Features of the development of diagnosis and treatment methods for ischemic cardiomyopathy

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease in which an increase in the cavities of the heart occurs and the heart rhythm is disturbed. The cause of this pathology is chronic circulatory failure. The danger of the disease lies in the absence of specific signs.

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a pathological change in the myocardium, the most common form of such a deviation. With the development of the disease, an increase in the cavities of the heart muscle and a thickening of its walls occurs.

Most often, a lesion of the left side of the organ is observed. In some cases, with ischemic cardiomyopathy, the interventricular septum thickens.

In men, such a deviation is diagnosed much more often than in women. Pathology occurs at the age of 45-55 years.

There are such forms of ischemic cardiomyopathy:

  • symmetrical: both chambers of the heart muscle increase evenly;
  • asymmetric: as the pathology develops, the left chamber of the heart mainly increases.
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Causes

Ischemic type cardiomyopathy develops with damage to the coronary arteries, which most often occurs against the background of atherosclerotic changes. The latter cause vasoconstriction, due to which persistent tissue hypoxia develops. Against this background, there is a thickening of the wall of the heart muscle.

Risk factors include the following:

  • a history of myocardial infarction;
  • high blood pressure;
  • bad habits;
  • burdened heredity;
  • high blood cholesterol;
  • obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • left ventricular aneurysm;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • increased physical activity;
  • drug use;
  • psycho-emotional stress;
  • pathology of the adrenal cortex;
  • thyroid disease.

Pathological phenomena such as myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac hypoxia, damage to myocardial myofibrils also contribute to the development of the disease.

Pathology can be expressed by such signs.

  • shortness of breath, which is especially pronounced during physical exertion and emotional experiences;
  • heart rhythm disorder;
  • headache;
  • fatigue;
  • attacks of suffocation at night;
  • causeless weight gain;
  • rare urination;
  • swelling of the lower extremities;
  • dizziness;
  • increased heart rate;
  • productive cough; streaks of blood may be observed in sputum;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • fainting;
  • a sensation of stitching pain and constriction in the chest;
  • appetite disturbance;
  • dull pain in the right hypochondrium;
  • different forms of arrhythmia.

In the early stages of the development of pathology, signs of impaired cardiac activity may be absent.

Methods of diagnosis

For the diagnosis, a number of studies are carried out, including:

  • collection of family history;
  • physical examination;
  • listening to the heart;
  • general and biochemical blood tests;
  • general urine analysis;
  • ECG;
  • coronary angiography;
  • chest x-ray;
  • daily monitoring of ECG;
  • EchoECG;
  • MRI of the heart muscle;
  • if necessary, a scintigraphic examination and a biopsy are additionally prescribed.

The basis of therapy is the administration of medications. Surgical intervention is carried out only in exceptional cases, as it poses a threat to the life of the patient.

Patients will be prescribed medications such as:

  • antiarrhythmic drugs (digoxin);
  • beta-blockers (metaprolol, carvedilol);
  • ACE inhibitors (Kapoten);
  • diuretics (Lasix);
  • anticoagulants (acetylsalicylic acid).

In parallel with the use of special medicines, the patient must comply with the following rules:

  • limit the amount of fat and salt consumed to a minimum;
  • abandon increased physical exertion;
  • avoid stress and emotional tension;
  • leave enough time for a good rest;
  • to refuse from bad habits.

Surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy is indicated only if conservative methods of therapy have not yielded results.

Such methods of surgical treatment of pathology are distinguished:

  • Implantation of a pacemaker. An implantable device is necessary in detecting heart failure. Thanks to the pacemaker, the heart rate normalizes. The device also reduces the risk of sudden death caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy.
  • Implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. Such a measure is required for ventricular arrhythmia – a condition that threatens the patient’s life. The device controls the rhythm of the heart muscle.
  • Coronary bypass surgery. During the operation, another vessel, previously removed, is carried out next to the clogged artery. It is through him that blood flow is directed. Such an event stimulates the flow of blood to the heart muscle.
  • Angioplasty is an operation to expand the arteries to improve their patency.
  • Installation of stents to expand vascular lumen.
  • Aterectomy is a manipulation aimed at cleansing the arterial walls of plaques and plaque that impede the advancement of blood.
  • In the most severe cases, the patient requires a heart transplant operation.

Features of food

People suffering from ischemic cardiomyopathy are recommended to include such foods and drinks in their diet:

  • baked goods without salt;
  • low fat dairy products;
  • vegetables processed in various ways;
  • seafood;
  • lean fish;
  • cereals;
  • durum wheat pasta;
  • vegetable soups;
  • fresh and dry berries and fruits;
  • honey;
  • vegetable oils;
  • green leaf tea;
  • fresh juices.

The following foods and drinks that negatively affect the condition of the heart muscle should not be consumed:

  • fatty meat and fish;
  • confectionery;
  • salty and spicy dishes;
  • fatty broths;
  • canned food;
  • smoked products;
  • onion garlic;
  • semi-finished products;
  • strong coffee and tea;
  • alcohol.

The meaning of the use of alternative recipes for ischemic cardiomyopathy is to alleviate the condition of the patient. Such methods of therapy cannot cure the disease and should in no case be the basis of therapy.

The following recipes are helpful:

  • Tincture of viburnum berries. For cooking, you need to take 40 g of raw materials (berries must be ripe), pour a glass of hot water. Allow the liquid to infuse for 2 hours, then strain. The resulting volume is the daily dose of the drug. It must be drunk 2 times during the day.
  • Decoction based on motherwort. You should take 15 g of raw materials and fill it with 0,5 l of hot water. The product should be infused for 7 hours. After this, the liquid must be filtered. Take the finished infusion during the day. Norm – a glass of broth, the volume of which must be divided into 4 doses.
  • Herbal harvest. It is necessary to prepare 2 tablespoons of nettle leaves and a tablespoon of motherwort, mix the components, pour 250 il of boiling water. Insist the product for an hour, then strain. Take half a glass twice a day.
  • Flaxseed infusion. To prepare the product, you need to pour 4 teaspoons of sown flax seed in a liter of water. Put the composition on the stove, let it boil. The product should be infused in a water bath for an hour. After this, the broth needs to be filtered. Take the finished product in a warm form in half a glass, up to 5 times a day.

During treatment, the doctor regularly monitors the most important indicators: heart rate, heart rate, blood pressure level of the patient.

Forecast

If untreated, as coronary cardiomyopathy progresses, the risk of complications increases. These include the following:

  • blood clots;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • acute heart failure;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • arrhythmia.

These conditions can cause the death of the patient, as they develop rapidly.

Five-year patient survival is more than 30%.

With the timely treatment of pathology, the chance of preventing dangerous complications increases.

Preventive measures

At present, a special complex of preventive measures aimed at preventing the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy has not been developed.

There are a number of generally accepted recommendations, the observance of which several times reduces the likelihood of developing cardiac pathology. To do this, you must:

  • stop drinking alcohol;
  • quit smoking;
  • comply with the principles of proper nutrition, excluding foods with a high content of salt and cholesterol, as well as animal fats from the diet;
  • control weight, blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol;
  • visit a cardiologist once every six months, which is especially important for those whose family history is burdened with cases of cardiovascular disease.

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a pathology of the cardiovascular system that occurs on its own or as a secondary disease. The disease creates a high risk of complications and death, therefore, it is necessary to diagnose it and begin treatment as soon as possible.

Cardiomyopathy is a group of pathologies that are accompanied by malfunctions in the functioning of the heart muscle. There are several mechanisms of myocardial damage that combine such diseases.

The reasons for the development of cardiomyopathy are most often unclear, and diagnosis requires the absence of congenital malformations. There are various types of such pathology, and the classification of cardiomyopathies depends on the characteristics of circulatory disorders in the heart.

Cardiomyopathy is a collective definition for a group of myocardial pathologies of unknown origin. The basis of such diseases is dystrophic and sclerotic processes in heart cells – cardiomyocytes. With such a violation as cardiomyopathy, in most cases, the work of the ventricles of the heart changes.

To date, it has not been possible to establish the true causes of cardiomyopathy. Experts argue that such pathologies can progress due to mutational changes in the genes or as a result of the active development of existing diseases in humans.

Such diseases can be diagnosed in people of absolutely any age, but in children they are detected much less often than in adults.

This is due to the fact that such a group of diseases is hereditary, and problems with the work of the heart can already appear in young children.

Causes and symptoms

Cardiomyopathies include any pathology that is accompanied by damage to the heart muscle. In fact, there are many reasons that can provoke the development of such an ailment.

Concept

It is believed that the disease most often affects middle-aged men. According to the International Classification of Diseases, this disease is considered to be a variant of chronically occurring coronary heart disease.

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a pathological condition of the heart muscle that is caused by a lack of oxygen and damage to myocytes. These cells can “work” without oxygen, but in this case the energy they receive is not enough for the full functioning of the myocardium. As a result, there is an expansion of the heart chambers with a thickening of their wall.

An increase in heart size (cardiomegaly) is of two types:

  1. Symmetrical, in which both chambers of the heart are enlarged.
  2. Asymmetric, in which only one camera is enlarged. Most often, the process affects the left heart chamber.

Statistics indicate that most often the disease is detected in men in the age period between 45 and 55 years. Women are much less likely to suffer from this form of heart disease. It is mainly found in menopause, as well as in women who take oral contraceptives for a long time or excessively abuse smoking.

Classification of cardiomyopathies and features of the treatment of the disease

All cardiomyopathies are divided into primary and secondary.

Primary diseases are divided into groups:

  1. Congenital, which appear during the period of fetal development, mainly due to smoking the mother, drinking alcohol and drugs, stress and anxiety, improper or insufficient nutrition.
  2. Acquired after exposure to toxins, metabolic disorders or viruses.
  3. Mixed, combining both types of negative effects.

Secondary pathologies are caused by the following diseases or conditions:

  • the effect of certain drugs, including chemotherapy;
  • alcoholism;
  • endocrine diseases that provoke myocardial dysfunction;
  • obesity;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • eating disorders;
  • diabetes;
  • the use of severe long-term diets, leading to an acute shortage of vitamins and nutrients;
  • negative effects at the cellular level (radiation, toxins, poisons, and so on).

Primary cardiomyopathy is divided into types:

  • dilated or ischemic;
  • hypertrophic;
  • restrictive;
  • arrhythmogenic dysplasia.

Secondary diseases are of the following types:

  • alcoholic
  • diabetic;
  • thyrotoxic (associated with pathologies of the thyroid gland);
  • stressful.

The ischemic form of the disease is called stagnant due to the presence of poor blood supply.

  • Dilated ILC.
  • Hypertrophic CMP.
  • Restrictive ILC.
  • Specific types of ILC.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular car >

Such cardiomyopathy is distinguished by the expansion of the cavities of the heart, an increase in the size of the heart and the development of progressive heart failure.

Symptoms

  1. Chronic heart failure from the left or at the same time two ventricles. In this case, stagnation phenomena are observed in one or two circles of blood circulation at once. Clinically it will be manifested by such signs:
  2. Dyspnea occurring during exertion / at rest;
  3. Fatigue;
  4. Swelling of the legs, mainly in the evening;
  5. Blanching of the skin;
  6. Cooling of the peripheral parts of the limbs, their cyanosis.
  7. The presence of various types of rhythm disturbances (atrial fibrillation, blockade, ventricular arrhythmias).
  8. Thromboembolic complications – they are observed in about 20% of cases and include thromboembolism of the branches of the pulmonary artery or thrombus blockage of arteries in a large circle of blood circulation with damage to various organs.

Diagnostics

The basis for the diagnosis of DCMP is an ultrasound scan of the heart. It allows you to identify such changes:

  • Ejection fraction below 20-30%;
  • Expansion of all cavities of the heart;
  • Decreased contraction force (hypokinesia) in the left ventricle;
  • The presence of blood clots inside the heart;
  • Signs of valve insufficiency (mitral and tricuspid), which are relative (occurred due to expansion of the cavities);
  • Decreased blood flow in the initial section of the aorta.

Radiography allows you to identify signs such as an increase in heart size, its spherical shape and an increase in the shadow of the pulmonary vessels due to the development of hypertension in them.

Treatment

A specialist in this field, a cardiologist, is involved in the treatment.

For this, the following groups of drugs are used:

  • ACE inhibitors;
  • Beta-blockers;
  • Diuretics;
  • Nitrates;
  • Cardiac glycosides;
  • Antiplatelet agents.

Other causes of death in patients with myocardiopathy include thromboembolic complications and arrhythmias.

It is characterized by hypertrophy (thickening) of the walls in the left ventricle. At the same time, the ventricular cavity decreases, the walls become less malleable, which leads to a decrease in their filling with blood. The result is a reduced volume of blood entering the large circle of blood circulation from the left ventricle.

Symptoms

  • Angina pectoris – characterized by pain in the heart. It occurs due to compression of the coronary arteries with increased muscle mass. Taking nitroglycerin does not relieve pain, which is the difference between this variant of cardiopathy and true angina.
  • Arrhythmic – ventricular tachycardia develops.
  • Syncopal – characterized by a decrease in blood flow in the carotid arteries and fainting.
  • Asymptomatic.
  • Polysymptomatic.

Diagnostics

Radiography – changes are visible only in the later stages in the form of pulmonary hypertension (expansion of the roots of the pulmonary vessels).

Ultrasound of the heart is the “gold” standard for detecting HCMP. ECHO-KG allows a specialist to measure the thickness of the LV wall, the size of its cavity, as well as visualize the compliance of the walls during the contraction of the heart and during its relaxation.

Treatment

In addition, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is treatable by surgery. Such surgical interventions are possible:

  • Septal myectomy;
  • Alcohol transcatheter ablation;
  • Installation of a two-chamber electrical stimulator.

The prognosis is relatively favorable, because a thickened ventricle can inhibit the development of heart failure for a long period of time. In 1–4% of cases, sudden cardiac death develops, more often with angina pectoris or polysymptomatic variant of the course of pathology.

It is characterized by rigidity of the walls of the ventricle, which does not allow it to fill up with blood in sufficient volume during the myocardial relaxation period. This type of cardiopathy is accompanied by the progressive development of diastolic heart failure.

Restrictive cardiopathy can be an independent disease or be secondary and arise against the background of such pathologies:

  • Leffler’s disease;
  • Sarcoidosis;
  • Amyloidosis;
  • Systemic sclerosis;
  • Hemochromatosis;
  • Fabry’s disease.

Symptoms

For a long time, the pathology proceeds without visible manifestations. Signs of the disease consist of symptoms of the underlying pathology, as well as the development of heart failure: shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of the extremities, etc.

Diagnostics

ECG is not an informative examination method in this case, because it does not reveal specific signs.

On a radiograph, it is sometimes possible to visualize a reduced heart or signs of congestion in the ICC (pulmonary circulation).

Ultrasound of the heart is the main method that allows a specialist to be diagnosed with restrictive cardiopathy. The following echocardiographic signs are observed:

  1. Thickening of the inner wall of the heart;
  2. Reducing the size of the cavities of the ventricles;
  3. The paradoxical movement of the interventricular septum;
  4. Prolapse of the cusps of the mitral and tricuspid valves and their relative insufficiency.
  5. Violation of the blood supply to the ventricles in diastole;
  6. The presence of blood clots in the parietal region of the heart.

Treatment

The treatment of cardiomyopathy in this case is for a specialist some difficulties due to the late detection of pathology.

In addition, when restrictive cardiopathy develops, drug treatment does not lead to the desired result. It is possible to prescribe GCS, immunosuppressants, as well as diuretics, vasodilators and antiplatelet agents to reduce signs of heart failure.

The basis of treatment is a surgical method, which consists in excising a thickened myocardium and normalizing the LV diastolic function.

The prognosis is unfavorable, since five-year survival is not more than 30%.

Risk Factors

Experts have identified a number of risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing an ailment. If these factors are present in your life, then they must be removed as soon as possible. Their list is as follows:

  • the presence of coronary heart disease in the family;
  • stable high pressure;
  • smoking and drinking;
  • high cholesterol;
  • large body weight;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • diabetes;
  • accumulation of abnormal proteins in the tissues (amyloidosis);
  • advanced pathology of the kidneys.

Men are more prone to developing ischemic cardiomyopathy than women who have not reached menopause. After this period, the likelihood of manifestation of ischemic cardiomyopathy becomes the same. In women after 35 who use oral contraceptives and have a nicotine addiction, the chances of developing ischemic cardiomyopathy increase.

symptomatology

The main symptoms can occur when the disease progresses:

  • angina pectoris;
  • frequent irregular heartbeat;
  • chest pain, feeling of constriction;
  • fatigue, fatigue;
  • headache;
  • dizziness and loss of consciousness;
  • productive form of cough (with sputum);
  • sleep disorders;
  • swelling of the lower extremities or spilled throughout the body;
  • obesity of varying degrees.

Also, patients suffer from a tendency to form blood clots, dyspnea attacks (shortness of breath) at night and during physical exertion, loss of appetite and pain in the right hypochondrium.

Attacks can occur quite rarely, so patients often forget about them and do not go to the doctor. If you do this as soon as possible, you can save yourself from extremely dangerous complications and even death from a heart attack. Increased seizures are a menacing symptom that requires an immediate decision and treatment.

Pathogenesis

The main factor that provokes the development of the ischemic form of cardiomyopathy is the pathological condition of the coronary arteries. In the vast majority of cases, this problem arises due to the formation of dense atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels. They block the path of blood flow, reduce the clearance in the vessels and can even cause their atrophy.

In this condition, the heart weakens, does not work well, and wears out quickly. Over time, angina pectoris appears and heart attacks become more frequent. The pathology development process can be determined by the following factors:

  • the predisposition of the body to the development of cardiomyopathy, which is transmitted at the genetic level;
  • high pressure;
  • bad habits, malnutrition and disturbed daily routine;
  • malfunctioning thyroid gland;
  • high percentage of lipids;
  • pathological processes in the adrenal cortex.

In turn, the formation of atherosclerotic plaques may be due to the following factors:

  • hypoxia of the heart;
  • changes in the contractile function of the myocardium;
  • damage to myocardial myofibrils, which can disintegrate;
  • hypertrophic state of the myocardium;
  • ventricular remodeling.

Cardiomyopathy – causes, main symptoms, diagnostic methods and treatment options

The main diagnostic criteria for ischemic cardiomyopathy are as follows:

  1. External examination by a cardiologist. With him, the doctor draws attention to the presence of the following signs of the disease: an uneven and rapid heart rate, an increase in the left border of the heart towards the armpits, wheezing of various types in the lungs when listening, systolic murmur at the apex of the heart, which is explained by the relative insufficiency of the mitral valve of the left ventricle, lower edema parts of the legs.
  2. ECG It reveals electrolyte changes in the myocardium, atrial fibrillation, blockade of the legs of the bundle of His, impaired atrioventricular conduction, in rare cases, ventricular extrasystoles.
  3. Roentgenography. It allows you to detect atherosclerotic changes in the aorta: an increase in its diameter, compaction of the walls, calcification of the mouth and other symptoms.
  4. Coronarography can reveal multiple traces of thrombosis in the vessels.

In addition, the doctor can prescribe the passage of an ultrasound of the heart, Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and the delivery of various tests.

According to statistics, every year an increasing number of people become owners of various heart diseases, which can leave an incorrigible mark, and sometimes lead to death. In matters of health, awareness, a clear understanding of various diseases, the ability to diagnose them in oneself and knowledge of how to avoid these diseases are always very important.

In this article, we will talk about one of the most common heart diseases – cardiomyopathy.

Cardiomyopathy is a general definition that combines a group of diseases that cause damage to the muscle areas of the heart. The consequences of cardiomyopathy are quite serious, it can be arrhythmia, failure, and much more.

Classifications

Dilatation or congestion – the organ increases, cardiac activity and the frequency of myocardial contractions decrease. In most cases, it is found in young people and is a consequence of infections, intoxications and impaired functioning of various body systems.

Hypertrophic (asymmetric, symmetric, obstructive, non-obstructive) – the myocardium thickens, and the chambers of the ventricles of the heart, on the contrary, decrease. It is a hereditary disease that develops in men in different age categories. It entails various types of hypertrophy of the heart muscles, the interventricular septum thickens.

Restrictive (obliterative, diffuse) – is quite rare, with it begins endocardial fibrosis, disruption of the ventricle and hemodynamics. Despite this, contractility persists, hypertrophy is absent.

Arrhythmogenic – A rare disease during which cardiomyocytes are replaced by adipose or fibrous tissue. This causes arrhythmia and fibrillation.

Causes for this disease can be inherited factors, apotosis, viruses, and chemicals. The disease develops in youth and is characterized by shortness of breath, tachycardia, dizziness and fainting.

Symptoms of cardiomyopathy vary and depend on its type and degree. In most cases, this is shortness of breath, sweating, swelling, heart pain, fatigue and blueness of the skin. Sometimes dizziness, loss of consciousness, fainting, and vomiting are added to the above.

The causes of cardiomyopathy are very different. Sometimes the wrong lifestyle leads to the appearance of the disease, and sometimes the disease is hereditary and appears due to the tendency of genes to do this:

  • Viral diseases
  • Heredity
  • The consequences of heart disease
  • Intoxication of the body
  • The effect of allergens
  • Changes in the endocrine system and endocrine regulation
  • Immune System Problems
  • Alcohol addiction

Complications after cardiomyopathy can be any kind of heart disease, heart failure, thrombosis, impaired conduction of the heart, arrhythmia, and even sudden death syndrome due to cardiac arrest.

Cardiomyopathy is diagnosed in a hospital or clinic. After the initial examination or questioning, the doctor can give direction to the necessary types of diagnosis.

Most often they use an electrocardiogram, magnetic resonance imaging, sounding, X-ray of the lungs and an echocardiogram, the data from which are most often the most informative, but it is all these examinations in the compartment that can show the full picture of the disease and affect the choice of the right treatment.

Special therapy does not exist, because of this, any measures are used to prevent dangerous complications and help maintain the optimal condition of the patient.

When the disease is stable, the patient is treated at home, but under the supervision of a doctor. Routine hospitalization and examination are regularly carried out to make sure that the patient’s condition does not get worse.

Patients with cardiomyopathy need to limit physical activity and active movement, and also adhere to a diet that is individually prescribed by each doctor. Usually, such a diet consists in reducing the amount of fats and salts in the diet.

What medications can a cardiologist prescribe for cardiomyopathy?

  • Diuretics
  • Glycosides
  • Antiarrhythmic drugs
  • Anticoagulants
  • Antiplatelet

In the most complex and neglected cases, they resort to surgical intervention. If cardiopathy is accompanied by other heart diseases, then the patient needs a heart transplant.

The heart is the most important organ, any interference can lead to very unpleasant consequences or death, therefore it is very important to regularly check the state of your heart, visit a cardiologist and do an electrocardiogram.

You can avoid cardiomyopathy, you just need to lead a healthy lifestyle, do not abuse alcohol, do not overload the body too much and keep it in good shape.

Cardiomyopathy – a modification of the ventricles of the heart of the myocardium. This is a series of pathologies of the heart muscle caused by various reasons. A progressive course in the absence of proper treatment for cardiomyopathy leads to disability, complications: heart failure, tissue oxygen starvation, congestion in the heart, changes in myocardial stricture, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The forecast is mixed. A large role is played by the symptoms, form, stage of the disease, timely diagnosis and treatment of cardiomyopathy.

Pathology is primary or secondary. The first species is divided into subspecies.

  1. Dilatation – expansion of the chambers of the heart against the background of impaired myocardial contractility. The forecast is unfavorable. Survival up to 5 years is possible only with the timely treatment of cardiomyopathy.
  2. Hypertrophic – thickening of the walls of the left ventricle. It features slow progression.
  3. Alcohol – dysfunction of the heart cavities, myocardial hypertrophy caused by excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  4. Ischemic – a violation of blood circulation in the myocardium. Possible leakage in a symmetric, asymmetric form. The forecast is unfavorable. The development of pathology leads to severe heart attack, coronary artery atherosclerosis. To normalize the heart rhythm, doctors perform a heart transplant, coronary artery bypass grafting.
  5. Metabolic – metabolic disturbances, myocardial dystrophy, provoked by physical exertion, overstrain of the heart muscle, liver (kidney) dysfunction, vitamin deficiency.
  6. Toxic – due to the long-term effects of drugs on heart structures.

Secondary cardiomyopathy includes the dishormonal form diagnosed in women with menopause. It is accompanied by the appearance of a rapid heartbeat, spasm of the heart muscle, malaise. The causes of the pathology are hormonal disorders, a malfunction of the myocardium. The forecast is favorable. Disability is restored when properly selected tactics of treatment of cardiomyopathy are carried out.

Risk Factors

It provokes the development of a primary disease:

  • hereditary factor;
  • poisoning with alcohol, poisons, toxins, viruses;
  • stress;
  • physical exercise;
  • nervousness;
  • poor, malnutrition.

The risk group for the development of secondary cardiomyopathy includes patients with infectious heart diseases, pathologies of the endocrine (autoimmune) system.

The disease can cause:

  • inflammation of the heart muscle;
  • metabolic changes at the cellular level;
  • intoxication of the body;
  • hormonal disbalance;
  • lack of trace elements, vitamins;
  • alcoholic, chemical, drug poisoning;
  • failure of metabolic processes.

The reasons for the development of primary myopathy have not been established. With congenital pathologies, the heart muscle begins abnormal development even when the fetal tissue is laid. A disease provoked by a genetic factor leads to the development of a dilated or idiopathic form. This can be preceded by infection of the body with bacteria, viruses, toxins, cardiomyocytes. Other reasons:

  • failure of autoimmune processes;
  • heart failure;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • metabolic disease;
  • cytomegalovirus;
  • hepatitis C;
  • coxsackie virus;
  • diseases of the neuromuscular system;
  • imbalance of electrolytes;
  • heart ischemia;
  • amyloidosis.

Bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic infections can cause damage, lead to structural modifications of the myocardium.

With ischemia, the heart muscle begins to suffer from a lack of oxygen, with atherosclerosis, the arteries and vessel lumen sharply narrow. Lack of oxygen in the heart tissue leads to the rapid destruction of cardiomyocytes. Provoking factors:

  • obesity;
  • smoking;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • high cholesterol, lipids in the blood.

Cardiomyopathy is a disease with “cumulative” features, when harmful substances are deposited in the thickness in the heart muscle, leading to:

  • failure of myocardial function;
  • Refsum’s syndrome;
  • Fabry disease;
  • hemochromatosis.

Myocardial function is also disturbed against the background of accumulation of glycogen in the heart.

Symptoms

Signs of the disease are non-specific, inherent in other heart pathologies. With cardiomyopathy, patients complain of:

  • swelling;
  • pain, burning behind the sternum;
  • enlargement of the spleen, liver in size;
  • fainting;
  • shortness of breath;
  • cough;
  • increased heart rate;
  • blanching, yellowing of the skin;
  • fatigue;
  • dizziness;
  • weakness due to oxygen starvation, decreased cardiac output.

Possible complications and prognosis

Without timely and effective treatment, which is prescribed by the results of the diagnosis, dangerous complications can develop. Such problems are more difficult to treat and pose a serious threat to humans. Ischemic cardiomyopathy can lead to the development of the following problems:

  • damage to the conduction of the heart;
  • the formation of extrasystoles (extraordinary contractions);
  • Atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation (pulse frequency can reach 700 per minute);
  • myocardial infarction;
  • heart failure.

Read this list again when you want to postpone a visit to a cardiologist, refuse treatment or therapy.

We cannot please you with a favorable prognosis, since the ischemic form of cardiomyopathy is the most dangerous type of disease. The reasons for this situation are several factors:

  • the development of such forms of arrhythmias that are severe and pose a threat to human life;
  • the likelihood of fatal complications;
  • the need for lengthy and complex operations;
  • use for the treatment of drugs with a strong effect on the body.

In the case of conservative treatment in patients with myocardial viability, the mortality rate is 16%. In the case of surgical treatment, this figure is at around 3,2%.

Only early diagnosis and adherence to the prescribed treatment can save from irreparable consequences. Compliance with preventive measures will eliminate the risk of developing a dangerous illness and protect the heart from negative factors.

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is the main cause of death in patients with various cardiovascular problems. It can cause the development of the following potentially fatal diseases:

  • arrhythmia;
  • acute and chronic heart failure;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • thrombosis.

Each of these complications threatens the patient with serious health consequences and carries a significant risk of death. With early treatment and the appointment of appropriate treatment, these grave consequences can be avoided.

However, the disease does not pass without a trace, since cicatricial deformity of the heart is not restored. It is very important to stop the process in time before it goes too far.

Cause of death in ischemic cardiomyopathy

Coronary cardiomyopathy can cause death. Such situations cannot be called frequent, but they still occur. The disease can proceed calmly, after a cycle of symptomatic manifestations a lull is possible and the person at the same time thinks that the disease has receded. Although this is not so, it is necessary to continue treatment.

disease prevention

No one will take care of your health until you want it. You can prevent the development of many cardiovascular diseases by observing preventive measures. Prevention can be primary and secondary.

Primary prevention is aimed at preventing the formation of the disease. The essence of such measures is as follows:

  • complete rejection of bad habits;
  • daily balanced nutrition;
  • prevention of metabolic disorders;
  • timely treatment to the doctor in case of complaints about the work of the heart and for the treatment of viral diseases;
  • observation by a cardiologist and regular heart diagnostics in the case of a hereditary tendency to form cardiomyopathies.

Secondary prevention is necessary to stop the development of the disease and the formation of concomitant pathologies. These preventive measures include the following rules:

  • decrease in training intensity and refusal of hard work;
  • observation by a cardiologist and regular echocardiography;
  • adherence to therapeutic and drug treatment;
  • monitoring body weight indicators and keeping them within normal limits;
  • elimination of stress factors;
  • maintaining a balanced daily routine;
  • periodic check of indicators of glucose and cholesterol.

Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.

Detonic for pressure normalization

The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.

Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page www.detonicnd.com.

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

Detonic