A significant part of people with problems of the cardiovascular system suffer precisely from an imbalance in blood pressure.
In medical practice, the diastolic variant is distinguished – the lowest, and systolic – the highest pressure point.
Blood pressure is a constant indicator. Of course, the figure can vary in a certain range. The range of blood pressure indicators is the norm, that is, those indicators at which organs do not suffer and a person feels good.
Blood pressure indicator means a certain amount of blood distilled for a certain period of time by the heart muscle, as well as the resistance of the walls
The highest pressure in the arteries, the lowest in the venous vessels.
Upper value Blood pressure is the tension in the vessel during the contraction of the myocardium (systole). The lower value is the pressure during the period of relaxation of the heart fibers, this indicator is minimal.
The most “popular” and at the same time the most healthy blood pressure is one hundred and ten by seventy. Although the union “on” is used in this case completely incorrectly, it is correct to say “and”, since these two types of pressure do not intersect.
Measurement methods and what is their difference
The methods for measuring blood pressure were significantly different in the times of previous eras, but there was only one sense – to measure the indicator with minimal risk to the patient’s health.
Fortunately, in today’s world, measuring blood pressure is not a problem. The reason for this is the appearance of the Korotkov method. To perform this procedure, the doctor or even the patient needs a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope.
It is important to take measurements regularly, at a clearly scheduled time. In addition, it is worth keeping a record or diary of blood pressure. It is important to measure at least three times, but avoid short periods between them. The interval between procedures should last about half an hour.
A couple of hours before the expected measurement, you should abandon cigarettes and drinks with a high content of caffeine, as well as vasoconstrictor drugs (for example, nasal drops with xylometazolyl). Measurement should be carried out only after sufficient rest.
During measurement, a person should sit on a chair with a back, legs should be even and relaxed. The situation should be relaxed. The hand used for measurements must be laid on a soft roller. It should be borne in mind that the limb should be at the same level with the proposed projection of the heart.
The cuff of the device should be placed on two “fingers” above the ulnar fossa. It is worth remembering that between the skin and the cuff should remain at least one and a half centimeters.
The limb should be free of clothing, or covered with a light cloth.
The stethoscope is superimposed at the projection point of the shoulder vessel (elbow region).
When everything is correctly installed, air should be inflated quickly, while the valve should be shut off.
After the doctor ceases to hear the shock waves – you can begin to slowly bleed air. The first “push” heard in the “ears” of the stethophonendoscope is an indicator of systole, the second is diastole.
Tonometers are different: mechanical, semi-automatic and automatic. There is much debate about which type of device most accurately allows you to measure blood pressure.
Automatic digital instruments allow you to measure not only the pressure, but also to identify the violation of rhythm and pulse.
Such devices reveal problems not only with the main types of blood pressure, but also with an equally important, but often overlooked, pulse pressure. Blood pressure upper and lower big difference can become the basis of the most serious health problems.
The small difference between systolic and diastolic pressure also does not represent anything good.
Why does the pressure fluctuate?
The etiology of the occurrence of changes in blood pressure indicators. Significant changes in indicators lead to severe organic tissue damage. Some organs are not able to withstand such sudden pressures.
The kidneys stop functioning when the upper indicator drops below fifty. In this case, urine ceases to be allocated, a person falls into a coma. Such an acute condition is often the basis of death.
Nerve tissue of the brain poorly copes with the regulation of high values in its vessels. Thus, hypertensive crises lead to cerebral ischemia and vascular catastrophes.
Blood pressure may vary depending on such conditions:
- Age. With age, the tone and strength of the vessels change, in addition, the older the person, the more sclerotic deposits in his vessels. Atherosclerosis formations change the lumen of the vessel towards narrowing, in addition, the wall of the affected vessel is not able to respond correctly to pressure. Thus, hypertension occurs. The modern name for the disease is essential arterial hypertension.
- Floor. Men are more prone to problems with blood pressure, due to the peculiarity of their psychology. Often, males cross the maximum permissible threshold at a young age.
- Pregnancy. It is much more difficult for the female body in this position to control the vascular system, since now it also controls the vessels of the fetus.
- Stress, unfavorable psychological background. People have different stress tolerance, so some people are more susceptible to stress. Stress is a direct path to illness.
- Heredity. If parents and grandparents have hypertension, then the next generation is likely to have it too.
All of the above applies to provoking factors. The true etiology of the disease has not been studied, so blood pressure is an idiopathic disease.
The difference between upper and lower blood pressure?
As mentioned above, not all patients take into account the difference between the upper and lower indicators. But it is always worth remembering that the difference in the indicators of upper and lower blood pressure is a gross deviation from the norm.
The name of the difference between systolic value and diastolic blood pressure is far from everyone knows. This is the pulse pressure value.
To calculate it, you need to subtract the number of the lower number from the top. In a healthy person, this number will vary from 35 to 40.
A sign of the disease is an increase in PD. This is a factor in the rapid development of severe pathologies of the circulatory system.
Increased PD indicates a violation in the conduction system of the heart, valve dysfunction, expansion of the cavities of the heart, etc.
In addition, PD characterizes the degree of damage to the arterial wall by atherosclerotic overlays. The higher the PD, the worse the condition of the vessel.
Unfortunately, not every patient knows what needs to be done with changes in the performance of any pressure option. The first step is to consult a doctor. A competent specialist will adjust the diet, lifestyle and prescribe adequate hypotonic therapy.
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