The reasons for the development of hypertensive crisis may be different. The main one is the presence of arterial hypertension.
Also, a pressure surge can be triggered by a sharp stoppage of antihypertensive drugs. Doctors call this condition “withdrawal syndrome.”
Also, blood pressure may increase for the following reasons:
- Excessive physical activity;
- Stressful situation;
- The presence of cerebral ischemia;
- Excessive eating of salty foods;
- The presence of hypokalemia;
- Sensitivity to weather changes;
- Excessive drinking.
In addition, blood pressure can sharply increase in women during menopause. Similar symptoms can occur with exacerbation of coronary heart disease in the form of cardiac asthma, acute heart failure and cerebrovascular accident.
Hypertensive crisis can have two types:
- A complicated hypertensive crisis develops with acute damage to internal organs, which are considered the main target during a stroke, arterial bleeding, head injury, acute left ventricular failure, acute coronary syndrome, aortic aneurysm dissection. In this case, it is important to know what to do in order to provide emergency medical care. A patient in a similar condition is hospitalized.
- With an uncomplicated hypertensive crisis, it is also required to do everything for emergency care, but the person is not hospitalized.
Symptoms of hypertensive crisis
With a hypertensive crisis, all kinds of symptoms can be observed, but the main symptom is a sharp increase in blood pressure up to 230/120 mm Hg. Art. Among others, a symptom can be distinguished:
- The appearance of anxiety and anxiety;
- The presence of cold sweat;
- Tremor of the upper extremities;
- The face is blushing;
- The heart beats fast;
- Nervous overexcitation is observed;
- A person does not have enough air.
In the early stage of the disease, a person develops a severe headache, which is often accompanied by nausea, dizziness, vomiting, photophobia, eye pain and tinnitus. The pain in the head can be aggravated if you make a sharp movement of the head or sneeze.
Also, a severe headache occurs with a complicated hypertensive crisis, when the brain swells and blood pressure rises significantly. Additionally, the patient may experience nausea and impaired vision.
Hypertensive crisis can develop in different ways. In the first case, blood pressure rises sharply and suddenly up to 230/120 mm Hg. Art., a similar condition lasts a short period of time, not more than three hours.
- In this case, the patient has symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, decreased vision.
- The person feels whimpering, excited, the pulsation and palpitations are clearly felt, the heart hurts, sweating increases, a feeling of fear appears, reddish spots can be found on the chest.
- At the end of the crisis, loose stools and frequent urination are often observed.
- In such a state, first of all, systolic pressure rises sharply, which can reach an indicator of 230. This leads to increased heart rate, an increase in venous and pulse pressure.
In the second case, the hypertensive crisis is not acute, but it can last up to several days. The person has a headache at this moment, consciousness is confused, there is a feeling of stupor and drowsiness.
Sometimes an attack of hypertension is accompanied by nausea and vomiting. At this point, diastolic pressure rises significantly, and systolic pressure often remains unchanged.
What to do with a sharp increase in pressure
Treatment of hypertensive crisis is carried out in several stages. It is important during an attack to provide first aid in a timely manner until an ambulance arrives. Then the doctors decide what to do – leave the patient at home treatment or hospitalize in a hospital.
What to do when providing emergency care:
- First of all, you need to conveniently position the patient so that he is in a half-sitting position. If a person is in bed at this time, several pillows should be placed under his head. This will ensure free breathing and prevent the suffocation that often occurs with a hypertensive crisis.
- In the event that the patient has previously consulted a doctor, medications prescribed by the doctor should be taken to lower blood pressure. For quick and effective exposure, tablets are recommended to be placed under the tongue until completely resorbed.
- It is necessary to measure blood pressure as often as possible and monitor indicators that should decrease gradually. In half an hour they can drop by 30 units, and in an hour – by 50 units. If the numbers have fallen, nothing more needs to be done. However, it is impossible to sharply lower the pressure in any case, since this can cause a violation of cerebral circulation.
With an attack, everything must be done so that the person gets rid of fear and anxiety. To normalize the excited psycho-emotional state, it is recommended to additionally take a sedative drug. The remaining medicines should be taken only after the ambulance arrives, after the doctors select the right drug.
After you managed to defeat the attack, it is necessary to immediately visit the attending physician and undergo a full examination. This will help you choose the right treatment and avoid a hypertensive crisis in the future.
In order to defeat emerging attacks in time, you should always carry emergency drugs such as Kapoten or Corinfar in your purse. These medications can quickly reduce pressure and alleviate the patient’s condition.
Including there are a large number of folk recipes that normalize blood pressure during emotional overload.
- Mix a tablespoon of the following herbs: motherwort, valerian, horsetail, marsh cinnamon. The mixture is poured into a glass of boiling water and insisted. After that, the medicine is filtered and taken half a glass before meals three times a day.
- In a similar way, an infusion is prepared from herbs such as cinnamon, hawthorn, motherwort, birch leaves, field horsetail, spring adonis. Strained infusion is drunk half a glass three times a day before meals.
- An effective remedy for hypertension is beetroot juice, which is drunk half a glass three times a day after meals. The course of treatment is three weeks. For the best effect, you can add lemon and honey in beet juice in a ratio of 1 to 2. The medicine is taken in half a glass twice a day one hour after eating.
- To reduce pressure, take two tablespoons of hawthorn juice half an hour before meals three times a day.
- The therapeutic effect is cranberry juice, which dilates blood vessels. A glass of berries is ground with sugar, the medicine is taken in a tablespoon three times a day after a meal.
In order to prevent the development of a hypertensive crisis, you need to take walks in the fresh air as often as possible, try to avoid stressful situations, do not forget to fully relax and get enough sleep.
Proper nutrition plays a critical role in maintaining health. Hypertensive patients should refuse fatty and salty foods as much as possible, you need to eat fresh vegetables and fruits. Also in the diet should include seafood, beef, dairy products. Watermelon helps to remove excess fluid from the body, thereby reducing blood pressure.
After a hypertensive crisis, you should not smoke and take alcoholic beverages, eat foods that provoke an increase in blood pressure. In order to detect the slightest changes in time, you need to regularly use a tonometer, monitor the indicators of upper and lower pressure. The video in this article will help you understand how to properly lower high blood pressure.
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