Lifestyle changes are the most important condition for a full rehabilitation after a heart attack. A necessary step is the correction of the diet. What should be the nutrition after myocardial infarction?
A healthy diet is not just a lot of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains. It is also the correct heat treatment of dishes, which allows you to preserve the useful properties of products.
- Instead of frying the meat in a pan, it is better to wrap the meat in foil and bake in the oven or grill. The same is best done with fish and poultry.
- For frying, use sunflower, olive oil. To less soak oil, use a non-stick pan.
- It is important to cut fat from meat before cooking 3.
- Use a minimum of salt.
- Chill food immediately after preparation. Grease will harden on the surface, after which it can be removed 3.
Which products are better to choose?
- Use non-fat lactic acid products and natural sugar-free yogurt
- Replace sour cream or mayonnaise with cottage cheese with a reduced fat content, natural non-fat yogurt
- Give preference to low-fat cheese
- Use olive and other vegetable oils instead of cooking fats
- Choose lean meat and poultry without skin 3.
The basic principles of a healthy diet, including after a heart attack, are laid down in the Mediterranean diet. Many clinical trials have shown that adhering to it reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases9.
The secret to the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet seems to be explained by its low saturated fat content and high level of unsaturated fat, in particular olive oil and dietary fiber. Olive oil containing monounsaturated fats, and especially oleic acid, has a beneficial effect on health, and its increased consumption reduces the risk of death from all causes, as well as from a heart attack, stroke 10.
The basic principles of the Mediterranean diet:
- Preferred foods: vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, potatoes, whole grains, bread, herbs, spices, fish, seafood, premium unrefined olive oil
- Moderate consumption: poultry, eggs, cheese, yogurt
- Eating 1-2 times a week: red meat
- Products that are best excluded from the diet: sausages, refined oils, cookies, white bread
- Drinking regime: water, coffee and tea, exclude sugar-sweetened drinks and high-sugar fruit juices 9
The Mediterranean diet provides for three meals a day. In between, snacks are allowed – fruits, vegetables, nuts. The amount of fat in the diet should be 25-35% of the total calorie content, while saturated fats should not exceed 8% of the total number of calories11.
The diet contains inexpensive and affordable foods. A wide list of allowed products allows you to adjust the diet as you wish. Costing for the week is 1800-1900 rubles.
This diet is indicated after a myocardial infarction during the recovery period of the patient.
It consists of three rations:
- In the first week, diet 1 is prescribed (mashed dishes; meals 6 times a day).
- In the second and third week, diet 2 is used (ground food; meals 6 times a day).
- On the fourth week, diet 3 is shown (the menu of this diet after myocardial infarction includes foods boiled in pieces; meals 5 times a day).
Dishes for nutrition after a heart attack in the first week should be prepared without salt.
Such a menu after a heart attack improves blood circulation and metabolism, helps to restore the body. Very hot and cold dishes, fried foods should be excluded from the diet. The amount of liquid and salt is recommended to limit.
Before you find out what diet is prescribed after a heart attack, check out the list of foods and dishes recommended and prohibited during the rehabilitation and recovery period.
The diet after a heart attack is designed to help accelerate recovery processes in the myocardium, create favorable conditions for normalizing coronary circulation, normalize metabolism, and ensure full-fledged intestinal function. Clinical nutrition reduces the burden on the kidneys, relieves swelling, helps strengthen the heart muscle, helps in the fight against cardiac arrhythmias and helps maintain all body functions.
After an extensive heart attack, table 10 according to Pevzner is shown. This diet is used for cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the nervous system, it includes products that improve blood circulation and strengthen the heart and blood vessels. Table 10 provides a balanced diet and at the same time, sparing of the body.
For both men and women who have had a myocardial infarction, the following rules should become familiar:
- Eat regularly, evenly distributing the daily menu in small portions. Neither severe hunger nor overeating is equally unacceptable.
- Limit salt intake. Salt helps increase blood pressure, fluid retention in the body and the occurrence of edema;
- Limit the intake of fats and easily digestible carbohydrates.
- Exclude from the diet foods that irritate the gastric mucosa, increase nervous irritability, and cause fluid retention in the body.
- Observe drinking regimen. In the acute and subacute period, the total daily volume of fluid is limited to 1-1,2 liters.
- Enrich the diet with microelements (primarily magnesium, potassium, iodine), vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, products that have an alkalizing effect.
- Culinary processing of products is carried out in gentle ways in order to preserve the maximum amount of nutrients in them.
- Eat food of moderate temperature – from room to warm, too cold and hot dishes are not recommended.
- Limit the daily calorie intake. Since in the post-infarction period, patients are limited in physical activity, it is necessary to ensure that the energy value of food corresponds to the energy expenditure. Overweight patients are recommended to reduce the daily calorie content by 200-300 kcal from the recommended for their age and nature of activity.
Potassium helps to remove excess water from the body, helps to eliminate edema, it is necessary for the normal functioning of blood vessels, capillaries, heart muscle.
Similar requirements for the diet are made after stenting, in addition, in this case, it is especially necessary to carefully monitor the drinking regimen, since it is critically important not to allow dehydration, leading to blood clotting.
For each of the main periods of a heart attack (acute, subacute and scarring), a special diet is recommended.
What can I eat after a heart attack? In the first week after a heart attack, in the acute period, the main diet is liquid and semi-liquid, crushed and mashed dishes.
Allowed: steam meatballs or cutlets of veal, chicken or fish fillet, viscous cereals, milk and sour-milk products, steam omelet, mashed soups, stewed vegetables, fruit and berry compotes, kissels, fruit drinks, rosehip broth.
The daily calorie content is 1100–1300 kcal.
In the acute period of heart attack, pureed soups are recommended for patients
In the second stage, which lasts two to three weeks, the diet becomes less strict. Dishes do not have to be chopped. Fresh and cooked vegetables, easily digestible meat, eggs, dairy products, cereals, bran bread, vegetable and butter, dried fruits should be present in the diet. The daily calorie content is 1600–1800 kcal.
The scarring stage begins about the fourth week after a heart attack and lasts from 2 to 6 months. At this time, the cardiovascular system is adapting to new conditions of functioning. An easily digestible balanced diet rich in potassium is recommended.
Potassium helps to remove excess water from the body, helps to eliminate edema, it is necessary for the normal functioning of blood vessels, capillaries, heart muscle. They are rich in dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins, prunes, etc.), fresh vegetables and fruits, dairy products and fish. It is allowed to consume up to 5 g of salt per day.
Daily calorie content – usually recommended for a given gender, age and occupation.
All dishes should be prepared by dietary methods: boiling, stewing, baking, steaming. In the late rehabilitation period, grilling is allowed. Fried foods should be discarded.
The list of products recommended for use is large enough to provide the patient with a varied and balanced diet for every day:
- lean meat – veal, chicken, turkey, rabbit;
- fish (especially fish in the northern seas, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids);
- dairy products – milk, yogurt, fermented baked milk, kefir, cottage cheese, cheese;
- cereals – oatmeal, buckwheat, millet, rice (especially unpolished);
- bakery products – dried white bread, whole grain bread, non-butter cookies (“Zoological” and the like);
- any vegetables, primarily pumpkin, zucchini, eggplant, tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, potatoes, all kinds of cabbage, onions, garlic, parsley, horseradish, dill, fennel;
- oils – butter, vegetable (olive, sunflower, pumpkin, sesame).
Of the spices, dry herbs that do not have an acute taste are acceptable for use, for example, it is useful to add dried dill, parsley, basil, thyme, etc. to dishes.
What fruits are allowed after a heart attack? Almost any. Especially recommended are citrus fruits, apricots, bananas, grapes, dried fruits (primarily raisins, figs and dried apricots). Berries are welcome in the diet – currants, raspberries, viburnum, blueberries, cranberries.
Dried fruits bring great benefits in the recovery period after a heart attack.
Since myocardial infarction often occurs in overweight people, the use of high-calorie foods, especially fatty foods and pastries, should be limited or completely excluded from the diet.
The main objectives of rehabilitation of a patient after a heart attack and stenting are to restore the patient’s vital functions and reduce the risk of a second attack. The success of rehabilitation measures is largely determined by the correctness of medical nutrition. Diet for myocardial infarction is aimed at:
- normalization of cardiac muscle function and acceleration of reparative processes in the myocardium;
- reducing the load on the cardiovascular system and improving blood circulation in general;
- stabilization of body weight in the presence of obesity;
- normalization of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract.
The main principles of nutrition for post-infarction patients are:
- reduced fat intake (especially foods containing high amounts of saturated fatty acids);
- increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lower blood lipids;
- free fluid restriction;
- increased consumption of foods containing complex carbohydrates and fiber;
- restriction of salt to 3-5 g per day;
- a decrease in the diet of cholesterol-rich foods.
Therapeutic nutrition after myocardial infarction is based on the dietary Table 10I and 10. The diet contains a physiologically normal amount of protein – 80-90 g (60% of animals), a limited fat content – up to 70 g of fat (mainly animal) and 350-400 g carbohydrates (of which about 30 g are the share of simple carbohydrates), consumption of salt is not more than 3-5 g per day. The energy value of the diet is 2300-2400 kcal. The amount of free fluid at 1,2 l / day.
The diet is enriched with Vitamins A, C, D and water-soluble vitamins that improve the metabolic processes in the myocardium, which is achieved by including in the diet the optimal amount of vegetable fat, fresh vegetables and fruits, some cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal), some meat products (veal).
In order to normalize the electrolyte composition of the extracellular / intracellular fluid, which is of great importance in impaired myocardial metabolism, foods containing an increased amount of potassium are introduced into the diet. This is achieved by including in the diet of sick fruits and vegetables, juices and decoctions of them. To improve the contractile function of the heart, calcium is important, which enters the body with dairy products and the presence of which in the diet is mandatory, especially if the heart attack was extensive.
Other trace elements (manganese, magnesium, potassium, iodine), necessary for the normal functioning of the heart muscle, are compensated by the presence in the diet of various products of plant and animal origin, in particular, various seafood (squid, mussels, shrimp, seaweed). To reduce the load on the cardiovascular system, Table 10I provides fractional 5-6 meals a day with the last intake 3 hours before a night’s sleep.
From the diet exclude all products with an exciting effect (coffee, tea, chocolate, spices, cocoa). The specific gravity of products containing dietary fiber (vegetables, cereals, fruits), used in the form of salads or independent dishes, is increasing. It is shown to include different varieties of “white” fish in the diet, since unsaturated fatty acids of fish fats improve cholesterol metabolism.
Dietary nutrition after a heart attack for men and women is built depending on the stage of rehabilitation:
- Stage I – the acute period (the first week after a heart attack) – sparing food (steamed or boiled with rubbing), with the complete exception of salt. Eating 6-7 times a day, in small portions. The total weight of the daily diet is 1700 g. The energy value of the diet is 1100-1300 kcal, with the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the amount of 60, 30 and 180 g; free liquid – up to 0, 8 L. The menu may include: first courses on a vegetable broth with mashed vegetables and cereals; steam cutlets, low-fat beef meatballs, mashed cottage cheese, protein omelet, boiled non-fat white fish varieties, crackers (up to 50 g), low-fat kefir; mashed potatoes of boiled beets, carrots, or potatoes, oatmeal or buckwheat, mashed in milk; liquid jelly, jelly, fruit drinks, broth of wild rose, infusion of dried apricots, prunes or raisins; weak tea with milk, fruit water diluted with water, carrot juices, alkaline non-carbonated mineral water (without gas). All dishes should be warm, butter and refined and vegetable oil should be added only to ready-made dishes.
- Stage II – the subacute period (2-3 weeks after a heart attack) – the weight of the daily diet is not more than 2000. The energy value of 1600-1800 kcal with protein, fat and carbohydrate in the amount of 80:50 and 200 g. Free fluid at level 0,8 , 3 l, salt content – not higher than 6 g. Dishes are steamed, stewed or boiled. Dishes are served in crushed form fractionally, up to 150 times a day. The menu may include soups on a vegetable broth with the addition of well-cooked cereals / vegetables, chopped boiled pieces of low-fat meat / fish, minced meat, unsalted low-fat cheese, mashed potatoes, carrots, beets, cottage cheese and fruit puddings; baked apples, kefir, viscous ungrated cereals (buckwheat, semolina), crackers or dried wheat bread up to 50 g; cauliflower dishes, fruit and milk jelly, compotes and fruit drinks, raw soft fruits without coarse fiber, sugar up to 5 g, weak tea. Refined vegetable and butter (up to XNUMX g), milk is added only to prepared dishes or sauces.
- Stage III – the scarring period (4 weeks) – the weight of the daily diet is not more than 2300 g. The energy value of 2100-2300 kcal with the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the amount of 90:70 and 320 g. The food is boiled, stewed and served in a piece or chopped , 5 times a day. Free liquid at the level of 1 liter, the amount of table salt is not more than 5 g / day. The menu may include crackers or dried wheat bread up to 150 g, first courses, on low-fat non-fat meat or vegetable broth, low-fat ham, boiled fish and boiled meat pasta with cottage cheese, ripe tomatoes, curd puddings with added fruits and cereals, stewed beets with carrots, butter – only in dishes (up to 10 g).
The diet after a heart attack for a man / woman with “overweight” provides for its reduction in order to reduce physical stress on the myocardium and normalize lipid metabolism. This is achieved by holding fasting days in the form of:
- watermelon day 1500 g of ripe watermelon in 5 receptions;
- rice-compote day (1 liter of compote and 100 g of rice porridge);
- 800 ml of fruit juice and 500 g of oatmeal per day;
- apple day (2 kg of baked or mashed apples per day).
Duration of stay at a particular stage of rehabilitation can be extended, especially after extensive myocardial infarction, in the presence of complications. The diet after the scarring stage should correspond to Table No. 10 with a minimum content of fats and salt.
Figures and Facts
People who have had a heart attack have a higher risk of new cardiovascular events than those who have a healthy heart1. Significantly reduce the risk of changes in lifestyle. According to statistics, effective prevention of recurring cardiovascular events due to lifestyle changes in the United States alone saves 80 lives per year000!
According to studies, smoking cessation, regular physical activity and diet correction reduce mortality by 20-35% 1. However, despite such a powerful preventive effect, not all people are in a hurry to switch to a special diet after myocardial infarction. It is known that only 43,4% of patients with cardiovascular diseases in high-income countries and 25,8% with low adhere to the principles of a healthy diet1.
In the presence of a circulatory insufficiency or arterial hypertension in a patient who has had myocardial infarction, a potassium diet can be prescribed, which has a diuretic effect, normalizes sodium-potassium metabolism, improves myocardial condition, and lowers blood pressure. The diet of potassium diet includes foods containing a lot of potassium and poor in sodium (the ratio of these micronutrients should be from 8: 1 to 14: 1).
In the daily diet, the potassium content should vary between 5-7 g, which is ensured by the inclusion in the diet of baked potatoes, dried apricots, raisins, rose hips, nuts, cabbage; veal, milk, low-fat cottage cheese, vegetable oil, citrus, oat, barley and wheat groats; prunes, gooseberries, black currants.
Basic principles of a healthy diet1:
- Eating vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts and seeds daily
- The predominance of healthy fats in the diet
- Eating fish or seafood two to three times a week
- Limiting the consumption of fried and baked dishes, especially chips, biscuits, cakes and other white flour baked goods
- Limit salt intake.
An approximate scheme of a healthy diet, built in accordance with the fundamental principles of diet selection for cardiovascular diseases2:
- At least five servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit per day. Recall, serving – about as much as fits on the palm of your hand (about 80 g)
- The presence in the diet of whole grain bread, pasta from durum wheat, rice
- Preference for lean meat (fat should be cut off and skin removed from the bird). Limit the use of processed meat – sausages, sausages and other meat delicacies
- The presence in the diet of two to three servings of fish and seafood per week. They can be either fresh or canned or frozen.
- The presence in the diet of legumes. At least twice a week, the menu should include lentils, peas, dried or canned beans, etc.
- Eating about six eggs per week
- Limit to a minimum consumption of pickled, fatty foods, pastries, sweets
- Preference for skim milk and milk products over fatty milk products
- The presence in the diet of unsaturated fats for cooking. Instead of spread, mayonnaise, margarine use of sunflower, olive, soybean, sesame oil
- Limiting the use of sugary drinks and tea; replacing coffee with caffeinated drinks.
The state of complete or partial narrowing of the lumen of the vessel that feeds the heart causes the necrosis of its muscle – a heart attack. This is a life-threatening disease. The first day the patient is prescribed a stationary bed rest.
Recovery, restoration of blood circulation in the affected muscle, its gradual activation is achieved in various ways, not excluding nutrition.
The diet after a heart attack has clear limitations on the amount of water, salt, protein, and cholesterol that should come with food.
Nutrition after myocardial infarction, cooking methods and grinding products directly depend on the period of the pathology (acute, subacute, scarring time). This is due to the severity of the general condition of the patient and his motor ability. Cases of small focal heart attacks are sometimes carried on their feet. In other situations, the patient is strictly shown bed rest.
The heart attack diet has the following goals:
- gentle movements of the esophagus, diaphragm, stomach during digestion;
- ensuring the smooth operation of the intestine;
- conservation of energy costs by the body;
- prevention of the development of pathologies that can exacerbate the overall picture;
- strengthening the patient, the return of lost strength after an attack.
Dividing the treatment menu according to Pevzner for the post-infarction state of the myocardium determines the dietary nutrition of table number 10. This diet recommends eating fractionally, with limited fluid, salt, calories, the absolute exclusion of animal fats.
Depending on the time period that has passed since the day of the attack, they share:
- Diet 1, is a meal in the first week after a heart attack. This period is considered acute, the patient is shown complete rest, any minimal movement can cause a relapse. Dishes are prepared mashed, this facilitates their assimilation and is absolutely not salty. You need to feed the patient often (6 times a day), in small portions. Mandatory exclusion of prohibited products.
- Diet 2, makes meals in the second or third week from the date of the attack and is a subacute period. It is necessary to gradually increase the load of the digestive system. To do this, they do not grind the food, but grind it, continue to feed often and fractionally.
- One month after a heart attack, a scarring period begins. Then they start a diet 3. This type of food continues to spare the digestive organs, but activates and normalizes their work in a healthy mode. The patient needs a varied nutritious meal.
Common to all three diets is the inadmissibility of cold or hot food. If the patient does not want to eat, you cannot force or persuade. The time after a heart attack, divided into diets, can vary individually and depends on the severity of the heart attack and the volume of heart damage.
In addition to the restriction in the use of fluid and salt, after myocardial infarction, the main prohibited parameter is cholesterol. It is present in the body in two forms. The first envelops the walls of blood vessels, makes it difficult to move, and collects in plaques.
The second is the necessary one, it is involved in the splitting of the previous one. The intake of “harmful” cholesterol depends on food, which regularly saturates the blood with its elements. Immediately after the attack, foods that stimulate fermentation and bloating should be excluded.
Based on these requirements, prohibited products include:
- bread and flour products;
- egg yolks;
- peas and beans;
- fatty types of meat, fish and fat;
- rich meat broths;
- high-fat dairy products (whole milk, cream, homemade cottage cheese and kefir, cooked pastry creams);
- coffee, chocolate, strong tea;
- mustard, horseradish, hot pepper, garlic;
- carbonated drinks.
It stimulates the nervous system and makes the circulatory system actively work alcohol. Therefore, during the recovery period after a heart attack, such loads are strictly contraindicated.
There is a theory that 30 grams of brandy, drunk regularly, can protect against a heart attack or prevent its recurrence. This statement requires the fulfillment of the main condition – compliance with a dose of strictly 30 grams.
The harm from smoking after a heart attack is confirmed by its relapse in smokers.
To actively help the heart after the necrosis of its site, you need to eat foods high in potassium, calcium, magnesium. These microelements help strengthen the walls of blood vessels, muscle fibers and are necessary for the restoration of the myocardium.
At the same time, we need products that stimulate intestinal motility, and prevent constipation. Their list:
- crackers, yesterday’s dried bread;
- honey (they should replace sugar, jam);
- soups on vegetable broths;
- types of meat (veal, beef, chicken, turkey, rabbit, game);
- egg whites;
- dried apricots, raisins, prunes, pomegranates, dogwood, sea buckthorn;
- milk only with tea or in the preparation of cereals;
- cottage cheese, kefir;
- low-fat fish, seaweed, mussels;
- baked potatoes, other baked vegetables and fruits.
It is easy to diversify the diet menu with salads from beets, carrots, celery, radishes with the addition of prunes, sour cream. Significantly violate, as well as make changes to the diet established by the doctor, is possible only after agreement with him.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page .
Treatment of myocardial infarction is achieved by medication and surgery. Online help is performed in one of the following ways:
- Stenting of the vessels of the heart (installation of a stent or scaffold for expansion).
- Coronary artery bypass grafting (bypassing the affected area, restore blood flow using a shunt).
After the operation, it is important to eat right throughout life and take a blood test for cholesterol and lipids at least 3 times a year. This will prevent clogging of the shunt with an atherosclerotic plaque and keep the stent intact.
It is worth recommending a complete rejection of animal fats, limited use of sunflower and butter. You need to exclude bacon, sausages, lard, pastes, mushrooms, tomatoes. It is good to eat vegetables and greens.
Preference should be given to white fish, wild berries (blackberries, blueberries, strawberries), dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins, dates, figs).
|1 diet||morning after sleep||100g oatmeal porridge without sugar, with honey, 150 ml of herbal tea|
|2 morning meal||mashed apple|
|lunch||mashed vegetable soup, 50 g of fish steam patties, 100 g of carrot puree seasoned with sunflower oil, 100 g fruit jelly|
|afternoon snack||50g softened low-fat cottage cheese, 100g broth of wild rose|
|dinner||100 g of mashed buckwheat porridge with chicken meatballs, 150 ml of tea with lemon|
|before bedtime||100 gr of prune decoction|
|2 diet||After sleep||scrambled eggs, yolk-free, fruit jelly|
|2 morning meal||150 grams of cottage cheese with milk, 180 gr broth of wild rose|
|lunch||250 g of borsch on vegetable broth, 150 g of mashed potato, 55 g of boiled veal, 100 g of fruit jelly|
|afternoon snack||100 baked pumpkin or apples|
|dinner||100 g of vegetable stew, 50 g of boiled fish of low-fat variety, 180 g of tea with lemon|
|before bedtime||180 gr low-fat kefir|
|3 diet||After sleep||150 buckwheat porridge with 10 g butter, tea with milk, 30 g cheese|
|2 morning meal||150 grams of cottage cheese, dried apricots, raisins, 180 ml dried fruit compote|
|lunch||250 grams of vegetable soup with beef meatballs, bread crumbs, 150 grams of beets stewed in sour cream, a slice of boiled chicken, 100 grams of fresh apples|
|dinner||150 gr mashed potatoes, boiled fish, seaweed salad, tea with milk|
|before bedtime||180 gr kefir|
It can be difficult for women to refuse chocolate, cakes and cream cakes. It is important to make and replace confectionery, pastries and pastries with mousses, puddings, jellies, fruit jelly, casseroles. Over time, such an exchange will become a habit. Common recommendations for men and women are:
- adjust weight;
- discard salt;
- avoid preservatives;
- drink liquids in limited quantities.
Healthy food recipes cleanse and strengthen not only the cardiovascular system. They adjust the work of the stomach, intestines, do not provoke the gall bladder and kidneys to stone formation. Any exacerbation of other diseases with a heart attack is fraught with life-threatening consequences.
Men, according to physiological characteristics, hormonal background, physical activity and their own habits, are prone to the accumulation of cholesterol. This also reflects the fact that women are less prone to heart attack.
|Morning after sleep||buckwheat porridge in milk, weak tea with lemon, oatmeal cookies|
|Next morning meal||cottage cheese casserole or protein omelet, salad from grated apple and carrots|
|Dinner||vegetable broth soup, mashed potatoes with boiled chicken, vegetable salad with generous greens, seasoned with olive oil, fruit jelly|
|Afternoon snack||dried apricots, dates, raisins|
|Dinner||boiled rice with baked white fish steak, beetroot salad, dried fruit compote|
|Three hours before bedtime||low-fat kefir|
Useful Elements in Foods: Antioxidants
Nutrition after a heart attack should be balanced, and food should be easy to digest. When dieting after myocardial infarction, the menu should include only those products that do not harm the weakened body.
|Rusks and dried wheat bread (diets 1 and 2)||Bakery products and pastries|
|Yesterday’s wheat bread, rye bread (ration 3)||Fatty, spicy and salty snacks, smoked meats|
|Beets, carrots, tomatoes and cauliflower salads (rations 2 and 3)||Pork, lamb, offal, duck and goose meat, canned meat|
|Vegetable soups with mashed cereals (ration 1)||Smoked meats and sausages|
|Vegetarian soups with mashed vegetables; low-fat meat broth (rations 2 and 3)||Fatty, salted, smoked, fried fish|
|Steam cutlets and meatballs from lean meat (ration 1)||Canned Fish and Seafood|
|Braised and steam cutlets; lean meat boiled in a piece (rations 2 and 3)||Cream, fat curd|
|Steam cutlets and meatballs from low-fat fish (ration 1)||Fried eggs, hard-boiled and soft-boiled eggs|
|Braised or boiled fillet; soaked herring (rations 2 and 3)||Meat fats, ghee, margarine, cooking oil|
|Milk, 1% Kefir |
Mashed cottage cheese, low-fat unsalted cheese (ration 3)
|Radish, radish, garlic, onions, cabbage, green peas, zucchini, cucumbers, mushrooms, spinach, sorrel|
|Steamed protein omelette, egg flakes||Dishes of their salted, pickled and pickled vegetables|
|Semolina, mashed buckwheat and oatmeal porridge in milk (ration 1)||Coarse-grained fruits, grapes|
|Viscous buckwheat porridge, semolina casserole (ration 2)||Cakes|
|Buckwheat-curd pudding, semolina casserole with apples, boiled vermicelli (ration3)||Chocolate creams|
|Unsalted butter, vegetable oil||Fish, meat and mushroom sauces|
|Potato, carrot, beetroot puree (ration 1)||Mustard, Horseradish, Pepper |
Natural and instant coffee, cocoa, chocolate drinks
|Cauliflower, boiled vegetables; fresh carrots (ration 2)||Alcoholic drinks|
|Braised beets and carrots; tomatoes (ration 3)||Carbonated drinks, kvass|
|Applesauce, jelly, mousse; prunes and dried apricots puree (ration 1)|
|Ripe fruits and berries; jam (rations 2 and 3)|
|Vegetable, dairy and fruit sauces|
|Loose tea, coffee substitute drinks|
|Vegetable, fruit juices, compotes|
|Broth of a dogrose|
|Still mineral water|
When compiling a menu after myocardial infarction, be sure to consider the general condition of the patient.
The biochemical composition of food products of animal and plant origin is rich and diverse, it contains a large number of various biologically active compounds, without which human life is impossible. First of all, these are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral salts. In addition, tannins, pectins, enzymes, volatile, organic acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and many other substances contained in plants play an important role for human health.
With a deficiency of any of these elements in food, a person develops various ailments, and even serious diseases, and the lack of one of these nutrients is not compensated by an excess of others. We obtain some organic substances for nutrition with animal food, and others with vegetable.
To maintain health, it is necessary that vitamins, minerals and organic substances contained in food are always included in the diet, and in a balanced way.
In addition to organic compounds, the body also needs inorganic substances, which must be in easily digestible form. People also get them with food, and the role of minerals in human nutrition is difficult to overestimate.
Proteins are organic compounds that are the basis of cells and serve as a material for building cells, tissues, organs and for maintaining these structures, as well as for the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, hemoglobin, antibodies and other vital substances; participate in the process of assimilation of vitamins, fats, carbohydrates and mineral salts, ensure the growth and development of the body.
With a deficiency of organic substances in the products, the body’s activity is disturbed, atrophic changes occur in the internal organs, including in the lungs and bronchi, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts are poorly absorbed, immunity decreases (including against influenza, SARS and other diseases) . They are rich in proteins: meat, fish, eggs, peas, beans, dairy products.
What other substances are part of the products, and what is their role in supporting the body?
Fats are also organic compounds that can be of either animal or plant origin. They are part of the cell membranes, supply the body with energy reserves (have a high energy value), participate in the synthesis of hormones and prostaglandins, in metabolic processes, promote the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D, etc.).
), provide absorption in the intestines of certain substances, promote the production of bile, are sources of essential fatty acids for the body. Subcutaneous fat protects the human body from cold and damage, and internal fat protects our internal organs from shaking and internal damage. In addition, they are a reserve of energy material for the human body.
Carbohydrates are complex organic compounds. They can be simple (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and complex (starch). Sugars (mainly glucose) are the main suppliers of energy for our body, are part of enzymes, hormones, cells and tissues, and are involved in fat and protein metabolism.
Organic acids are complex organic substances found in all fruits, berries, vegetables, herbs and other plant products. Being in them in different quantities and combinations, they determine the taste of berries, fruits, vegetables and herbs. Organic acids play an important role in the metabolism and various processes of the human body, slow down the aging process in it, including the respiratory system.
Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, coffee, shikimovaya, gallic, protocatechuic, etc.) stimulate the liver and kidneys, have anti-inflammatory and capillary-strengthening effect. These organic substances that make up the products have a beneficial effect on the respiratory system. Many phenolic acids are found in apples, pears, quinces, barberries and lingonberries.
Speaking about what is a part of food, one should not forget about vitamins.
Vitamins are complex biologically active substances necessary for the normal functioning of our body, which are involved in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates and are catalysts for the chemical processes that occur in our body. Some of them are part of enzymes and hormones.
These substances contained in food products perform a certain function in the human body. Most of the vitamins we get with vegetable, some with animal food. Some of them (for example, vitamins of group B, K) can be synthesized by beneficial intestinal microorganisms.
Most vitamins are found in berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs and nuts. If any of them is deficient, the functioning of certain organs or systems of organs, including the respiratory system, is disrupted, which is accompanied by the development of various diseases. The lack of one vitamin is not compensated by the excess of others. Vitamins are divided into water-soluble and fat-soluble. The main vitamins that we should receive with food: A, groups B, C, D, P, PP, E, K and U.
Pectins and fiber are of great importance for human health. They practically do not digest and do not serve as a source of energy, but they play a large role in the process of food digestion, enhance intestinal motility and bile secretion, positively affect the intestinal microflora, and promote the elimination of excess cholesterol, toxins, and heavy metal salts from the body (lead, cobalt, strontium and etc.).
Many of these compounds are found in apples, pears and vegetables (carrots, rutabaga, various types of cabbage, etc.).
Essential oils are complex volatile organic compounds with a specific odor, causing the smell of fruits, berries and other plant products. They are found in leaves, flowers, fruits and other parts of plants.
Aromatic herbs are especially rich in them. These organic substances in foods have phytoncide, anti-inflammatory and expectorant effects, soothe cough, stimulate the activity of the digestive system, and have a therapeutic effect on the respiratory system.
Resins are liquid non-volatile substances, similar to essential oils, which have a specific (for each plant) smell. These useful substances in food have a bactericidal, wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect.
Therapeutic nutrition for diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Myocardial infarction
- promoting recovery processes in the heart muscle;
- improving blood circulation and metabolism;
- reduce the load on the heart and blood vessels;
- normalization of motor activity of the intestine.
Therapeutic diet No. 10 And, after a heart attack, it has a significant decrease in energy value, which is caused by a decrease in proteins, carbohydrates and especially fats, a decrease in the amount of food consumed, and limitations in the amount of salt and liquid.
It is forbidden to consume foods that are difficult to digest, cause fermentation in the intestines, provoke flatulence, foods rich in cholesterol, animal fats, sugar. There is also a ban on extractive substances found in meat and fish.
Recommended products containing lipotropic substances, vitamin C, potassium, and products that stimulate the motor function of the intestine, which is especially important for constipation.
The heart attack diet contains three diets that are sequentially prescribed by a doctor.
Diet I is prescribed in the first week, in the most acute period of the disease. With this diet, pureed dishes and a six-time diet are recommended.
Diet II is used in the second or third week, or subacute period. At this stage, the use of mainly ground food is allowed six times a day.
For all three diets, foods are boiled without adding salt, cold dishes and drinks are prohibited, the temperature of which does not exceed 15 degrees.
The chemical composition of the diet after a heart attack (I diet):
- 50 g protein;
- 30-40 g of fat;
- 150-200 g of carbohydrates;
- 0,7-0,8 l of liquid.
The calorie content of the diet after a heart attack is 1100-1300 calories, the weight of the diet is 1,6-1,7 kg. Salt is prohibited.
The chemical composition of the diet after a heart attack (II diet):
- 60-70 g of protein;
- 50-60 g of fat;
- 230-250 g of carbohydrates;
- 0,9-1,0 fluid.
The calorie diet for a heart attack is 1600-1800 calories, the weight of the diet is 2 kg. Salts – no more than 3 g.
The chemical composition of the therapeutic diet after a heart attack (III diet):
- 85-90 g of protein;
- 70 g fat;
- 300-320 g of carbohydrates;
- 5-6 g of salt;
- 1-1,1 l of liquid.
The calorie content of the diet is 2100-2300 calories, the weight of the diet is 2,2-2,3 kg. On hands 5-6 g of salt are issued.
The consumption of a large amount of saturated fat leads to an increase in cholesterol, mainly due to an increase in the content of the fraction of low density lipoproteins – the so-called bad cholesterol. Studies show that replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils in the diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular events by 17% 4.
Sources of saturated fats in the diet are animal fats found in meat, poultry, and dairy products. They are also part of some vegetable oils, in particular palm and coconut. Saturated fat reserves are contained in finished products – cookies, pastries, semi-finished products with cheese and meat4.
Another very important risk factor for the development of pathology of the heart and blood vessels is trans fats. They increase the likelihood of developing coronary heart disease more than any other nutrient. Cardiovascular risk is doubled with each increase of 2% in the number of calories ingested with trans fats3.
Trans fats increase blood levels of total and “bad” cholesterol, as well as lower the level of “good” cholesterol — high density lipoproteins5. A small amount of trans fats is found in dairy products, beef, veal, lamb. But a much larger share in the diet can be occupied by industrial, artificial trans fats.
They are used in baking, so trans fats are rich in cookies, cakes, rolls and other goodies. Keep in mind that trans fats are also found in butter: it contains 50% saturated and 4% trans fats. In accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization, the amount of saturated fat in the diet should be less than 10% of total energy consumption, and the number of trans fats should be less than 1%. Unsaturated fats should be used as a substitute6.
Much attention should be paid to controlling salt intake. It is known that excessive consumption of salty foods leads to the development of arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. If you consume more than 5 g of salt per day, the risk of heart and blood vessel diseases increases by 17%, and the risk of stroke by 23% 7.
After a myocardial infarction, as well as after stenting, salt intake should be carefully monitored, given that it is found in many finished products, including biscuits, semi-finished meat and deli foods, sauces, pizza, hamburgers, etc. The World Health Organization recommends consuming no more than 5 g of salt per day6.
. and alcohol
A close relationship between excessive alcohol consumption and the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular cardiomyopathy, arterial hypertension, arrhythmia, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, has been proved. “Excessive” refers to the intake of three or more units of alcohol per day8.
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One alcohol unit is contained in 100 ml of wine or in 285 ml of beer or in 30 ml of strong alcoholic drinks. Certain norms of alcohol consumption in a healthy diet as such do not exist. Obviously, one should strive to exclude alcoholic beverages from the diet, or at least minimize their consumption8.