What needs to be done to provide first aid for myocardial infarction (an algorithm of actions for the first symptoms of a violation):
- Call an ambulance. If a person is conscious, this must be done first. In the absence of breathing or pulse, as well as the patient’s unconscious state, it is first necessary to release his airways and perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
- Lay the patient, slightly bending his legs at the knees and lifting the upper part of the body with a pillow, folded clothes or other improvised item. Open the window in the room and free the patient’s chest and neck from tight clothing.
- In the absence of an allergy to the drug, give the patient a tablet of Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). The dosage of the drug should be 250-300 mg (1 tablet of standard Aspirin or 3-4 low-dose cardiological). In order for the medicine to act as quickly as possible, the tablet must first be crushed or chewed.
- If possible, it is necessary to meet the ambulance team and prepare in advance the medical documents of the person (card, hospital discharge, policy). This allows doctors to quickly provide assistance with a heart attack and correctly assess the condition of the patient.
Mandatory intake of Nitroglycerin, Corvalol and valerian extract for myocardial infarction is not included. If the patient has taken Nitroglycerin earlier and his pressure is at least normal (120/80 mm Hg), then a tablet or a dose of the spray can help reduce hypoxia. If the reaction to the drug is unknown, and there is no possibility to measure the pressure, then you should refrain from taking the medicine, because with low blood pressure, it exacerbates blood flow disorders.
Corvalol and other sedatives help to reduce panic.
In the absence of consciousness and respiratory and cardiac arrest, the algorithm for first aid for heart attack is somewhat different:
- Check the pulse and respiration of the patient.
- When cardiac arrest, strongly strike the patient’s chest from a height of 30-40 cm. A precardial stroke is applied with a fist from the side of the palm edge.
- If there is no breathing, put a roller under the neck of the patient, throw his head back and clean the airways with a napkin (for example, from vomit).
- In the absence of pulse and respiration, an indirect heart massage and artificial respiration are necessary. To perform an indirect massage, it is necessary to put one hand on the sternum in the region of the heart, the other on it. You need to press with straightened hands, bending the chest by 4-5 cm with a frequency of 100-120 repetitions per minute. After every 15 clicks, 2 exits to the patient’s mouth or nose should be made. It is necessary to conduct a massage until the cardiac activity is fully restored or the ambulance brigade arrives.
- It is necessary to attract as many people around as possible to resuscitation, as they can call for help during the massage and change the person performing CPR.
- To eliminate gross errors during the provision of first aid for myocardial infarction, you can communicate with the dispatcher via the speakerphone.
It should not be limited to the help that can be provided at home. Even with the timely use of drugs, laboratory and hardware examination of the patient, placement in a hospital and monitoring by a cardiologist are necessary.
In the absence of people nearby with myocardial infarction, first-aid care must be provided to yourself. If severe pain, shortness of breath and other symptoms of pathology occur:
- Call a medical team. In case of myocardial infarction, emergency care should be called as soon as possible, because being alone increases the risk of death.
- Take the necessary medicine.
- Take a semi-recumbent position, remove or unfasten clothing on the upper body. Breathing should be slow and measured. It is impossible to limit oneself to bed rest and taking funds from a home medicine cabinet: if you suspect a heart attack, first a >
Help with a heart attack involves a calm expectation of a medical team: attempts to get to a medical facility on your own by car or on foot contribute to the expansion of the necrosis zone and greatly increase the risk of complications.
1. Call an ambulance and as far as possible, try to throw the panic aside so as not to get lost and not to forget the procedure. In addition, panic, if you are a victim, leads to increased blood circulation and, accordingly, a more pronounced course of myocardial infarction. If you are the person who provides first aid for a heart attack to the victim, then your panic can be transmitted to an already worried person, and lead to the same aggravation of the pathological condition.
2. Make it easy for the patient to breathe – unfasten the collar, shirt, relax the belt on the trousers and other clothes that can squeeze the body.
3. Lay the patient so that his head and chest are higher than the lower part of the body – this will lead to less stress on the heart.
4. Reassure the patient, for which let him take a sedative, for which they are well suited – “Valocardin” (50 drops), “Corvalol” (30-40 drops).
5. If the patient complains of a lack of air, provide him with a fresh supply.
6. If it happens in the summer, it is desirable that the person is in the shade of the sun.
7. Every 5-8, check blood pressure. If the level of the upper arterial pressure (systolic) is below 100 mm. Hg. Art. “Nitroglycerin” and other similar drugs should not be given, since they have the property of not only reducing the load on the heart and stopping myocardial pain, but also lowering the pressure, which can lead to an aggravation of the situation.
Under normal pressure, give a Nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue, if necessary, give a second one after 15-20 minutes. But no more than 2-3x!
8. Give a chewable tablet based on acetylsalicylic acid (“Aspirin”), in a dosage of 300 mg. Aspirin thins the blood and improves blood circulation, due to which in many cases it is possible to prevent the further development of myocardial infarction. But even if not so, then at least extend the patient’s life time until the ambulance arrives and doctors provide emergency medical care.
9. When vomiting the patient, his head should be turned on its side and, if necessary, help get rid of vomit from the mouth, especially if he lost consciousness. Otherwise, there is a risk of the masses getting into the airways and further suffocation.
10. If the patient lost consciousness, he lost his breath and pulse, it is necessary to carry out resuscitation measures, which include:
- Put the person on a flat surface;
- To make a precardial stroke – once strongly hit the sternum (photo on the right) with the edge of the palm of your hand clenched into a fist, from a height of 30-40 cm;
- Perform an indirect heart massage with artificial respiration – every 15 clicks on the heart area, take 2 breaths (from mouth to mouth). More information about indirect heart massage in pictures can be found in the next article.
A heart massage is done until a pulse and breathing appear.
Here I would like to note another nuance – some doctors say that if during resuscitation measures the pulse and breathing do not appear within 5-8 minutes, nothing will help the patient. Although, in history there have been such cases when the victim came to life after 10, 15, and even 30 minutes. Therefore, do not give up hope and faith until the last moment, and may the Lord help you in this matter.
– a system for intravenous infusion, syringes for intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of drugs, a tourniquet, cotton balls, 70 0 ethanol, everything necessary for determining the blood group and Rh factor, gastroscope;
– drugs: 5% aminocaproic acid solution, 12,5% dicinone solution (amp.), 10% calcium chloride and gluconate solution, 10% gelatinol solution, cimetidine 10% – 2ml, polyglucin, reopoliglukin, single-group and Rh compatible – blood factor.
Myocardial infarction is an ischemic necrosis of the heart muscle caused by acute coronary circulatory failure. The reason And, M. is atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels, complicated by a thrombus, the presence of an atherosclerotic plaque, or a prolonged spasm of the coronary vessels due to psychoemotional stress, a rise in blood pressure.
severe pressing, compressive, burning, cutting pain, more often behind the sternum, less often in the region of the heart, in some cases in the epigastric region.
The pain has a wide irradiation zone: left arm, hand, shoulder, left shoulder blade, interscapular region, lower jaw, less often – the right shoulder, right arm. The pain lasts from several minutes (always more than 20 – 20 minutes), sometimes – several hours, days. The pain is wave-like in nature, not relieved by nitroglycerin, but only by narcotic analgesics.
During an attack, patients experience a sense of fear of death, doom, longing, they are restless, excited. They rush about in pain, scream, moan, and often change their position in bed.
Patients feel weak, sweating, palpitations, heart failure.
An objective examination: the skin is pale moist, cyanosis of the lips. The pulse is frequent, it may be arrhythmic. Blood pressure decreases immediately or after a few hours. Heart sounds are muffled or deaf.
At the slightest suspicion of myocardial infarction, it is necessary to call an ambulance, while maximally concentrating on providing first aid to a person, and if you are a patient, follow the recommendations below.
- Set the person on a chair with a back or in a reclining state so that the upper body is located as high as possible – in this way, the load on the heart will be reduced.
- Calm the patient emotionally or with the help of Valocordin, in order to reduce the heart rate.
- Unfasten too tight and tight clothes, loosen all the knots, tie, scarf, especially if signs of imminent suffocation began to appear.
- Be sure to check your blood pressure and heart rate – if they are normal, then nitroglycerin/aminophylline can be given (with a sharp decrease, this procedure can lead to cardiac arrest).
- Several aspirin tablets actively dilute blood – give them without fail (if a person has no allergies) with a maximum dose of up to 300 milligrams. A faster effect of the drug is given by chewing it in the oral cavity.
- Has your heart stopped? Is breathing agonal or absent? Does a person not regain consciousness for a long time? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be started immediately. In the absence of a defibrillator, perform artificial respiration, indirect heart massage or, in an emergency, a precardial short, strong punch to the sternum. The basic scheme is 15 strokes, two inspirations/exits, one start-up, all this for a maximum of 10 minutes.
- If you suspect a myocardial infarction, immediately notify nearby people, if possible, call an ambulance yourself and inform your family about the situation.
- Try to calm down, take a sitting/reclining position.
- If you have any medications with you, take aspirin, nitroglycerin (preferably aminophylline) and corvalol.
- Try not to move, report the symptoms of the emergency team.
First aid for myocardial infarction – what to do before the ambulance arrives
Myocardial infarction is a type of coronary heart disease characterized by irreversible disturbances in the heart muscle as a result of the deterioration of the movement of blood through the coronary arteries.
The timely outcome of the disease, including the possibility of saving a person’s life, will depend on timely correct therapy in the first minutes of an attack.
First aid to the patient with an attack of myocardial infarction is based on the features of its course and requires the person who provides it with the most basic knowledge of pathology. During an attack, a certain part of the heart muscle dies and the reason for this is poor blood supply to the heart muscle.
Predisposing factors in this case are physical exertion, hypertensive crisis, stressful situations, overexcitation or intense emotional stress.
First aid for myocardial infarction should be carried out in a certain sequence.
And of course, the very first step will be a phone call to an ambulance to call a doctor, and preferably a cardiologist.
It is important to reduce the time between the onset of a heart attack and the manipulations of a doctor, so it is advisable to meet any of the relatives on the street with doctors. Properly provided medical care can save a person’s life.
To reduce the load on the heart, the patient is better to take a horizontal position, after drinking a sedative.
A nitroglycerin tablet will help to cope with pain. The medicine is placed under the tongue – this is how nitroglycerin enters the blood faster. In the sublingual region there are arteries through which the active substance enters the blood circulation almost immediately and reaches its destination. In this regard, the relief of pain occurs in a short time.
In some cases, only cardiac arrest indicates a heart attack. A person loses consciousness, he has no breath, his pulse is not felt. All resuscitation measures should begin as soon as possible, before the ambulance arrives. The so-called precardial stroke performed in the sternum can start the heart.
It should be short and strong. Without the onset of effect, it is necessary to do an indirect heart massage. His scheme is as follows: 30 presses on the chest (the interval is arbitrary and calculated, somewhere around 100 clicks per 1 minute) and lung ventilation (the so-called mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration).
These two stages are carried out in combination with an alternating frequency. In this case, the head of a sick person must necessarily be thrown back a little, and the body lies on a solid plane. Until doctors arrive and signs of life appear, resuscitation measures should be taken.
If you do not provide the necessary assistance on time, congestion in the lungs begins to progress and cardiac asthma passes into pulmonary edema. Breathing becomes noisy and bubbling, hoarse breathing is heard from a distance. The patient begins to cough and at the same time liquid sputum of a reddish hue is released. You must try to avoid such a serious complication of a heart attack before the arrival of an ambulance.
The editors recommend – prevention of myocardial infarction. How to reduce the likelihood of a disease or speed up the treatment process?
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The sequence of first aid measures should be as follows:
- Call an ambulance. It is best if it is a specialized cardiological or resuscitation team of doctors.
- An ambulance is recommended to meet any of the relatives in order to shorten the interval between an attack of myocardial infarction and medical manipulations.
- The patient should be la >
If there are some prerequisites for the fact that the heart has stopped (a person is not breathing, he is not conscious, there is no pulse, there is no blood pressure), then proceed with the following immediate resuscitation measures:
- Make the patient a precardial stroke, that is, strike with his fist in the sternum, strongly and quickly. This can be very effective in the first seconds for ventricular fibrillation.
- If the previous action is ineffective, they perform artificial respiration and perform the necessary indirect heart massage. These events continue until the arrival of an ambulance. After every 15 tremors (strokes), two breaths and two exhalations are made in the heart and the pulse is checked. If the pulse does not appear, rescue operations are repeated.
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Timely provided and correct first aid for myocardial infarction is provided before the arrival of qualified doctors. However, very often people have no idea and do not know what should be done to save a person.
Half of all cases, patients die as a result of illiteracy and the fears of others who failed to provide first aid before being examined by a doctor.
This condition can stagnate both at home and in any public place, so every adult should know that timely first aid for a heart attack is the key to saving the patient from death.
It is useful for everyone to be able to recognize a beginning heart attack and provide all possible support to the victim.
A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs as a result of an acute violation of the blood supply to the heart muscle. This happens because an atherosclerotic plaque clogs some of the arteries.
There is a cessation of blood supply and necrosis of the heart tissue begins. The process develops in 20-30 minutes. If such a stage occurs, and the person is not provided with assistance, this can lead to death.
Most often, a heart attack occurs in people suffering from organic lesions and heart diseases, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors worsen with age. Symptoms of the condition are somewhat different in men and women.
Symptoms of a heart attack can be both typical and atypical when the acute condition is confused with asthma, angina pectoris, and stroke. The correct diagnosis should be established by the doctor. Typical manifestations of a heart attack in men include:
- severe weakness;
- heart palpitations with signs of arrhythmia;
- chest pain that can give to the left shoulder, collarbone, scapula;
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Even if there are 2-3 signs of a heart attack, urgent medical attention is needed.
In women, the signs of a heart attack are somewhat different, so they are often confused with atypical ones and do not pay due attention. This can lead to death over time.
Female heart attack is characterized by the fact that pain and discomfort are localized mainly in the upper body (jaw, neck, shoulders and upper back).
Often pain occurs in the epigastric region and is accompanied by sensations similar to severe heartburn. The condition is aggravated by weakness, sweating, pressure may drop, if before that it was normal or increased.
If you seek help in time, you can prevent the development of a heart attack and its consequences.
Adequate emergency care for a heart attack is so important that its value can hardly be overestimated. The sooner a person receives help, the more chances are that he will survive.
Despite the fact that in the field it is difficult to diagnose the condition of the patient, everyone is able to help the victim survive until the ambulance arrives.
The features of first aid for myocardial infarction are that, using a minimum of drugs, only improvised means can provide the patient with relative peace and the necessary conditions until the doctors arrive.
Any person, even unfamiliar with the basics of medical knowledge, is able to do first aid to a person who quickly develops myocardial infarction.
If a person became ill on the street and he is conscious, you can ask if he has any pills with him.
Most often, those who have chronic cardiovascular diseases always carry the necessary medications with them. If you take these drugs, help before the ambulance arrives will be more effective.
It is important that familiar remedies do not cause side effects, including an allergic reaction, which will only aggravate the condition of the victim.
In the room where the patient is located, it is necessary to provide an influx of fresh air, even in winter. While the ambulance is traveling, it is necessary to prepare the documents of the victim, including
The first signs and symptoms of angina pectoris
- Short-term pressing pain behind the sternum in the region of the heart, which can give to the right hand, shoulder, shoulder blade, lasting from 3 to 15-20 minutes;
- A feeling of lack of air, respiratory failure due to which fear appears;
- Tachycardia (heart rate increases to 90 beats per minute or more);
- Blood pressure rises sharply to 140/100 or more;
- One of the most important symptoms – an attack of angina pectoris stops when taking the tablet “Nitroglycerin” under the tongue.
- Very strong, pressing and tearing, burning pain behind the sternum in the region of the heart, which can give (radiate) to the left arm, shoulder, shoulder blade, half of the neck;
- The pain does not stop after a 30-minute or longer rest;
- When applying “under the tongue” of the tablet “Nitroglycerin” the pain in the heart does not stop;
- Nausea, an attack of vomiting;
- A sharp breakdown, weakness, dizziness;
- A person begins to sweat heavily (cold sweat), chills appear, the skin turns pale;
- There is a violation of the heart rhythm (tachycardia);
- Blood pressure rises or drops sharply, rapid pulse.
The precursors of the onset of myocardial infarction are quite unambiguous and allow you to diagnose the problem in 70 percent of cases.
- Severe pain behind the sternum. A very unpleasant feeling occurs unexpectedly, paroxysmally, while the pain syndrome can “give” between the shoulder blades, to the left shoulder, arm. part of the neck. It lasts from thirty minutes to two hours.
- Pallor and profuse sweat. A person with a myocardial infarction quickly turns pale, a cold, sticky sweat appears throughout his body.
- Fainting and borderline conditions. Almost always, especially in the first phase of an attack, a person can faint several times. Less often, he has an unreasonable sense of fear, sometimes unclear hallucinations of a sound and visual nature.
- Arrhythmia and heart failure. Almost half of the patients who survived myocardial infarction had vivid signs of heart failure, from shortness of breath and unproductive cough to atrial fibrillation and short-term sudden cardiac arrest.
- Low efficiency of nitroglycerin. A person does not feel significant relief after taking nitroglycerin – drugs of this group, which expand blood vessels, can only be used as an additional tool, along with prescription narcotic analgesics, and only under certain conditions.
How to recognize an attack yourself
Emergency care for myocardial infarction plays an important role in the subsequent recovery of the patient, so you need to be able to correctly recognize the symptoms of pathology and distinguish them from signs of other disorders.
The hallmarks of a heart attack are:
- Acute heart pain. This syndrome in acute violation of cardiac circulation has a pressing, compressive, burning character. Because of the sharp cutting feeling, the pain that accompanies a heart attack is called “dagger”. It can be localized in the left half of the chest or behind the sternum, give it to the left arm, neck, shoulder, jaw and upper abdomen. The pain syndrome persists for 15 minutes or more, which distinguishes a heart attack from other heart diseases.
- Heavy sweating, panic fear of death. The autonomic nervous system responds to severe pain by increasing the activity of sweat glands. Along with profuse sweating and pain, the patient develops tachycardia (increased heart rate), panic and a strong fear of death, which are characteristic signs of a heart attack.
- Dizziness, weakness, and impaired consciousness. The cerebral form of pathology provokes the occurrence of neurological disorders. Severe weakness and fainting complicate the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and first aid.
- Nausea (less often vomiting). This symptom is most characteristic not for angina, but for the abdominal form of a heart attack. However, nausea can also occur due to intense fear, changes in blood pressure and pathological reactions of the nervous system.
- Shortness of breath, feeling of suffocation. Lack of air and a sharp blanching caused by hypoxia can indicate both a heart attack or angina pectoris and a heart attack. Shortness of breath enhances the patient’s panic feeling.
- Lack of response to antihypoxants. There are several heart diseases, the symptoms of which are similar to the picture of a heart attack. Angina pectoris is provoked by a lack of oxygen in the myocardium and is stopped by taking drugs that reduce the tissue’s need for oxygen (Nitroglycerin and its analogues). With a heart attack, the pain syndrome does not disappear and does not wane after taking antihypoxants.
Why is first aid important?
The time factor is the most important in the treatment of acute circulatory disorders, so the quality of first aid for heart attack directly affects the prospects for rehabilitation of the patient.
The risk of developing severe heart failure and the size of the necrotic zone depend on how quickly the doctors managed to eliminate the blood clot blocking the coronary artery and restore blood circulation. Assisting before an ambulance arrives can improve the rheological properties of blood, reduce oxygen consumption by ischemic tissues and reduce the risk of death by 2–3 times.
It is necessary to provide emergency medical care and to deliver the patient to the hospital in the first few hours after the onset of pain: the most effective methods of treating a heart attack (angioplasty and thrombolysis) are effective for 1,5-6 hours after the onset of the attack.
With angioplasty, a conductor with a balloon is inserted into the lumen of the affected artery, with the help of which the thrombus is eliminated and the vessel dilates. After this, the walls are reinforced with a special frame (stent). The time from the onset of the attack to angioplasty should be no more than 1,5 hours.
A thrombolytic complex can be administered by emergency doctors before arriving at the hospital, but measures must be taken within 6 hours after the onset of pain.
First aid for myocardial infarction can save a person from further complications, and in some cases – save a life! Timely and adequate actions taken in the first 30 minutes after the onset of an attack significantly increase the chance of a positive outcome for general treatment, as well as reduce the risks of irreversible changes in the cardiovascular system.
The above condition can lead to a number of complications, moreover, both in the early stages of development and progression of myocardial infarction, and after its treatment in the hospital.
- Primary – shock, pulmonary edema, ventricular fibrillation, pericarditis, hypotension of various etiologies, myocardial rupture.
- Secondary – heart aneurysms, thromboembolic complications, chronic heart failure, Dressler’s syndrome.
Prevention of heart attack
The first heart attack always comes unexpectedly. Prevention of this condition is usually aimed at preventing repeated attacks with maximum body control.
The main negative factors causing relapses of the problem are high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and high blood coagulation. The main prevention in these cases is a carefully selected comprehensive drug therapy that prevents the appearance of fatty plaques, adds the necessary enzymes to the body, normalizes blood pressure, etc. At the same time, it is strictly forbidden to change the dosage or introduce new drugs without the consent of the attending physician!
Most often, the following scheme is assigned:
- Antithrombotic therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin.
- Reception of beta-blockers (carvedilol, bisopropol) and statins.
- Eating omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins.
- Therapy with non-fractional heparin and ACE inhibitors.
In addition to drugs, an important role in prevention is played by a diet with a minimum of salt, semi-finished products, sausages, sausages and other products containing both cholesterol and milk fat (cheese, cottage cheese, butter, sour cream, milk). In addition, you will have to give up smoking and alcohol – an exception is made only for a glass of red wine.
As a supplement, the doctor prescribes physical therapy and moderate exercise in the form of cycling, dancing and swimming, as well as daily walking – all in moderation and no more than 40 minutes several times a week.
How to help yourself
But in each of us there is an organ that does just that. This is the heart.
on average, a person’s heart shrinks 2,5 billion times over life
However, the heart does not work as continuously as it seems – there is always a diastole phase in the rhythm of contractions, i.e. relaxation. And so human life goes on for this organ – a fraction of a second for effort, a fraction for rest. The structural features of the cardiac muscle tissue (myocardium) provide an effective renewal of the necessary resources during diastole.
Have you ever had cramps, for example, calf muscles? The phenomenon is quite common, and many have experienced it. It, if there are no chronic diseases that affect metabolism, occurs due to a lack of blood supply and nutrients. In order not to delve into the intricacies of biochemistry, the muscle rebels and gives a signal that it is necessary to rest.
With legs or arms, everything is simple. Cramp? It is necessary to rest, which will always help if there are no diseases accompanied by regular muscle spasms. Massage or light movements help because blood circulation improves (perfusion), and the blood brings oxygen, which breaks down the excess of metabolites that cause pain. Gradually, everything comes to order.
But with the heart this number will not work, because there the rhythm of rest is strictly limited to the diastole phase, after which we need to work further. Therefore, it is much more important for the body to prevent the slightest deficiency in the heart muscle.
Blood supply to the heart occurs especially carefully, through special coronary arteries. An organ having a mass of 0,5% of the total receives 4% of all blood. It is very important that the perfusion process occurs without failures, because, unlike other muscles, normal functioning of each and every cell is important for the heart.
decrease in blood supply is called “ischemia”
If for some reason the heart does not receive blood, then problems immediately arise, growing like a snowball rolling from a mountain. They can be solved only by intervention from the outside, which, as a rule, consists in the emergency introduction of vasodilating substances into the body. For example, such as the well-known nitroglycerin.
In most cases, it is possible to stop myocardial ischemia. Medicine has a very wide arsenal of means to achieve this goal. But sometimes not everything turns out, and irreversible damage to the myocardium develops, consisting in the necrosis of part of its cells. Depending on the localization of the necrotic area on the patient’s condition, this can be reflected in both transient pain and sudden cardiac arrest.
Myocardial infarction carries a huge risk to the patient’s life, many times increasing with the untimely provision of medical care. What to do if the bill goes for minutes? First, you must be able to recognize myocardial infarction. Secondly, you need to know how you can help until an ambulance arrives. And thirdly, one must be able to think and act quickly.
A heart attack occurs both in people who have previously experienced heart attacks, and in seemingly completely healthy people. It manifests itself as pain in the region of the heart, accompanied by anxiety and fear of death – the body knows that some kind of catastrophe has occurred, and signals about it at all levels, from physical to psychological. This is a very important point.
Even for a doctor, a diagnosis of myocardial infarction is not always easy. This pathology is hidden under many masks. The heart may not hurt at all; pain can be localized in the abdomen, left arm and even lower back. Although, of course, the classical manifestations with pain in the region of the heart are statistically dominant.
With a heart attack, pain occurs sharply, does not pass from taking medications, which the patient usually improved his condition, and is accompanied by a number of other specific symptoms. such as:
- chest discomfort
- vegetative manifestations – excessive sweating, jumps in blood pressure
- shortness of breath, the severity of which correlates with the development of the main symptomatology
- heart rhythm and heart rate disorders
- fear of death
An important argument in favor of myocardial infarction is the physical activity preceding it or psychoemotional stress. The combination of these provoking factors with acute pain in the region of the heart and/or localization near it, and with at least one of the symptoms listed above – all this allows us to suspect that it came to a heart attack.
So, the person next to you became ill. The picture is similar to myocardial infarction. What to do?
First, you need to put him in a sitting or half-sitting position. Make sure that there are no tight clothes, including elements such as a tie, which can make breathing difficult. If trouble happened indoors, open the windows. These measures are designed to improve the supply of oxygen to the blood and reduce the load on the heart.
Reassure the patient. Adrenaline is like a whip for the heart, and if there is a mess, this whip will only aggravate the condition. If a heart attack develops, then an increase in the load on the heart will provoke an increase in the focus of ischemia and subsequent necrosis, which the larger the more sad the prognosis. In view of the above, light sedatives such as valerian are not superfluous.
Very often a heart attack develops in patients suffering from coronary heart disease. As a rule, such patients carry a vial with antianginal drugs, which they take for pain in the heart, for example, the same nitroglycerin or something newer such as a nitrate spray. If so, the medicine should be taken immediately.
If the drug is ineffective for three minutes, you must immediately call an ambulance. The patient may believe that he will feel better now and everything will pass, recalling previous attacks of ischemia. Do not listen to it – if the pain goes away, then in the first minutes after taking nitroglycerin. If it doesn’t pass, something goes wrong.
In case of impossibility of an emergency ambulance arrival, it is necessary to transport the patient on his own. It is desirable, in addition to the driver, the presence of another passenger who can monitor the condition of the ward.
Before the ambulance arrives, you can give the patient aspirin or dipyrone (better first), but before that, you must definitely find out if he is allergic to these drugs. To accelerate the drug into the blood, you can chew tablets. Analgin reduces the intensity of the pain syndrome, and aspirin, in addition, also dilutes the blood, and it becomes easier for the heart to pump it through the vessels.
If possible, try to measure the patient’s pressure. If the upper one is above 130, the lower one is not less than 60, and a frequent pulse (above 80) – give a beta blocker (for example, atenolol at a dose of 25 mg). Chew too. Remember that beta-blockers narrow the lumen of the small bronchi, and because of this, it is contraindicated in patients with pulmonary problems (obstructive bronchitis, asthma, etc.)
If a person faints and stops breathing, cardiopulmonary resuscitation must be performed immediately. which will give him a chance to survive.
Every second, with whom this disaster happened, dies from myocardial infarction. The lion’s share of deaths is due to the delay in first aid. If the patient enters the hospital – his chances increase many times over.
The overall mortality rate from myocardial infarction is 50%; mortality in modern hospitals – about 7%
Since everything is developing rapidly – others are constrained in the possibilities to save a person. Under these conditions, it is difficult to overestimate the role of factors that seem to be petty and insignificant, starting with banal attempts to reassure the patient.
Each of your actions can become that straw for which the organism of a person who is near can grasp at it. So firmly study the simple sequence of actions taken with myocardial infarction. Perhaps this will one day save someone’s life.