The causes of the disease can be modifiable and unmodifiable, that is, they are divided into factors that can be eliminated by passing the appropriate treatment and those that can be treated.
So, the reasons for correction are as follows:
- lack of exercise (inactive lifestyle);
- addictions (alcohol, smoking);
- an unbalanced diet full of high-calorie foods saturated with atherogenic lip >The above reasons can be corrected if desired, but there are a number of factors that cannot be eliminated even if the treatment is timely and correct. These features include heredity and gender, because according to statistics, in men, hypertension occurs much more often than in women.
But it is worth noting that in almost 90% of people who have been diagnosed with hypertonia, the causes of this disease are unknown. In this case, arterial hypertension has a primary (essential) character. As a result, only in 10% of cases is a factor contributing to the development of secondary hypertension determined.
As a rule, the causes of this form of hypotension cause diseases such as:
- adrenal tumors;
- arterial renal stenosis;
- aortic coarctation;
- renal lesions, for example, glomerulonephritis.
In addition, the primary reasons why men and women have a disease such as hypertension is the use of birth control, hormonal drugs and antidepressants.
Signs in men
Basically, hypertension is not accompanied by characteristic manifestations, so people with this disease can live for many years without even knowing about its development. Therefore, weakness or a heavy head is often perceived as a result of severe fatigue.
But the following symptoms may indicate that pathological changes occur in the cerebral circulation:
- decrease in working capacity;
- noise in the head;
- fainting condition;
- memory impairment;
As the disease progresses, symptoms such as speech impairment, midges, double vision, malaise and numbness of the arms and legs appear. And in advanced cases, hemorrhage or cerebral infarction may occur.
Thus, hypertension in men is accompanied by leading signs:
Heavy head – often discomfort is localized in the back of the head. This phenomenon is often supplemented by swelling of the eyel >One of the leading signs of the disease is a headache, which occurs unexpectedly at any time, which is why the symptom is often confused with simple overwork. However, with arterial hypertension, the severity and pulsation are palpable precisely in the back of the head. Consider in detail the symptoms of high blood pressure in women.
As a rule, a headache becomes stronger if you change the position of the head – tilts, turns. Even pain increases with sudden movements and coughing. However, doctors note that high blood pressure and severe headache are not interrelated signs of hypertension.
In addition, in women, as in men, visual function is impaired. So, flies may flicker before your eyes, there may be a veil, and your vision becomes blurred.
Also, in women, limbs and face often swell. This condition is characteristic of heart failure.
The causes of this phenomenon are the retention of excess fluid and sodium salts and the abuse of medications. Naturally, such violations occur due to a malfunction in the functioning of the genitourinary system.
Moreover, the characteristic symptoms of hypertension for women are irritability, which leads to a sharp increase in blood pressure. In this case, the head hurts severely and for a long time.
It is worth noting that treatment of moderate and severe stages of hypertension will not allow you to completely get rid of the disease.
But the patient’s condition can be alleviated, so that his mood and performance will improve.
Hypertension in women and men: distinguishing features
A specific symptom of high blood pressure is a change in skin color. Thus, in women it can turn pale, while in men, on the contrary, it turns red.
In addition, in men more often than in women, a change in body position causes a rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and severe pulsation. And for female patients, nosebleeds are common, which can appear along with headaches. However, after this, the patient’s health improves significantly.
Also in men, vomiting and nausea occurs much more often, and a condition such as increased irritability and swelling of the hands are more common for women.
If increased blood pressure indicators are detected, the doctor pays attention to such factors:
- reasons why this condition occurs;
- the frequency of blood pressure rise;
- the presence of pathologies of the internal organs – kidneys, brain, heart.
It is also necessary to carry out at least three measurements of blood pressure indicators within a month. Laboratory tests are required to identify:
- risk factors for other diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
- establish the degree of damage to target organs;
- diagnose possible symptomatic hypertension.
To determine the possible causes of an increase in blood pressure, an in-depth examination is performed to exclude the presence of secondary hypertension. This is especially true for patients of young and middle age.
And patients with suspected symptomatic or malignant hypertension are referred to a nephrologist or a doctor specializing in heart and vascular diseases. So, for patients over 40 years of age who have been found to have high blood pressure, in most cases, thanks to simple methods, they can make a diagnosis of hypertension.
With labile hypertension, it is possible to normalize blood pressure even without the use of medications. So, treatment consists in maintaining the right lifestyle, so hypertension will have to give up addictions (alcohol, smoking), start eating right, relax and engage in moderate physical activity.
In this case, it is extremely important to maintain emotional stability, because stress and nerve stress appear due to the release of a lot of adrenaline into the blood, as a result of which blood pressure almost always rises. In addition, non-pharmacological treatment of mild hypertension, including acupuncture, physiotherapy and auto-training, is increasingly being carried out today.
But sometimes, at the initial stage of the disease, medicines are prescribed that normalize the functions of the central nervous system and metabolism in the brain. This helps to prevent the development of chronic disorders and increase the resistance of the central nervous system to stress.
Treatment of the first stage of hypertension is initially non-pharmacological. It should consist of a low-fat, salt-free diet, rejection of bad habits and physiotherapy. But if the patient has weighting factors (sharp jumps in blood pressure, hypertensive crisis, atherosclerosis, etc.), then medication is necessary.
So, the second stage of mild to moderate1 hypertension can be treated with just one drug with a minimum dose. In this case, a drug is often prescribed that meets a number of requirements, which does not affect fat and carbohydrate metabolism, does not inhibit the central nervous system, and does not provoke jumps in blood pressure and so on. At the same time, it is very important not to stop medical treatment, because even small breaks can lead to a brain stroke and myocardial infarction.
The longer the patient will be on monotherapy, the better. But if the treatment turned out to be ineffective, then the dose of the drug is increased, or drugs from another group are prescribed, or the doctor combines two drugs from different groups.
Today, angiotensin II receptor blockers, for example, Teveten, are considered the most effective with a minimum of adverse reactions and good tolerance. No less effective Physiotens – a new generation of drug.
Calcium antagonists are also often prescribed – Amlovas, Norvax, Normodipine, Kulchek. Another doctor may prescribe the IAAF, the best of which are Monopril and Accupro. Of the diuretics, Indapamide and Hypothiazide can be distinguished.
Moreover, alpha and beta-blockers are considered good medicines:
In the third stage of hypertension, drugs are combined. Basically, these combinations of drugs are used:
- potassium antagonist and ACE inhibitor;
- beta-blocker and calcium antagonist;
- a diuretic and beta-blocker;
- ACE inhibitor and beta-blocker.
If after taking such medications the treatment was ineffective, then a third remedy is introduced.
In severe and malignant hypertension, not only pressure rises, but also damage to target organs occurs – the fundus vessels, brain, heart and kidneys. Treatment of the disease involves taking 3-4 antihypertensive agents
- ACE inhibitor, alpha-blocker, calcium antagonist and diuretic;
- diuretic, ACE inhibitor, beta-blocker;
- alpha-blocker, beta-blocker, calcium antagonist and diuretic.
If malignant hypertension is combined with renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular and coronary insufficiency, then symptomatic treatment is carried out together with hypertensive therapy. And in some cases, surgery is performed. Details about hypertension will be discussed by specialists in the video in this article.
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