Blood pressure is a general concept that defines the force with which blood presses on the walls of blood vessels. Thus, blood pressure matters in:
Blood pressure depends on the strength and speed of heart contractions, as well as how much blood the heart pumps in one minute, what properties the blood has, and what resistance the walls of blood vessels have.
The following factors influence blood pressure:
the ability of the heart to produce contractions with the necessary strength and prov >Normal pressure is a combination of many parameters. For each gender, age, and individual, indicators may vary. The norm in medicine is the average of healthy people at a certain age.
It is proved that the pressure is 120/78 mm Hg. Art. should not be considered ideal for completely different people.
To find out the normal pressure of a person, age periods should be taken into account:
- normal pressure from 110 \ 70 to 130 \ 85 mm. Hg. st
- reduced pressure from 110 \ 70 to 100 \ 60,
- hypotension – less than 100 \ 60 mm RT. st
- increased normal pressure from 130 \ 85-134 \ 89 mm Hg. st
- hypertension – more than 140 \ 90 mm. Hg. Art.
Norms of pressure and age of the person:
- 100 \ 70 – 120 \ 80 mm. Hg. Art for 16 – 20 years old,
- 120 \ 70-130 \ 74 mmHg. Art for 20 – 40 years old,
- up to 140 \ 90 mm RT. Art for 40 – 60 years old,
- 150 \ 90 mm. Hg. Art from 60 to 70 years.
From the above indicators it is seen that the larger the age, the higher the norm for blood pressure. This is due to changes in the heart muscle, blood vessels and other organs. The average pressure is in the range from 100/60 to 130/90 mm Hg. Art.
Reduced, as well as high blood pressure, causes various disorders, in order to determine the degree of guilt of pressure in poor health, it should be systematically measured and recorded.
To do this, it is not enough to visit a doctor periodically; daily pressure measurements should be performed.
The correct diagnosis and the appointment of therapy depends on the thoroughness of measuring pressure, since the doctor, prescribing drugs and forming a therapy regimen, is largely guided by the measurement indicators.
There are several ways to measure pressure. The easiest way is to measure with a tonometer and cuff. In this case, it is important to properly put on the cuff, be able to use a tonometer and listen to heart sounds. This method requires skills and preparation, with proper use, the procedure allows you to determine reliable indicators.
When measuring with an electric tonometer, the principle does not change, however, the results are immediately visible on a special screen. Thus, the procedure is easier to carry out, and it also gives more accurate information.
You must follow certain rules:
- for 30 minutes of the start of the procedure, stress, physical activity, eating and smoking should be excluded
- need to relax and take a comfortable pose,
- the back should be straight, the presence of support is mandatory, the hand freely lies at the level of the person’s chest,
- in the process of measurement you cannot talk and move,
- the measurement is carried out alternately on two hands with an interval of several minutes.
If, after the correct procedure, the indicators are significantly different from the norm, this means that you need to re-measure after a few days. If the situation has not changed, you must immediately consult a doctor.
According to statistics, approximately 25% of the world’s population suffer from hypertension, and this indicator continues to grow. Hypertension is considered a constant increase in pressure of more than 140/90 mm RT. Art.
The following causes of hypertension are distinguished:
- excess weight,
- hereditary predisposition,
- some diseases of organs and systems,
- reduced physical activity
- drinking alcohol and smoking,
- excess salt consumed.
With hypertension, a person often suffers from the following symptoms:
- pain in the area of the heart,
- shortness of breath,
- high fatigue
In addition, the risk of forming:
- cardiovascular ailments,
- brain damage
- disorders of the urinary system,
- eye diseases.
The treatment of hypertension is a complex and multi-level process, where the outcome and prognosis of the disease depend on following medical recommendations. It is important to identify the cause of high blood pressure and constantly influence it by performing symptomatic therapy. The attending physician in each individual case selects drugs, dosages and their combination.
Without timely treatment, hypertension can greatly harm health, causing various disorders, including one of the most dangerous – hypertensive crisis.
Features of a hypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis is a condition that threatens a person’s life. Blood pressure rises sharply and target organs are affected. Pressure indicators for hypertensive crisis can vary significantly in people. Some patients normally tolerate a pressure of 200/150 mm Hg. Art., someone is very bad already at an indicator of 150 \ 74 mm. Hg. Art.
The nature of the pathology in hypertensive crisis depends on where the pathology previously existed. For example, if there were problems with the heart, myocardial infarction may form; if a person suffered from headaches, a stroke develops.
The main causes of hypertensive crisis:
- strong physical activity
- psycho-emotional stress,
- excessive alcohol consumption,
- food with a lot of salt,
- meteorological changes,
- unsuitable antihypertensives,
- pathology of internal organs and endocrine system.
With the development of a hypertensive crisis, the patient’s health sharply worsens, which is expressed in:
- feeling of fear and anxiety
- vomiting and nausea
- the darkness before my eyes
- tremor of limbs and chills,
- fainting and coma.
When such symptoms of a sick person appear, they are laid on any flat surface and provide elevation of the head. In this position, a person must wait for the ambulance to arrive.
It should provide a person with an influx of fresh air, a calm atmosphere, as well as remove annoying factors, for example, rid him of uncomfortable items of clothing. If a person has arterial hypertension for a long time, and he uses some antihypertensive drug, then before the arrival of an ambulance, you can give him the usual dosage of this drug.
Many people, especially those who suffer from high blood pressure, think that a low blood pressure cannot be a problem, but this is not the case.
Long-term reduced blood pressure causes no less discomfort and provokes various health problems.
The causes of this pathology, as a rule, are:
- poor nutrition, vitamin deficiency,
- genetic predisposition,
- endocrine pathologies,
- general unsatisfactory state of the body,
- constant stress.
A person who suffers from hypotension, constantly feels overwhelmed and tired, it is difficult for him to perform daily duties, there is emotional inhibition. In addition, there is a deterioration in memory and brain activity, as well as:
- insufficient thermoregulation,
- excessive sweating
- muscle and joint pain,
Unlike a hypertensive crisis, hypotension does not cause a significant health problem, but it must be treated. Identify the cause of hypotension and determine the therapy can only be a doctor after a detailed diagnosis. You should establish a rest regimen, remove bad habits and improve the diet. how to correctly measure the pressure will show and tell the specialist in the video in this article.Ask a Question