected:
- acute shortage of vitamins B2 and C;
- DIC syndrome.
Most often, fibrinogen deficiency in the body is explained by the development of late pregnancy toxicosis – acute gestosis.
This is a dangerous condition, which is characterized by an increase in blood pressure, headaches, a violation of the general well-being of a pregnant woman. Gestosis negatively affects the development of the fetus and the course of pregnancy. Read more about gestosis →
Fibrinogen test: when prescribed
Fibrinogen is not the only indicator of the ability of blood to form blood clots, and therefore there is no separate analysis for it. The plasma protein level is determined during a comprehensive study of RFMC (soluble fibrin-monomer complex), which is also called a coagulogram.
Only venous blood is suitable for analysis. Her fence is made several times during pregnancy, and then without fail before childbirth or cesarean section. Doctors must be sure that a woman has no risk of massive bleeding during childbirth.
Some factors from outside can influence the results of the analysis, and therefore, before visiting a laboratory or treatment room, a woman should observe several important conditions:
- two days before blood donation, you can’t be nervous, worry, find out relationships with loved ones and strangers – a hormonal background changing in stress will affect blood coagulation;
- two days before the analysis, you can not eat fatty, spicy, excessively salty or sweet foods;
- physical activity should be limited in a few days;
- blood thinners (such as aspirin) should not be taken a week before analysis;
- give blood on an empty stomach – the last meal of the expectant mother should occur no later than 8 hours before blood sampling;
- if the expectant mother could not say goodbye to the bad habit of smoking, then you can’t smoke one hour before visiting the laboratory.
Blood is placed in a test tube treated with a special composition that prevents the formation of blood clots. In the laboratory, the plasma component is separated from it, and the amount of fibrinogen is determined in the plasma. For this, special reagents are added to it, which start the thrombus formation process in the sample. By the number of fibrin filaments formed, the laboratory assistant judges the amount of fibrinogen.
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