Hypertensive crisis may be burdened or unburdened. In the first case, a high-pressure attack lasts several days, and complications may include pulmonary edema, stroke, or even a heart attack.
This condition requires urgent hospitalization, as complications from target organs may begin.
With non-burdened attacks, the well-being worsens for only a couple of hours, the patient may experience:
- discomfort in the heart;
The patient will notice an unusual tremor and pulsation throughout the body, flushing (redness) of the skin of the face, neck, rapid heartbeat, excessive sweating.
Other symptoms will be: nausea, turning into vomiting, impaired vision, involuntary fluctuations of the eyeball (nystagmus), fever, impaired coordination, gait.
Depending on the symptoms and causes, doctors distinguish several types of hypertensive crisis. The first type is associated with neurovegetative syndrome. Its causes lie in psychological stress, after which there is an increase in pressure during stress. The second type of attack is water-salt.
The most severe type of hypertensive crisis will be encephalopathy. If you do nothing, do not provide quick medical attention, cerebral circulation may be impaired, life-threatening complications may develop:
When there is no timely help from a doctor, a person will begin to suffer damage to the kidneys, brain vessels, pulmonary edema, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. There is an increased risk of disruption of the central nervous system, for example, it can be a coma or a loss of orientation over time. Many hypertensive patients suffer from dizziness.
It may be that the cause of the pressure problems is not hypertension, but another health problem. Contact a doctor to determine the exact cause of high blood pressure.
Perhaps the most common symptom of an attack of hypertension will be a headache. The usual thing is when the crisis is over, and the discomfort in the back of the head remains. In this case, you can not do without drugs that are taken by the course.
The bulk of drugs that are actively used at high pressure are potent. For this reason, it is extremely important:
- calculate the dosage as accurately as possible;
- take treatment according to the scheme.
During rehabilitation, bed rest should be followed for some time to relieve headaches.
Algorithm of actions during an attack
When the pressure has long exceeded 120/80, before starting treatment and taking potent medicines, the patient must overcome the fear and anxiety that almost always happen in such situations.
To get rid of psychological discomfort will help the infusion of medicinal plants:
You can also take the recommended dose of Corvalol, the exact volume will depend on the age of the patient.
To restore breathing, it is necessary to take several deep breaths and exhalations. It is equally important to provide access to a room with a large volume of fresh air, and the patient needs to be put to bed, put on a chair, help him to take a recumbent position.
Every 15 minutes, blood pressure should be measured. When relief does not come in the first few hours, a call to the medical team cannot be dispensed with.
To assist, the doctor must obtain complete information about the nature of the pathological condition, namely:
- How long has the patient been suffering from hypertension?
- what pressure is normal for him, and which is elevated;
- how long the attack lasts;
- whether the patient took drugs regularly;
- what medications have been used since the onset of the attack;
- whether there is a history of concomitant diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus).
If the doctor finds out the maximum data on the characteristics of the body hypertension, he will be able to help faster. In addition, the doctor will immediately determine the type of hypertensive prize, depending on what drugs are prescribed.
With the first type of attack, the intensity of the heart muscle increases, against the background of this, the level of systolic pressure increases. However, these pathological processes have little effect on diastolic pressure. The patient begins severe sweating, tachycardia is observed. After a few hours, the symptoms completely disappear.
In the second type of crisis, changes in both upper and lower blood pressure begin. A hypertensive attack will occur for several days, the patient at this time will note:
- noticeable redness of the skin;
- general weakness;
- shortness of breath.
Quite often, some internal organs and systems of the body are affected. To select an adequate treatment, you should first determine the type of crisis. Drugs are administered intravenously or taken orally.
Stopping an uncomplicated hypertensive attack requires a gradual decrease in blood pressure. In some cases, it is important to use only one drug, but sometimes complex therapy is needed.
In the prehospital period, they are widely used:
- Nifedrin group preparations;
- Verapamil drugs.
With equal effectiveness, Nifedipine tablets are used (1-2 pieces under the tongue three times with an interval of 10-15 minutes), a liquid form of the drug (5-10 drops at a time). When the pressure is 240/120, treatment is carried out by Kapoten (25-50 mg under the tongue).
If with the help of drugs it was possible to lower blood pressure by 20-30%, then it is undesirable to bring it down, since a rapid decrease will provoke even greater health problems.
When an attack of hypertension is accompanied by excruciating headaches, pain in the chest area, increasing shortness of breath, impaired vision, Nitroglycerin should be used under the tongue.
Hypertensive home medicine cabinet
Each hypertonic should always have on hand the recommended medications, medications to stop the hypertensive crisis. It does not hurt to purchase a tonometer for the systematic measurement of your pressure level.
Any tonometer can be purchased (mechanical, semi-automatic, automatic), each of the options has certain disadvantages and advantages.
Just in case, you need a memo on the use of drugs (exact dosage, time of administration, sequence). A first-aid kit is filled as prescribed by the doctor, but often it includes:
The main rule for a first-aid kit is to monitor the expiration date of drugs.
It should be remembered that an unoccupied attack of high blood pressure is extremely dangerous for the development of life-threatening complications, such as myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic, ischemic stroke, cerebral edema, optic nerve.
Hypertensive family members should know about ways to help the patient, how to behave and what to do in unforeseen situations. After stabilizing the pressure, it is necessary to contact the local therapist to resolve the issue of subsequent therapy, adjusting the treatment regimen. About hypertension and treatment methods, experts will tell in the video in this article.
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