Human pressure is composed of two indicators. The first, higher, shows systolic pressure – the pressure inside the arteries when the heart fills them with blood. The second digit expresses the diastolic pressure, that is, the pressure inside the arteries during respiration of the heart between strokes.
Normally, blood pressure gradually rises from 90/60 mm RT. Art. at birth and up to 120/80 in an adult healthy person. If a person does a jog or drinks alcohol, the pressure rises markedly, but this does not appear to be a cause for concern.
The pressure of a person drops and rises under the influence of emotional state and physical activity. For one person, an indicator of 130/90 mm Hg is considered normal, the other person in such cases feels unsatisfactory.
If there is constantly high pressure, you should visit your doctor. With this pathology, the heart works to the limit. In addition to blood vessels, deformations occur:
If the pressure is 140/90 mmHg. Art. and higher when measuring more than two, then we can talk about hypertension. When the pressure is 200/120 and higher, urgent medical attention is needed. If there is diabetes and high blood pressure, treatment should begin at rates of 130/80 mm Hg. Art.
Scientists bring in people with a pressure of more than 120/80 mm Hg. Art., in the category with a chance of developing hypertension. This condition is called prehypertension. Prehypertension increases the likelihood of defects in systems and organs, so it is important to start timely treatment.
Since hypertension often has no manifestations, it is called the “silent killer”. It is characteristic that the symptomatology may not appear even with serious complications. The disease is in severe form when the pressure is 220/110 mm Hg. Article and above provokes:
- vision problems
- heart attack
- kidney failure.
Hypertension leads to heart failure, a common but very dangerous ailment that causes breathing problems. It is generally accepted that people with high blood pressure have malignant hypertension with a diastolic pressure of more than 130, and a systolic pressure of more than 200 mmHg. Art. This type of hypertension is a very serious deviation, because various damage to organs occurs very quickly.
High blood pressure can be controlled and corrected. To do this, you must, first of all, systematically measure blood pressure.
There are several categories of people who are most likely to get hypertension. Most often, people are exposed to high blood pressure:
- with a genetic predisposition
- African Americans
- at the age of 55 years,
- leading a passive lifestyle,
- smokers and alcohol abusers,
- consuming harmful and very salty foods.
Hypertension can also affect patients using certain drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood stasis drugs, and drugs like cocaine.
Norms and classifications of arterial hypertension
There are three degrees of the disease.
- With hypertension of 1 degree pressure from 140/90 to 160/99 mm RT. Art. The pressure rises and falls abruptly. If hypertension is not treated to this degree, it transforms into more serious stages,
- Stage 2 hypertension is called moderate. Here the pressure varies to 179/109 mm RT. Art. In this case, a protracted nature of the increase in pressure is observed. The indicator rarely drops to normal,
- Grade 3 hypertension is the most severe. Pressure starts from 180/110 mm Hg and holds steady.
The normal pressure indicator is individual. Medicine suggests taking 120/80 mm Hg as the norm. These indicators are observed in people aged 20 to 40 years.
Normal pressure for ages 16 to 20 years is usually slightly reduced. This applies to both systolic and diastolic pressure. The physiological norm is arterial pressure in a calm state at the level of 100/70 mm Hg.
In general, it is considered normal pressure in the range from 90 – 139/61 – 89 mm Hg. Doctors consider 120/80 mm Hg to be the absolute norm. Slightly increased blood pressure – 130/85 mm Hg, high normal pressure – 139/89 mm Hg An increase in the indicator to an increase of 140/90 mm Hg and above indicates an existing pathology.
Over time, irreversible processes begin in the human body, provoking an increase in pressure throughout later life. Over the years, any person’s blood pressure rises.
There are pressure standards based on the age and gender of the person.
- At 20 years old, the pressure in men is 123/76, in women 116/72 mm Hg,
- At 30 years old for men 126/79, for women 120/75 mm Hg. st
- At 30 – 40 years old for men 129/81, for women 127/80 mm. Hg. st
- At 40 – 50 years old for men 135/83, for women 137/84 mm Hg. st
- At 50 – 60 years old for men 142/85, for women 144/85 mm Hg. st
- After 70 years in men 142/80, in women 159/85 mm Hg. Art.
As the data show, changes due to age affect both the upper and lower blood pressure. It is important to remember that these are average indicators that do not reflect individual pictures.
Not only high pressure, but also a decrease in its performance is a characteristic sign of a deterioration in the functioning of body systems. Therefore, the ability to take measurements with a tonometer can be attributed to the prevention of almost all ailments.
To identify the dynamics of changes in blood pressure should be a diary.
Constantly high blood pressure
The third stage of hypertension is the most difficult. In this case, the constant pressure exceeds 180/100 mm Hg. Art. Gradually, a person gets used to this condition, but the heart works with a high load and wears out. Often patients register:
- coronary artery disease,
- heart rhythm disturbance,
- angina pectoris
- the formation of heart failure.
Thus, at any age of a person, blood pressure from 120/80 mm Hg is usually considered normal. Art. with slight deviations in both directions. If blood pressure is systematically increased to 160/100 mm RT. Art. or for a long time rests on this indicator – this indicates the initial stage of hypertension.
Regardless of what age a person is, he should immediately consult a doctor for a thorough examination. The doctor sets the task to clarify the diagnosis by conducting a diagnosis. After identifying concomitant diseases, a specific treatment is prescribed.
The survey includes:
- physical examination
- history study (heredity, work, bad habits, general lifestyle,),
- general clinical analysis of urine and blood,
- blood for cholesterol and sugar, ECG,
- oculist consultation, fundus examination,
- examination by a neurologist.
If there is a need, an endocrinologist or cardiologist should be involved in the diagnosis. Can also be assigned:
- Ultrasound of the heart,
- daily monitoring of blood pressure.
After examination and history, the doctor examines the results and forms a treatment regimen. In severe stages of hypertension, a person should be hospitalized for more intensive treatment.
It is important to visit a doctor in any case, at least in order to find out what exactly to do with an increase in blood pressure.
The doctor should measure the patient’s pressure, and consider the correction of lifestyle. In particular, you need:
- weight loss
- proper diet with reduced fat and salt,
- moderate physical activity,
- giving up alcohol, smoking and coffee,
- walks in the air.
It is necessary to eat vegetables and fruits rich in potassium and magnesium in your diet, among them:
You should buy a tonometer and take measurements daily 2 times – in the morning after rising and in the evening before going to bed.
It is necessary to take drugs only as prescribed by your doctor. All medications for high blood pressure are prescribed for a certain time to achieve a lasting result.
Diuretics are used, for example:
These funds reduce swelling, removing excess fluid. Therapy begins with diuretics, if there are no such diseases:
- renal failure
- lactation and pregnancy,
Beta-blockers are also used:
These drugs reduce pressure due to vasodilation and lowering the load on the heart muscle. Means can not be taken with allergies, bradycardia and pregnancy.
These drugs dilate blood vessels, are contraindicated in case of impaired renal function and pregnancy.
Calcium antagonists include:
These drugs show effectiveness in hypertension, accompanied by increased heart rate and heart rhythm disturbance. Drugs can not be used during pregnancy and bradycardia.
Quite often, combinations of funds from different groups are used. May be assigned:
- medications to strengthen the heart muscles,
- statins and other drugs.
Pregnancy often has high blood pressure, especially after 20 weeks. There is a physiological reason for this – the volume of circulating blood due to the fetus increases, so the heart works with a greater load, the pulse quickens and blood pressure rises. As a rule, the indicator does not exceed 140/90 mm Hg.
If a woman complains of poor health in the first half of pregnancy due to high pressure, most often, this indicates the appearance of hypertension.
Pressure increase up to 160/100 mm RT. Art. and more at any time – a reason for hospitalization, because the fetus suffers at this pressure. If there is high pressure in the second half of pregnancy with a pathological analysis of urine, you should consult a doctor, since there is a high risk of eclampsia – a serious complication.
Every morning, a person with hypertension should begin with a blood pressure measurement. It is necessary to carry out treatment only under the supervision of a physician. The video in this article will help you figure out how to be at high pressure and what to do.
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