Proper nutrition after myocardial infarction for men and women is compiled individually, taking into account the characteristics of the body, the degree of damage, the individual intolerance of some products and the stage of the disease. The diet differs markedly depending on the period after a heart attack. Some products are strictly prohibited at the very beginning of rehabilitation, but they can be included at a later stage.
Therefore, the diet after a heart attack is divided into three stages:
- in the acute period;
- in the subacute period;
- when scarring.
If you eat right during these periods, supplementing healthy foods by observing all the other doctor’s prescriptions, you will be able to speed up recovery processes and significantly increase the chances of effective rehabilitation. Let’s consider each stage separately.
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These are the first days after the relief of an attack in a person. Food for patients is selected based on their current general condition. In some cases, you have to eat with a probe, introducing food in liquid form through special tubes. If the patient is able to chew on his own, then after a heart attack and stenting, the daily diet is divided into at least 6 servings. Receptions should be frequent, but in small quantities. This will not overload the digestive tract.
In this period, the patient’s mobility is minimal, because of which low-calorie foods are selected for women and men. This can include meat that does not contain lard, simple soups on the water, cereals and vegetables that have been cooked by heat. Before reception, all dishes are necessarily crushed into a puree state.
- strong tea;
- butter products;
- smoked meats.
If you start to eat rough and long-digested food on the first day, this will negatively affect the general condition and lead to some complications.
It begins about 7 days after a heart attack. After stenting, recovery is not so intense, therefore it is recommended not to rush to the transition to a more diverse and not properly processed food. Here you can eat a wider list of foods, as the patient’s condition improves. Gradually, if the restoration is going according to plan, the food is given in whole form, without processing in a blender. The recommendations remain the same:
- no harmful products;
- nothing fried, smoked, salty and fat;
- the diet is based on low-calorie dishes.
You can eat often, more than 6 times a day. But do not forget to drink and adhere to the principles of separate nutrition. So the digestive system can more easily cope with the digestion of food, relieving the patient of a sense of discomfort.
The diet after a heart attack during scarring starts from 4 weeks or later, depending on the rate of recovery. The intake of strictly low-calorie food continues. But it is important to diversify the menu and ensure a balance of vitamins and minerals. Limitations, as in all previous stages, apply to:
You can eat more different foods. Doctors recommend diversifying the diet for women and men with the following dishes:
- steamed, boiled or baked food in the oven;
- a variety of vegetables (focus on different types of cabbage, pumpkin and carrots);
- fruits (preferably seasonal, not causing allergic reactions).
If there are no restrictions and individual intolerance, periodically, quality seafood, dried fruits useful for the gastrointestinal tract, and nuts rich in vitamins and minerals are necessarily added to the menu. The exception is peanuts, which contain little benefit.
A feature of the menu for men is a reduction in the amount of fat in the diet. Meat in the first weeks after MI is especially dangerous because it creates an additional load on the digestive tract and requires a lot of energy for digestion.
In the most acute period, food requirements are highest. Food should be steamed or boiled, grated to small pieces.
The basis of the menu is low-fat decoctions, cereals, mashed vegetables. Of animal products, fish is recommended, it is easily digestible and meets dietary requirements. In addition, dried fruit compote, rosehip broth, fruit drinks are introduced. Salt is completely absent. Calorie intake of the daily volume of food should not exceed 1100-1300 kcal.
After 2-4 weeks, a diet after a heart attack allows you to enter lean meat in a stew. Food can already be crushed not so much.
The diet is supplemented with raw vegetables, berries. The amount of salt is not more than 3 g. The daily caloric content of dishes increases to 1600-1800 kcal.
After 4 weeks, the scarring period begins. This means that the diet is further softened, boiled meat, ham, soups on a secondary broth are added to it. Also complemented are fresh vegetables; butter (up to 50 g) added to the side dish; yesterday’s bread or crackers.
Dried fruits increase the myocardial regenerative ability: dried apricots, prunes, dates, apples. Compote of them will speed up the healing process of the heart muscle.
For women with myocardial ischemia, the main enemy is low-density cholesterol (LDL). It is found in excess in trans fats. The following products should be excluded:
- pork and lamb;
- high fat dairy products.
To reduce LDL, it is recommended to use vegetable oil, fish, poultry (white meat). Do not forget about fiber in vegetables and fruits. At the first stage of the disease, fermented milk products, cereals with the addition of vegetable oil are included in the food.
It is important for women to significantly reduce the amount of sweets. In addition to the usual menu, you need to drink carrot juice with olive oil.
Nutrition after myocardial infarction in men in the acute period has its own characteristics. It is an important part of the treatment of the disease and should help accelerate the patient’s healing process.
These days, a sick man can eat exclusively light and low-fat foods, for example, dairy products. Nutritionists strongly advise such patients to introduce boiled cereals, vegetable decoctions, carrot juice into the diet.
According to statistics, most sick men who have had MI are overweight or suffer from varying degrees of obesity. As you know, it is these fat deposits that are a common cause of hypertension and contribute to cholesterol desimination of the vascular wall, leading to atherosclerosis. Therefore, every man who has experienced an acute attack of myocardial ischemia with tissue necrosis should monitor the calorie content of the food that he absorbs. Sugar is best replaced with honey, and pasta and bread with cereals, vegetables and fruits.
Patients in the acute post-infarction period are strictly prohibited:
- salt, even in minimal amounts;
- coarse fiber, bread, pastry, pastries, pasta;
- smoked meats and fried foods;
- spicy food;
- beans, tomatoes, grapes;
- mushrooms in any form;
- dairy products, with the exception of yogurt and kefir.
In the subacute period, dietitians advise their patients to eat foods rich in carbohydrates and almost completely abandon fats. This will maintain the level of cholesterol in the blood at the proper level and will not lead to another spasm of the coronary arteries. The diet of such men should be individually drawn up taking into account the weight of the patient, his daily requirement for calories, the presence of concomitant diseases, and the like.
What should be completely excluded from the menu in the subacute post-infarction period?
The following product groups are strictly prohibited:
- coffee, strong tea, other caffeinated drinks and food;
- chocolate, sweets;
- spicy spices;
- butter, margarine and other animal fats;
- alcoholic beverages.
Nutritionists warn that men after suffering a myocardial infarction should monitor the calorie content of their daily diet, which should not exceed 1200 kcal / day. Salt intake can be increased to 4-5 grams per day.
The scarring period, as a rule, for many patients is characterized by an increase in vitality. At this stage, a sick person who has had a heart attack feels almost healthy and ready to return to a normal lifestyle. As for nutrition, here nutritionists still recommend to wait, and not to rush with the abundance of products that the modern market offers us.
The calorie content of food consumed throughout the day can be increased to 2000-2300 kcal, divided into 3-4 doses. Still, do not abuse salt and start leaning on fatty as well as fried foods. It should be remembered that the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins and fats should be within 4: 3: 1. It is better for patients to take easily digestible food, vegetarian dishes, and before going to bed to drink a glass of kefir.
As for the drinking regime, here too there are some peculiarities.
The fact is that for the normal functioning of the male body should be regularly replenished with water. This will help him quickly recover after an illness, improve the rheological properties of blood, prevent blood clots, and much more.
During scarring, a man should eat apples, dried fruits, greens, spinach, rosehip broth, enriched with vitamin C, vegetable puree or stew, low-fat cottage cheese, chicken, veal, rice, buckwheat and low-fat fish.
As you know, the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction is not always implemented conservatively. Sometimes, to save the life of a sick person, he needs an operation to restore coronary circulation, which is called stenting. This surgical intervention implies the introduction of a special stent into the lumen of the coronary vessel, which allows you to keep the diameter of the coronary artery at the proper level.
Nutrition in the first days after surgery should be fractional (in small quantities) and approximately six or seven times. It is necessary to completely exclude salt and use an adequate amount of liquid, so as not to provoke the development of swelling and heart failure. Carbohydrates should predominate in the diet, but fats should be minimized.
The most common recipes
Recommended as part of a diet after MI simple recipes:
- vegetable stew;
- steam cutlet;
- dumplings, meatballs;
- canned stewed meat;
- soufflé from lean meat;
- vegetable cottage cheese casserole;
- veggie borscht.
At first, the menu does not differ in variety, since it consists of boiled and chopped components. The list also does not include cereals, which are prepared first on the water and wiped through a sieve, and later are already made with the addition of milk and butter.
Consider the most popular recipes for dishes on the menu for myocardial infarction, which are suitable for use in the recovery period after a disease, they will be included in your diet and form the basis of your diet:
- An important hot meal is soup. This dish is an indispensable part of any diet, as it can not only satisfy your hunger, but also do not overload the patient’s gastrointestinal tract. In this recovery period after a heart attack, it is better to give preference to vegetarian or fish varieties of this dish. To prepare one of them you will need carrots, frozen green peas, a mixture of herbs for spices. All the ingredients are cooked, after which puree is prepared from the resulting mixture using a blender. Before serving, add a small amount of crackers and low-fat sour cream.
- Air souffle for the second dish. For cooking, you need meat of a dietary grade, which must be cut into medium-sized slices and then carefully crushed using a blender. Gradually add milk and egg white during the grinding process. Salt is best replaced with spices or herbs. The resulting mass should be poured into a special container, previously lubricated with olive oil. Further cooking is done in the oven.
- As a dessert, applesauce “Sissy” is perfect. Consider the recipe for this delicacy, which can be easily prepared. For cooking, you need peeled apples and a little granulated sugar. The fruit must be boiled over low heat, in the process gradually adding liquid, depending on its evaporation. In conclusion, the boiled ingredients are mashed using a blender, after which condensed milk is added to the resulting mass. Since the dish is quite high-calorie, you can only use it for those patients who do not suffer from the presence of extra pounds. For those who have violations of blood sugar levels, this product is extremely contraindicated.
The composition of dishes in the recovery period after myocardial infarction may vary depending on individual taste preferences. In the case of non-compliance with certain rules and dietary requirements after myocardial infarction for men, negative and rather unpleasant consequences can occur. The main ones include a violation of the heartbeat and the conduction process of this internal organ, the formation of heart failure, the occurrence of blood clots, a recurrent attack of a heart attack and, even worse, a fatal outcome.
Thus, myocardial infarction is a rather serious disease that requires not only well-chosen treatment, but also a special diet that must comply with certain rules and requirements of the composition and preparation of dishes. This will allow you to avoid possible complications and quickly return the body to shape.
Pros and cons, contraindications
A big minus of the diet is that it is tasteless and looks rather unappetizing, especially for gourmets.
Getting used to such a diet is quite difficult. For this, a person must have a very strong motivation to return to a healthy lifestyle.
In this case, the menu is adjusted after consultation with a specialist.
The consequences of non-diet
It is especially important to ensure the right meal right after a heart attack. Do not belittle the importance of the diet: chewing food and motor movements of the esophagus, raising the diaphragm take away the strength of the patient, who are already absent.
If nutrition recommendations are not followed, then the patient has a scarring period, a recurrence of a heart attack may occur, when repeated ischemia occurs even before scarring of the wound on the myocardium.
In the delayed period, fatty and cholesterol foods lead to the opposite process, when the vessels are clogged with plaques and deposits, their lumen is narrowed. It is more difficult for a heart with a scar to pump blood under such conditions, a myocardial rupture appears in the same or another place.
Sample diet menu for the day
- For breakfast we cook rice porridge with dried apricots and prunes, you can add honey to it, drink a glass of herbal tea.
- Lunch will consist of half a glass of fresh or frozen berries.
- For lunch, we prepare vegetable soup and pasta from durum wheat with seafood and tomato sauce, for dessert we eat fruit jelly, drink a glass of cranberry juice.
- At mid-afternoon, we indulge ourselves with a piece of cottage cheese casserole with a cup of tea.
- We will have dinner with boiled fish fillet, prepare a salad with fresh vegetables or steamed vegetables seasoned with olive oil for a side dish, and drink a glass of fermented baked milk.
It is not recommended to make a diet on your own, a specialist should do this. You will eat dishes that will help strengthen the heart muscle and increase the elasticity of blood vessels, which will prevent a recurrence of a heart attack and quickly return you to a full, full life.
Proper nutrition allows you to solve several problems:
- start tissue repair after ischemia;
- get rid of necrosis products;
- eliminate the load on the CCC;
- normalize the metabolism;
- monitor the activity of the intestine and the entire digestive tract;
- help tissue restore integrity.
Depending on the stage of the process, the diet is adjusted with gradual relaxation.
Clinical nutrition begins already in the hospital, and each disease has its own dietary features. To deal with them, special tables have been developed.
With a heart attack, a 10I diet is in effect. Then the patient switches to anticholesterol nutrition, table number 10. The patient should adhere to it for life.
The patient is in the intensive care unit at this time. On the first day, he may eat nothing, especially if surgical intervention was required as part of the therapy.
The main requirement for the most difficult period is to reduce the calorie content of dishes and liquids, grind to the maximum so that food does not even have to be chewed.
Additionally, an expansion of the diet is required to include vitamins, trace elements that are required for the activity of the heart muscle (magnesium, potassium).
The scarring period lasts about 8 weeks. During this time, you must steadily follow a diet. It is possible to adhere to recommendations on the 3rd stage of nutrition in the future, this will be the prevention of relapse, repeated heart attack.
During the rehabilitation period, a positive attitude is very important.
Women will like milkshakes with berries and fruits, and men can treat themselves to chicken or grilled fish pre-marinated in lemon juice during the scarring period.
During the day, it is advisable to drink clean water at room temperature in small sips. This will improve digestion and prevent thirst from developing with limited fluid intake.
The diet after a heart attack is of a medicinal nature, it:
- promotes recovery processes in the heart muscle;
- improves blood circulation and metabolism;
- reduces the load on the CCC;
- normalizes intestinal motor function.
The following products are excluded:
- causing fermentation in the intestines and excessive gas formation (flatulence);
- rich in sugar, animal fats and cholesterol;
- extractive substances of fish and meat.
It includes foods rich in lipotropic substances, potassium, vitamins P and C, as well as mildly stimulating intestinal motility (to combat constipation). Prepare food without table salt. Exclude cold drinks and meals.
Diet number 10i consists of three consecutively assigned rations:
- The 1st diet is necessary in the acute period (1st week of illness) – dishes in a pureed form;
- The 2nd diet is necessary in the subacute period (2-3rd week) – dishes are mainly chopped;
- The 3rd diet is necessary during the scarring period (4th week and beyond) – ground meals and pieces.
The table below shows the chemical composition and energy value of the daily diet of the three types of diet No. 10i.
|Composition and energy value||1 diet||2 diet||3 diet|
|Proteins||50 grams||60–70 grams||85–90 grams|
|Fats||30–40 grams||50–60 grams||70 grams|
|Carbohydrates||150–200 grams||230–250 grams||300–320 grams|
|Free fluid||700-800 ml||900-1000 ml||1000-1100 ml|
|Salt||Excluded||3 grams||5 – 6 grams|
|Energy value||1100 – 1300 kcal||1600 – 1800 kcal||2200 – 2400 kcal|
The period of myocardial functioning restructuring ends by the end of the first year from the moment of myocardial infarction development. And by this period of time, active treatment ends, and the patient switches to maintenance therapy. From this moment, the patient is assigned another type of diet – No. 10s. This type of diet is aimed primarily at preventing recurrent myocardial infarction. Indications for diet No. 10c are:
- atherosclerosis with damage to the vessels of the brain, heart or other organs;
- coronary heart disease, which is caused by atherosclerosis;
- arterial hypertension on the background of atherosclerosis.
Dietary nutrition is prescribed for the following purposes:
- slow down the development of atherosclerosis;
- reduce metabolic disorders;
- improve blood circulation;
- reduce excess body weight of the patient;
- provide nutrition without overloading the kidneys, liver, CVS and central nervous system.
The diet reduced the content of easily digestible carbohydrates and animal fat. The amount of protein corresponds to the physiological norm. The degree of reduction in the amount of carbohydrates and fats depends on the patient’s body weight (2 diet options, see below). The amount of free fluid, salt, extractives and cholesterol-rich foods is limited.
The content of linoleic acid, vitamins C and group B in the diet, dietary fiber, lipotropic substances, magnesium, potassium, trace elements (vegetables and fruits, cottage cheese, seafood, vegetable oils) is increasing. Prepare dishes without salt, before direct use, food, if desired, is salted. Boil fish and meat, chopped fruits and vegetables with coarse fiber and cook. Cooked food should be warm.
The table below shows the chemical composition and energy value of the daily diet of the 1st and 2nd (with concomitant obesity) diet options.
|Composition and energy value||1 option||2 option|
|Proteins||90–100 grams (50–55% of animal origin)||90 grams|
|Fats||80 grams (40% of plant origin)||70 grams|
|Carbohydrates||350-400 grams (50 grams of sugar)||300 grams|
|Free fluid||1200 ml||See 1 option|
|Salt||8-10 gram||See 1 option|
|Cholesterol||0,3 grams||See 1 option|
|Energy value||2600 – 2700 kcal||2200 kcal|
A person needs to eat small meals about 5 times a day.
An extract from the hospital for a man who survived myocardial infarction does not mean that he can now eat everything in a row, as before the disease. A history of focal necrosis of the heart muscle requires a constant diet to limit the use of fatty foods, which contribute to the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis.
How to eat a person who suffered a myocardial infarction in ordinary life? Here there are several simple rules that will allow a sick man to recover faster after an illness and prevent relapse of the disease:
- you must try to eat often, but in small portions;
- emphasis should be on carbohydrates;
- eat dried fruits and nuts daily;
- forget about cooking with animal fats, which are better to replace with vegetable oils;
- learn to cook according to vegetarian recipes;
- do not abuse salty foods;
- Do not eat 2 hours before bedtime.
As already mentioned, dietary nutrition after myocardial infarction for men is the most important component of a treatment regimen for a pathological condition that can reduce the rehabilitation period, improve a person’s well-being, normalize the patient’s weight, normalize blood pressure and prevent the occurrence of complications of the disease.
This diet is indicated after a myocardial infarction during the recovery period of the patient.
It consists of three rations:
- In the first week, diet 1 is prescribed (mashed dishes; meals 6 times a day).
- In the second and third week, diet 2 is used (ground food; meals 6 times a day).
- On the fourth week, diet 3 is shown (the menu of this diet after myocardial infarction includes foods boiled in pieces; meals 5 times a day).
Such a menu after a heart attack improves blood circulation and metabolism, helps to restore the body. Very hot and cold dishes, fried foods should be excluded from the diet. The amount of liquid and salt is recommended to limit.
Before you find out what diet is prescribed after a heart attack, check out the list of foods and dishes recommended and prohibited during the rehabilitation and recovery period.
Potassium provides salt metabolism, osmotic pressure, the acid-base state of the blood, participates in the intracellular metabolism, regulates the permeability of cell membranes, the activity of the heart and blood vessels, helps to remove excess sodium and water from the body, activates the activity of certain enzymes, reduces blood pressure, prevents the onset of various diseases of the brain, heart and blood vessels.
Rich in potassium: dried apricots, beans, seaweed, prunes, raisins, yeast, dates, almonds, hazelnuts, mushrooms and chocolate, less than it is found in fish, meat, squid, oatmeal, green peas, tomatoes, beets, radishes, green onions , cherries, currants, grapes and apricots.
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