Due to low physical activity and harmful or malnutrition, heart problems often occur. Of course, these are not the only factors that can cause various pathologies. The muscles of the heart can be affected by infections.
Acute myocarditis is a disease that most often occurs after an infection. But the cause may not be just bacteria. About what constitutes a disease, its symptoms and treatment methods – further in the article.
Once in the blood, bacteria can enter the heart muscles. They can cause changes, such as exudation, proliferation, improper degeneration of tissues and others. In other words, myocarditis is called myocardial inflammation. Myocarditis can have an acute, chronic and subacute nature of the appearance and development.
Acute infections or poisoning can cause myocardium in the muscle, which in turn will lead to its inflammation. The anatomical picture of the disease completely depends on its nature. Pathology completely violates the functionality of the myocardium – it is excitability, conductivity, speed and mode of contractility, as well as its structure. Acute rheumatism is always accompanied by myocarditis.
In this case, accumulations of leukocytes and cells form between the muscle fibers. Diphtheria causes complete damage to muscle fibers. They are reborn, and some die. Thus, diffuse tissue damage occurs. These are the two main options for events. Other diseases cause a mixed anatomical picture.
The disease can also be triggered by typhoid, erysipelas, and even ordinary tonsillitis. But the most dangerous is infectious myocarditis with diphtheria. Cell death can occur quite quickly, causing myocarditis complications.
Causes of Acute Myocarditis
According to statistics, 50% of cases of acute myocarditis are associated with a viral infection. Myocardial inflammation often occurs against the background of:
- Chicken pox;
- Adenovirus infection;
- Enterovirus infection;
- Infectious hepatitis.
You should know that most often acute myocarditis develops during outbreaks of acute respiratory diseases caused by the spread of viral infection.
In this case, the first symptoms of the disease appear a few weeks after infection, that is, at a time when a person can consider himself recovered. Among a common bacterial infection that can provoke the development of acute myocarditis, it is worth highlighting:
- Diphtheria bacteria;
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Rarely, but still can cause acute myocarditis, myocardial inflammation:
- Fungal lesions, especially very common candidiasis;
- Parasitic infections.
The following categories of people are at risk:
- Young men
- Pregnant women;
- Small children, including newborns;
- Persons with impaired immunity.
Symptoms of the disease
Unlike other species, myocarditis in acute form is characterized by more pronounced signs that cannot go unnoticed. Initially, against the background of a cure for a viral infection, this disease clearly manifests asthenic syndrome, namely:
- There is a frequent change of mood;
- There is irritability;
- A sleep disorder occurs against a background of constant internal fear.
After a short time after this person pain in the chest area begins to disturb. At the same time, myocarditis in acute form can be manifested by diverse pains: aching, stitching or compressing.
The pain syndrome in acute myocarditis can be both short-term and rather long, strong and weak, sometimes with radiation to the left shoulder. Acute inflammation of the heart muscle is often accompanied by:
- Increased weakness and fatigue;
- Pain in the muscles and joints;
- Low blood pressure;
- Increased sweating.
The fact that general malaise is associated precisely with the development of acute myocarditis is indicated by a violation of heart rhythms. That is, a person begins to feel the work of the heart, which in a normal state should not be observed.
Disease in adults
Acute and subacute myocarditis in adults is quite common. It is especially diagnosed in young people. Their age is from thirty to forty years. Oddly enough, the disease affects mainly women. Men get sick less often. But, if this disease is diagnosed in men, then it proceeds in a particularly severe form.
A large number of people die from acute myocarditis than from subacute myocarditis. In the etiology of the disease in adults, the influence of toxic factors is isolated. Moreover, the toxic effect is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. Including drug use, smoking and alcohol. A major role in the etiology of the disease in men is played by factors in the development of prostatitis.
Severe prostatitis contributes to the development of irreversible phenomena in the heart muscle. Therefore, men should be on time to conduct treatment therapy. Acute myocarditis in old age leads to irreversible consequences.
Often manifested extensive damage to the heart muscle. Especially if a septic infection joins. Immunocompromised adults are also prone to complications. Including from the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is necessary to observe a healthy lifestyle and take vitamins. In adults, the disease is characterized by the presence of certain symptoms.
The subacute stage may not have pronounced clinical signs. While the acute course of the disease is manifested by the following symptoms:
Pathology in children
Acute and subacute myocarditis in children is the most serious disease. Most often, the cause of the disease in children is the infectious process. The most significant influence of viral origin. In children, the disease is a consequence of a severe infection. Especially if the pathogen is not detected in time, the sensitivity is not determined.
What is the most necessary in this case. What pathogens cause a severe infectious process? Pathogens that cause a severe infection in children include:
The most relevant disease is tuberculosis.
It leads to the extensive distribution of sticks. This affects organs and systems. The circulatory process is disturbed. The disease in children may be due to a side effect of vaccination. Much depends on the presence of a concomitant disease. After all, it is known that vaccination must be carried out after a disease, after a certain time.
Children develop certain clinical signs. For example, shortness of breath is determined. Or causeless fatigue. Including chest pain and tachycardia. An increase in body temperature in a child is possible, but not always. An increase in the liver is determined. Especially with ultrasound diagnostics. Possible enlargement of the heart.
The course of acute myocarditis, depending on the severity
The features of the course of acute myocarditis, depending on the severity, are as follows:
A severe form is clinically manifested by a pronounced symptom of intoxication, the general condition of the child suffers significantly.
Body temperature rises to 38–39 ° С. A sick child is anxious, agitated, insomnia appears. The skin is pale, even with a grayish tint. A dry, intrusive, persistent cough is characteristic, which does not bring relief.
Pronounced edema and shortness of breath appear very early. With auscultation of the lungs against the background of hard breathing, various rales of rales are heard. With percussion of the heart region, an expansion of its borders to the left, right and up is noted.
During auscultation of the heart, tones are muffled, arrhythmic, an intense, gross systolic murmur is heard above the apex. On palpation, the abdomen is soft, painless, an increase in the liver and spleen is noted. Quite often, pericarditis joins.
On the electrocardiogram, there is a displacement of the 5T segment and T wave below the isoline, a decrease in the voltage of the teeth, the dominance of the electrical potentials of the left ventricle and atrium. There are violations of the functions of the heart: automatism, conduction and excitability.
When conducting chest x-ray, a marked increase in heart size is recorded. A severe form of carditis is most common in young children.
The moderate form is manifested by an increase in body temperature to 37–38 ° С.
A sick child will complain of unmotivated fatigue. An objective examination indicates pallor of the skin. With percussion of the heart, an expansion of its borders to the left is noted by an average of 1,5-2 cm. During auscultation, weakening of the I tone and a short systolic murmur at the apex are heard.
A variety of rhythm disturbances are noted on the electrocardiogram. When conducting chest x-ray, an increase in heart size is recorded, mainly due to the left ventricle. A moderate form with equal frequency is found in children of both early and older age.
A mild form of myocarditis is characterized by scarcity of clinical manifestations. The general condition of a sick child practically does not suffer.
With percussion of the heart, an extension of its borders to the left by 0,5-1 cm is noted. A characteristic increase in the heart rate.
During auscultation, a certain weakening of the I tone and a gentle, short-term systolic murmur at the apex are heard. Signs of circulatory disorders, as a rule, are absent.
On the electrocardiogram, there are violations of automatism (sinus tachycardia or bradycardia, flutter or atrial fibrillation), excitability (extrasystole) and conduction (atrioventricular blockade, blockade of the bundle of His bundle).
When conducting chest x-ray, an increase in heart size may not be determined. A mild form of myocarditis is most typical of older children. Subacute carditis develops gradually.
There are two options for the development of the disease.
- The first option (primarily subacute carditis) is characterized by the appearance of heart failure 4-6 months after the acute respiratory viral infection.
- The second – after a pronounced acute phase, the pathological process takes a long course, i.e. represents the outcome of the acute process.
Symptoms are moderate. The manifestations of asthenization come to the fore: lethargy, irritability, decreased appetite, and increased fatigue. Body temperature, as a rule, remains at normal numbers.
Often, symptoms of heart damage occur against the background of a repeated viral infection or after preventive vaccinations. Upon examination, some pallor of the skin is revealed. Visually, the region of the heart is changed in the form of an emerging cardiac hump, which confirms the prescription of the pathological process.
An increase in heart rate is detected. The boundaries of relative dullness of the heart are somewhat expanded. During auscultation of the heart, heart sounds are loud, rhythmic, the accent of the II tone above the pulmonary artery is determined, systolic murmur at the apex is heard.
On the electrocardiogram, the deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the left, the slowdown of the atrioventricular conduction, the signs of overload of the left ventricle and atrium, the positive T wave are determined.
On the chest x-ray revealed a slight increase in pulmonary pattern as a result of stagnation in the lungs, the pathological configuration of the heart shadow (aortic or mitral) as a result of an increase in the cavities of the ventricles and atria. Symptoms are persistent.
After a suspicion of the development of acute myocarditis arises, you should urgently contact a medical institution. Treatment of the disease can be carried out only after examination and the establishment of an accurate diagnosis.
It should be remembered that self-medication of acute myocarditis cannot be practiced due to the danger of aggravating the condition and provoking irreversible changes in the heart muscle, which will lead to the development of chronic myocarditis and other serious complications.
During a visit to the doctor, it is necessary to describe in detail at what time the first symptoms of the disease appeared and in what form acute myocarditis is currently manifested. In addition, the doctor will certainly be interested in the presence of chronic diseases and what infectious diseases the patient has had.
Information about whether one of the relatives suffers from diseases of the cardiovascular system may also be important. The following laboratory diagnostic methods are used to detect the presence of inflammation and possible complications:
- General blood analysis;
- Blood chemistry;
- General urine analysis.
The final diagnosis is established after conducting hardware examinations using an electrocardiogram and echocardiography. If it is necessary to clarify the diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the doctor may decide to conduct daily monitoring of the electrocardiogram according to Holter using a special sensor that is fixed on the body.
In severe cases of manifestations of acute myocarditis, other hardware examinations can be prescribed, such as:
- Chest x-ray;
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- Soundings of cardiac cavities;
- Heart scintigraphy.
If examination of the patient revealed swelling of the cervical veins and swelling, this indicates the development of right ventricular or left ventricular failure. With myocarditis, a biochemical and general blood test will show an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the appearance of a C-reactive protein, etc.
Bacteriological culture of blood (or other biological fluids of the patient) in many cases allows us to establish whether the nature of myocarditis is infectious. The polymerase chain reaction helps to establish the infection, which caused inflammation in the myocardium.
On the electrocardiogram in acute myocarditis, changes characteristic of myocardial infarction are noted (for example, the appearance of a pathological Q wave). Therefore, you cannot make a diagnosis based solely on ECG data. Echocardiography with myocarditis allows you to clarify the degree of its dysfunction, decreased contractile function of the heart, dilatation of its cavities, allows you to identify intracavitary thrombi.
An x-ray of the chest in acute myocarditis will determine how much the heart has increased in size. Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart allows you to visualize the inflammatory process in the myocardium and its edema.
The presence of myocarditis in a patient cannot be considered absolutely proven if it is not confirmed by biopsy. The diagnosis is considered proven if damaged or necrotic cardiomyocytes, as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, were found in the myocardial test sample. The severity of myocarditis is judged by the number of damaged cardiomyocytes.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with a number of diseases.
- Neurocirculatory dystonia (NDC). The following factors testify in favor of NDC:
- age of 40 years;
- respiratory complaints (especially breathing with sighs);
- prolonged dull pain in the region of the apex of the heart, without irradiation; pain appears or intensifies with emotional stress and disappears or decreases with physical exertion, taking tranquilizers or β-blockers;
- a tendency to tachycardia and increased systolic blood pressure, the rarity of rhythm disturbances;
- normal values of MV-CPK, troponin I and T;
- manifestations of sympathetic-tonic orthostatism, fatigue and reduced ability to work, increased irritability, sweating, cold limbs, increased tendon reflexes;
- lack of progression of symptoms.
- Myocarditis of moderate severity is differentiated with rheumatic fever, which is characterized by:
- complaints of arthralgia;
- the presence of a streptococcal infection;
- endocardial involvement in the pathological process;
- during dynamic observation: the formation of heart defects, the interest of other organs and systems;
- pronounced changes in acute phase indicators, an increase in the titer of antibodies to streptococcus exotoxins.
- It is necessary to differentiate myocarditis of moderate severity with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the following cases:
- with atypical pain syndrome for IHD;
- in young people with pathological ECG changes;
- in the presence of ECG changes in the absence of pain.
When conducting a differential diagnosis, the following should be considered:
- the presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, impaired lipid metabolism, overweight, smoking, gender);
- results of daily monitoring of ECG (episodes of ischemia), stress tests (VEM, treadmill test);
- coronary angiography data.
- lack of a clear connection with the effects of infectious and non-infectious agents (after a thorough history analysis);
- gradual development of signs of congestive heart failure, resistant to ongoing anti-inflammatory and symptomatic therapy;
- lack of laboratory signs of inflammation, increased biomarkers of damage to cardiomyocytes (MV-KFK, troponin I and T).
Decisive importance is attached to the results of endomyocardial biopsy indicating DCMP: the absence of inflammatory markers, large muscle mass, diffuse fibrosis, minimal atherosclerotic changes.
Differential diagnosis with pericarditis is carried out with severe cardiomegaly (the exclusion of massive pericardial effusion is required) and with constant pain characteristic of fibrinous pericarditis in the heart, which sometimes intensifies in the abdominal position and with deep breathing.
In the latter case, pericardial friction noise is usually heard, confirming the presence of pericarditis. The conclusion about the isolated nature of pericarditis is justified by the additional exception of myocardial damage: the absence of ECG changes that are not characteristic of pericarditis (for example, conduction disturbances). Otherwise, a diagnosis of myopericarditis is established.
The absence of a characteristic triangular shadow of the heart during x-ray examination allows to exclude a massive effusion in the pericardial region with cardiomegaly. A more reliable method is echocardiography, with which you can not only detect fluid in the pericardial cavity, but also approximately estimate its amount.
The elimination of mitral heart disease is necessary in cases where the occurrence of systolic murmur is combined with a predominant increase in the left heart, mimicking the picture of organic mitral regurgitation.
Unlike the latter, with myocarditis, systolic murmur usually does not adjoin I cardiac sound, varies in intensity on different days, and may disappear after improvement of contractile function.
On the phonocardiogram, systolic murmur is defined as mesosystolic and is often combined with the presence of III tone, lengthening of the interval Q – I tone. Radiologically with myocarditis, a decrease, rather than an increase, in pulsations of the heart contours is detected, there are almost no rock-like movements between the III and IV arches along the left heart contour.
Echocardiography eliminates the organic damage of the mitral valve cusps and sometimes reveals the cause of systolic murmur (for example, functional cusp prolapse).
Treatment of acute myocarditis is carried out in the cardiology department, where the patient must be hospitalized without fail. In the treatment of this disease, bed rest is prescribed for 3-8 weeks – in order to facilitate the work of the heart and cardiovascular system as much as possible.
There is no specific treatment for myocarditis. Drug therapy depends on the cause of myocarditis. If inflammation of the heart appeared due to a viral infection, then the patient is prescribed antiviral drugs and intensive sanitation of the foci of infection is carried out.
Also, treatment is aimed at restoring the level of hemodynamics, improving myocardial metabolism. For this, potassium preparations, vitamins, riboxin, ATP are used. Supportive symptomatic treatment is directed to the treatment of hypertension and other symptoms of heart failure.
The most common cause of myocarditis is enteroviruses: polio virus, Coxsackie virus. In this case, the patient is given maintenance therapy. Recovery occurs within a few days, but ECG changes remain for several months.
If myocarditis was caused by measles, rubella, or mumps, maintenance therapy is also available.
If acute myocarditis develops due to the herpes virus, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus, then intravenous injections of acyclovir or ganciclovir are prescribed. Myocarditis often develops with HIV: in this case, treatment is carried out using the drug zidovudine.
If the cause of the inflammation is a bacterial infection, then the patient is given antibiotic therapy. In this case, the use of glucocorticosteroids and non-specific anti-inflammatory drugs is contraindicated, as they can accelerate the growth of bacteria and increase the degree of myocardial damage.
In the case of the allergic nature of myocarditis, you must first find out the cause of its occurrence and eliminate it. Most often, acute allergic myocarditis develops as a result of the administration of vaccines or serum preparations, drugs, or contact with toxins (drugs).
In case of acute myocarditis due to poisoning with toxic substances, it is necessary to eliminate the causes of poisoning and cleanse the body of poisons. Acute myocarditis can develop due to transplant rejection (it can develop three months after heart transplantation).
In this case, the patient is treated with high doses of glucocorticosteroids, and if they are ineffective, antithymocytic globulin is prescribed. During pregnancy, myocarditis often develops 1 month before childbirth and within 5 months after. Treatment in this case consists of maintenance therapy.
After the end of the course of treatment, a second examination is carried out, and if the patient’s condition has improved significantly, he will be discharged. After discharge from the hospital to monitor the health status of a person who has had myocarditis, he is recommended to visit a cardiologist for a routine examination every three months.
A correctly selected set of therapeutic measures will prevent an irreversible change in the heart chambers, minimize the risk of chronic heart failure and other complications.
Drug treatment of acute myocarditis is primarily aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease and relieving its symptoms. The drugs are selected in such a way as to quickly suppress the infectious process that provoked inflammation of the heart muscle.
For this, depending on the causative agent of the disease, certain antibiotics or antiviral agents are prescribed. It is very important during treatment to identify and reorganize existing infectious foci that can support the inflammatory process in the myocardium.
For example, if available, it is necessary to cure:
It is important to understand that in order to obtain a positive prognosis, all the prescriptions and appointments of the doctor must be followed.
In each individual case after the diagnosis, treatment is prescribed individually, depending on the reasons that caused the development of myocarditis and the patient’s condition. Treatment of acute myocarditis is always complex. To alleviate the condition of the patient can be assigned:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with analgesic and antipyretic properties;
- Glucocorticosteroids, which belong to the group of hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Immunomodulating drugs that enhance the body’s natural protective properties;
- Antihistamines that exclude the development of allergic reactions;
- Metabolic drugs;
- Antiarrhythmic drugs;
- Vitamin complexes, as well as preparations containing potassium and magnesium, which restore the electrolytic balance in the heart muscle.
Symptomatic treatment of acute myocarditis is aimed at:
- Normalization of heart rhythms;
- Eliminate arterial hypertension;
- Elimination of signs of heart failure;
- Prevention of blood clots.
List of essential medicines:
- acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg, 250 mg, 325 mg, 500 mg tablet,
- diclofenac sodium 25 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg tab .; 75 mg / 3 ml injection; 50 mg rectal suppositories, gel for external use 1%,
- prednisone 30 mg / ml injection; 5 mg tablets
- chloroquine 100 mg, 150 mg tablets,
- azathioprine 50 mg tablet,
- amoxicillin 500 mg, 1000 mg, tablet; 250 mg; 500 mg, caps .; 250 mg / 5 ml oral suspension,
- amoxicillin / clavulanate 250 mg / 125 mg, 500 mg / 125 mg, 875 mg / 125 mg, powder for oral suspension 125 mg / 31,25 mg / 5 ml, 200 mg / 28,5 mg / 5 ml, 400 mg / 57 mg / 5 ml,
- erythromycin 250 mg, 500 mg, tablet; 250 mg / 5 ml oral suspension,
- azithromycin 125 mg, 500 mg tablet; 250 mg caps .; 200 mg / 100 ml in a vial,
- cefuroxime 250 mg, 500 mg tablets; 750 mg powder for the preparation of an injection solution in a vial,
- ceftriaxone 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 mg, in a bottle, powder for the preparation of an injection solution,
- ceftazidime – powder for the preparation of a solution for injection in a bottle of 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g,
- digoxin 62,5 mcg, 250 mcg tablet; 0,025% 1 ml amp.,
- furosemide 40 mg, tablet; 20 mg / 2 ml, amp.,
- spironolactone 25 mg; capsule 50 mg tablet,
- acyclovir 200 mg, 800 mg tablets,
- propranolol 40 mg, tab.,
- verapamil 40 mg, 80 mg tablets,
- enalapril 2,5 mg, 10 mg tab .; 1,25 mg / 1 ml amp.,
- glucose 5%, 10% 400 ml, 500 ml in a bottle; 40% 5 ml, 10 ml amp.,
- ascorbic acid 50 mg, 100 mg, 500 mg tablets; 5%, 10% 2 ml, 5 ml amp.
After removing the inflammation of the heart muscle and restoring the heart in normal mode, the patient is discharged. But at the same time, a person who has had myocarditis must undergo regular examinations at least twice a year.
And after a severe form of the disease, repeated hospitalizations are necessary for prevention. In addition, in order to speedy rehabilitation, it is very important to avoid hypothermia and to exclude intense physical activity.
As additional, strengthening agents, in the treatment of acute myocarditis, decoctions from medicinal herbs and berries can be additionally included in the diet. It should be understood that myocarditis in the acute form is not treated only by alternative methods, recipes for healers and healers should be used exclusively to maintain the heart muscle.
Among the most popular traditional medicine recipes that are used in the treatment of acute myocarditis:
- Broth of hawthorn: a tablespoon of dried berries is poured into a glass of boiling water and infused in a thermos for an hour. Such a decoction strengthens the heart muscle and it needs to be taken 3-4 tablespoons before meals.
- Herbal collection of dry herbs: it is necessary to take grass of fennel, juniper, motherwort (1 tablespoon each), adonis and mint grass (1,5 tablespoons each), valerian root and oregano grass (2 tablespoons each) and mix separately containers with a lid. Then pour boiling water in a volume of 0,5 liters, boil for 5 minutes and insist for 8 hours. After filtering the broth, take 100 grams half an hour before meals
- Lily of the valley infusion: Flowers (1 tablespoon) are poured with a glass of boiling water. The broth is infused for an hour and filtered. It is recommended to take 2 tablespoons every two hours during the day.
Useful in the treatment of the disease is natural flower honey. It should be consumed with cold milk or honey. It is not recommended to use flower honey with hot tea due to the increased load on the heart.
- Skullcap Baikal.
In Chinese and Tibetan folk medicine, Scutellaria is used for myocarditis, rheumatism, as well as a firming, soothing and anticonvulsant.
Scutellaria tincture is prepared with 70 degree alcohol in a ratio of 1: 5 or 1:10 with scutellaria root (pour 1 tablespoon of crushed roots with 100 ml of alcohol and leave for 14 days in a dark, cool place). Strain and take 30 drops three times a day.
Eleutherococcus extract (pharmacy drug). Take 30-40 drops for rheumatic heart disease, cardiac neurosis, mental and physical fatigue, to improve visual and hearing acuity in old age.
At home, you can prepare tincture of Eleutherococcus: pour the crushed roots of the plant with 40 degree alcohol in a 1: 1 ratio and leave for 10 days. To reduce the effects of a hangover, add eleutherococcus extract to a bottle of vodka (40-50 drops per 500 ml).
May lily of the valley. Drink tincture of lily of the valley with heart defects, cardiopulmonary failure, myocarditis and heart ailments with pronounced nervous phenomena.
Tincture: fill the bottle with flowers of lily of the valley and pour 90 degrees of alcohol in the neck. Insist for a week in a dark, cool place, strain. Take 20 drops three times a day.
More often tincture of lily of the valley is used in a mixture with tinctures of valerian or motherwort. For heart pains, Bulgarian experts recommend the following composition 1:
- anise fruits – 20 g,
- valerian grass – 30 g,
- motherwort grass – 30 g,
- yarrow grass – 20 g.
2 tablespoons of chopped collection pour 200 ml of boiling water, heat in a water bath for 15 minutes, cool for an hour, strain. Drink one third of a glass 3-4 times a day.
For heartaches, take 3 grams of spinach seeds three times a day half an hour before meals. Wash down with warm water.
Diet in the treatment of the disease
In the treatment of acute myocarditis, an important role for a good prognosis is the organization of proper nutrition. To normalize the work of the heart, diet No. 10 is recommended. Its basic principles:
- Restriction of salt and liquid;
- Saturation of the diet with vitamins and essential trace elements;
- The increase in protein products by reducing the proportion of carbohydrates.
From the menu during the treatment of acute myocarditis, the products must be excluded without fail:
- Containing cholesterol;
- Causing flatulence;
- Annoying liver and kidney;
- Exciting the nervous system.
You should strictly adhere to the rules of cooking, namely:
- Cooking should be done without adding salt;
- Meat and fish are eaten only in boiled or stewed form;
- Only lean meat should be included in the diet;
- All dishes are prepared exclusively in vegetable oil.
In the treatment of acute myocarditis, particular attention should be paid to fluid restriction. Patients with myocarditis should consume no more than 1,4 liters of free fluid per day, including soups, jelly and stewed fruit.
Diet in the treatment of acute myocarditis can accelerate recovery. It is important to organize regular meals so as not to overload the stomach and at the same time exclude the occurrence of feelings of hunger.
Complications and consequences of acute myocarditis
The consequences of acute myocarditis without timely treatment can be the most severe. And in rare cases, cardiac pathology developing against the background of an infectious disease can be fatal. Among the possible complications of myocarditis, the following can be distinguished:
- The development of heart failure, when a person’s heart becomes unable to supply the necessary organs and tissues of the human body with blood.
- The emergence of persistent arrhythmias of various types, which leads to the need for constant maintenance of normal heart rhythms with medications. Even surgical intervention may be necessary to correct severe myocardial dysfunction.
- The development of myocarditis cardiosclerosis, characterized by the replacement of muscle fibers of the heart muscle with connective scar tissue, as well as deformation of the heart valves, which leads to serious disturbances in cardiac activity in general.
- The occurrence of various thromboembolic complications associated with the possibility of clogging of the blood vessels of the circulatory system, formed by blood clots, due to improper heart function.
It should be remembered that acute myocarditis is a very serious disease. Therefore, precautions should be taken during the spread of the viral infection to minimize the risk of infection.
In contact with sick people, a medical mask must be worn. It should be remembered that the infection can enter the body through the bites of ticks and mosquitoes, so when walking through the woods you should wear tight clothes and use aerosols to scare insects. The prognosis for myocarditis, unfortunately, is very variable: from complete recovery to death.
On the one hand, often myocarditis progresses secretly and ends with an absolute recovery. On the other hand, the disease can lead, for example, to cardiosclerosis, accompanied by proliferation of connective scar tissue in the myocardium, deformation of the valves and the replacement of myocardial fibers, which then leads to persistent cardiac arrhythmias and its conduction.
The likely consequences of myocarditis also include a chronic form of heart failure that can cause disability and even death. Therefore, after hospitalization, a patient with myocarditis is under clinical supervision for another year. He is also recommended spa treatment in cardiac institutions.
Mandatory is an outpatient observation, which involves a doctor’s examination 4 times a year, laboratory tests of blood (including biochemical analysis) and urine, as well as ultrasound of the heart – once every six months, monthly ECG. Regular immunological studies and testing for viral infections are also recommended.
Measures for the prevention of acute myocarditis are caused by the underlying disease that caused this inflammation, and are also associated with especially careful use of foreign sera and other drugs that can cause allergic and autoimmune reactions.
And the last one. Considering how serious myocarditis complications can be, self-healing of inflammation of the heart muscle, using the “grandmother’s methods”, various folk remedies or medications without a doctor’s prescription, is extremely imprudent, as it faces serious consequences.
And vice versa: the timely detection of myocarditis symptoms and the corresponding comprehensive treatment in the cardiology department of a medical institution always have a positive effect on the prognosis of patients.
The main thing is, at the slightest suspicion of the development of acute myocarditis, it is urgent to contact a cardiologist, and after diagnosing the disease, strictly follow medical recommendations and appointments.
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